Open Access Policy Article

High Altitude Pasturelands of Kashmir Himalaya: Current Status, Issues and Future Strategies in a Changing Climatic Scenario

Suheel Ahmad, Nazim Hamid Mir, Sheeraz Saleem Bhat, J. P. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40695

Background: Climate change mitigation and adaptation has become unavoidable globally and different land use management systems have to be managed accordingly on sustainable basis. In Jammu and Kashmir, livestock sector is emerging as important growth leverage to state economy and its share to gross state domestic product is also increasing. Census figures 2011 signify that about 73% of the population lives in rural areas and are associated with agriculture and allied sectors including livestock rearing as main occupation.

Livestock Issues: It is estimated that livestock and its derived foods and other products contributed about 6.13% to the GSDP in the year 2010-11. Grasslands produce forage for domestic livestock, which in turn support human livelihoods with meat, milk, wool, and leather products. Livestock sector engages sizeable number of working force not only in rearing of animals but also in processing, transportation and sale of the animal products. However, the productivity of livestock in this north western Himalayan region is low. There is no shortcut to sustain livestock husbandry, without focusing the issues related to the development of fodder and feed resources.

Forage Factor: Livestock production is more efficient from cultivated fodder than from the degraded grazing lands but unfortunately fodder cultivation has remained static and less than 4% arable land in J&K is devoted to fodder production. The major challenge is to bridge the gap between forage production and requirement. The state produces around 64 lakh MT of green fodder and 35 lakh MT of dry fodder. However the requirement of green is 139.13 lakh MT and dry is 58.53 lakh MT. Therefore, increased production of fodder is essential to meet the nutritional requirements of the livestock. Crop residues, tree leaf fodder and grazing from alpine and sub-alpine pastures, forests and other grazing lands form the bulk of animal feeding requirements in the state. The possibility of increased forage production by bringing additional area under fodder cultivation are limited and it is therefore, imperative that continuous efforts are made to enhance forage resource availability from high altitude pasturelands through scientific management.

Future Strategies: Despite having more than 75% of the total Himalayan alpine area in the state, the high grazing pressure and lack of adoption of any scientific management practices is resulting in their degradation which is adversely affecting the herbage production and in turn the livestock productivity. The production potential of these temperate grazing lands has shown a gradual decline on account of unrestricted grazing, infestation of weeds, presence of undesirable and unpalatable species and encroachment. These pastures are not at an optimum level of production. Maintaining a productive pastoral production system is dependent on sustainable and efficient management of grasslands.  By sustainable practices, mitigation and adaptation of climate change can also be achieved in this sector.

Open Access Minireview Article

Production, Characterization and Industrial Applications of Cellulase Derived from Agro-waste

Ranjna Sirohi, Anupama Singh, Sheeba Malik

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41302

Agricultural wastes are widely available in the form of crop residues (residual stalks, straw, leaves, roots, husks, sheaths, bagasse etc.). Significant amount of these by-products derived from agro-processing industries goes to waste. Improper disposition of such agricultural waste contributes to environmental pollution and supports the growth of several micro-organisms. These wastes are lignocellulosic in nature and it could be recycled or further processed to extract or formulate value added products. Utilization and disposal of such agricultural waste is therefore essential and is progressively gaining attention as we drive towards a greener environment. The present review is focused on utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for cellulases production and its applications. Cellulose is considered one of the most important sources of carbon and its annual biosynthesis occurs in many tonnes per annum. Recycling of agricultural residue can be achieved naturally and artificially by microorganisms. Aerobic organisms such as fungi, bacteria, and some anaerobic organisms have been found to have the capability to degrade some or most of the constituents of these residues. Fungi play a significant role in the degradation of cellulose under aerobic conditions. Cellulases are important enzymes not only for their valuable applications in different sectors like food processing, animal feed production, pulp and paper production, detergent and textile industry, but also for the significant role in bioconversion of agriculture wastes to sugar and bio-ethanol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Petrography and Biostratigraphic Studies of Campano-Maastrichtian Sequences of Anambra Basin Southeastern Nigeria

J. O. Ayorinde, O. C. Adeigbe, Salufu Emmanuel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39413

Anambra Basin located in the South Benue Trough is a Post Santonian synclinal sedimentary fill containing over 5000 m thick of Upper Cretaceous to Recent sediment. The study involved the use of field observation, sedimentological, petrographical and biostratigraphic studies of the sandstones and shale exposed within the study area to establish the depositional environment, textural and compositional maturity, provenance, tectonic settings, age relationship and to understand the stratigraphy of the basin. For this purpose, a total of 13 samples were subjected to heavy mineral and granulometric analyses, 9 samples of were subjected to micropaleontological analysis, and 2 samples of Ajali Sandstone were subjected to thin section analysis.

Field observations show that Enugu Shale is fissile with the presence of extraformational clast, Nkporo Group consists of shale, siltstone, mudstone and ironstone intercalation. Mamu Formation consists of shale, coal, and sandy shale unit, which graded into Ajali sandstone characterized by cross beddings, herringbone structure and ophiomorpha burrows.

The sieve analyses of the Ajali sandstone indicate that they are generally coarse grained, poorly to moderately sorted, mesokurtic to leptokurtic, nearly symmetrical to very coarse skewed. The result of bivariate analysis reveals that Ajali sandstone is fluvial sand, while the multivariate results show that some of the samples of Ajali Sandstone are shallow marine deposit while others are fluvial deposits. The textural result of Ajali Sandstone in the study area coupled with the field data such as Herring-bone structures, and Ophiomorpha burrows, revealed that Ajali Sandstone was deposited in a tidal environment probably littoral environment. The paleocurrent direction of Ajali Sandstone measured from the beddings indicates southwest, while the provenance direction is toward the northeast. The Heavy mineral assemblages indicated from the heavy mineral analysis include: Zircon, Tourmaline, Rutile, Epidote, Garnet, Staurolite, Sillimanite, Chloritoid and Titanite which suggested their provenance to range from Acid igneous and Dynamothermal Metamorphic rock. The ZTR index indicates that the Sandstones were moderately mature mineralogically with a ZTR index that ranges from 11.54 to 58.3%. Thin section studies revealed the Sandstone to be quartz arenite to sublitharenite with more than 82% quartz. From the palynology and foraminiferal studies, it can be inferred that the paleo-environments of Nkporo, Enugu, and Mamu Shale were probably Marginal Marine environment based on the occurrence of forms such as Phelodinium bolonienae, Microforaminiferal wall linings, a large number of Botryococcus braunii, and dominance of arenaceous foraminiferal species. The age of Enugu/Nkporo Shales were suggested to be Early-Late Maastrichtian, the age of Mamu Shales were suggested to be Early Maastrichtian, and based on the occurrence of palynomorphs such as Dinogymnium undulosum, Phelodinium bolonienae and Botryococcus braunii. Based on t he occurrence of foraminiferal such as Haplophragmoides excavate, the age of Enugu shale was suggested to be Coniacian-Maastrichtian. 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Regional Study on Dermatophytes Infection in Arabian Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Al-Hassa Governorate in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

M. Salem, S. Al-Bulushi, I. Eljalii, A. Fadlelmula, F. Housawi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41288

Aims: To detect and isolate the dermatophyte species that affect Arabian Dromedary Camels in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and to study its zoonotic potential.

Methods: A herd of thirty camels, including ten animals with ringworm, were investigated and were divided into 4 groups based on their age and clinical signs. Faecal samples were collected from all of the animals for the parasitological examination, while skin samples were collected from the affected animals for the mycological examination. Animals were treated by different lines of treatment to determine the most reliable and cost effective method.

Results: Results revealed that the clinical cases were affected by T. verrucosum. Some factors such as intestinal nematode infestation, managemental and environmental factors served as underlying causes for ringworm. The disease prevalence is higher in young animals that are less than 3 years old. Animal owners can get infected through direct contact with infected animals or through fomites contamination.

Conclusions: This study is considered as the first published study to detect and isolate T. verrucosum in Arabian Dromedary Camels in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and thus it could be considered as a database for dermatophytosis detection. Treatment lines and the preventive measures should be taken under consideration when dealing with ringworm to avoid the spread of the disease and to achieve high recovery rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Academic Goal Orientation in Home Science Undergraduate Students

Alam Prashanthi, S. L. Kameswari, R. Neela Rani, P. Sreedevi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40912

The study is to measure the academic goal orientation of undergraduate Students of College of Home Science, Hyderabad. The purposive sampling method was used for selection of the sample. A Questionnaire developed by Was (2006) was used to measure the goal orientation among students to identify four types of goal orientations viz., Mastery orientation, Performance approach goal orientation, Performance avoidant goal orientation and Work avoidance goal orientation.Results showed that among four types of goal orientations in UG students, the majority rated themselves high in the work avoidant orientation (58.64%) followed by performance avoidant goal orientation (47.5%). It was also found that fourth year students' mastery orientation levels were high when compared to first, second and third year students. They were fixed more on attaining mastery of their skills and capabilities than performance approach orientation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Terrestrial Water Spinach (Ipomoea reptans) through Biofortification under Different Mode and Source of Iron Nutrition

Pinkey Dukpa, Ranjit Chatterjee, Ravi Kiran Thirumdasu, Satish Kumar Subba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/41168

Micronutrient malnutrition is a major health problem in India. Indian children and women suffer from anemia, deficiency of iron which creates an adverse effect on health. One of the main reasons for such situation is lack of availability of iron rich food. In such circumstances, it's essential to enhance the availability of iron rich food in India. Thus the field experiment was laid out in a split plot design with nine treatments and three replications during summer season of 2016 and 2017 at Instructional Farm, Faculty of Horticulture, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, to find out the most viable mode and source of iron fertilizer for growth, yield and iron accumulation in Ipomoea reptans. For this purpose, three source of Fe solutions (Fe-EDTA, FeSO4. 7H2O and Fe(SO4)3 were applied in three different modes, i.e., 100% recommended dose through soil application, 100% recommended dose through foliar spray at 4 weeks after sowing and 50% of recommended dose through soil application + 50% recommended dose through foliar at 4 weeks after sowing. It was noticed that growth and yield parameters increased with the treatment combination of FeSO4. 7H2O  (containing 16% iron) as 100% of recommended dose through foliar spray (0.5 g/ L of water) at 4 weeks after sowing, secondly the iron content of plant (mg/100g) was found maximum with the treatment combination of FeSO4. 7H2O  (containing 16% iron) as 50% of recommended dose through soil application + 50% recommended dose through foliar spray at 4 weeks after sowing. Treatment combination FeSO4. 7H2O (containing 16% iron) as 100% of recommended dose through foliar spray produced maximum yield. Application of FeSO4. 7H2O as 50% of recommended dose through soil application + 50% recommended dose through foliar at 4 weeks after sowing can also be suggested.

Open Access Review Article

A Survey on Distributed Databases Fragmentation, Allocation and Replication Algorithms

H. A. Fuaad, A. A. Ibrahim, A. Majed, A. Asem

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/37079

Due to the huge amount of computer data stored in databases, one centralized database cannot support and provide good performance and availability when contains huge data which used by large number of users. Thus, the distributed database is a good technique to overcome this problem by fragmenting the database and allocating the right database fragmentation in the right site. Many researches present static optimized algorithms of distributed database fragmentation, allocation and replication (Horizontal/ Vertical) at the initial stage of the distributed database design using different or similar techniques, which affect the performance of database system. Therefore, this study aims at reviewing and comparing the best-presented algorithms from the design perspective, with the aim of identifying the strength and weakness points of each algorithm.  Furthermore, this study could be considered as the first study that attempts to identify the most critical criteria that were used for comparing the optimized algorithms that have been proposed and used in distributed database fragmentation and allocation.