Open Access Original Research Article

Selection of Culture Media and Monokaryotic Isolates of Pleurotus flabellatus and P. sajor-caju for their Dikaryotization Followed by Performance Testing of Dikaryotic Isolates on Malt Extract Agar Medium

Deewakar Baral, Ayon Roy, Sukram Thapa, Dhiren Chettri

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40423

Aims: The study was to find out the suitable agar medium and the selection of monokaryotic islates of P. flabellatus and P. sajor-caju for its dikaryotization with the help of rapidity in the growth performance.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plant Pathology Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India during the academic year of 2014-2016.

Methodology: Fifteen and Five monokaryotic isolates of Pleurotus flabellatus (PFm) and P. sajor-caju (PSCm) were grown on five different culture media viz., Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Czapek Dox Agar (CDA), Oat Meal Agar (OMA), Malt Extract Agar (MEA), V8 Juice Agar (V8JA) for testing their rapidity in radial growth. After the selection of culture medium and monokaryotic isolates growth performance was again conducted for the selection of dikaryotic culture on MEA.

Results: MEA was found most suitable for rapid radial growth of monokaryotic isolates viz., PF9m, PF10m, PF11m, PF1m and PSC1m and was finally selected for dikaryotization (hybridization). Highest growth on MEA was observed in interspecific hybrids of PF×PS7 (16.40 mm/day) followed by PF×PS17 (16.29 mm/day), PF×PS19 (16.18 mm/day) and PF×PS13 (16.01 mm/day) respectively. Intra specific hybrids of PF×PF27, PF×PF10, PF×PF33, PF×PF24, PF×PF5, PF×PF25, PF×PF4, PF×PF12, PF×PF1, PF×PF26 and PF×PF13 shows the highest growth rate above 16 mm/day.

Conclusion: Dikaryotic mycelium showed the highest growth rate of above 16 mm/day as compare to monokaryotic isolates of P. flabellatus and P. sajor-caju.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Detection and Diversity Analysis of Colletotrichum sp from Chilli Using RAPD-PCR

V. Karthik Pandi, A. Kamalakannan, S. Nakkeeran, K. Venkatesan, D. Uma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40414

The molecular variability among the isolates of Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that differed in virulence was analysed by means of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using 10 random primers. Analysis of the genetic coefficient matrix derived from the scores of RAPD profile showed that maximum per cent similarities between species of C. capsici and C. gloeosporioides which were in the range of 92% respectively. Cluster analysis using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) clearly separated the isolates into two clusters (I and II), confirming the genetic diversity among the isolates of C. capsici and C. gloeosporioides from chilli. RAPD analysis in the present study showed a clear difference between C. gloeosporioides and C. capsici. Furthermore, C. capsici isolates were found to be more closely related than C. gloeosporioides isolates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exact Solution Algorithms for Multi-dimensional Multiple-choice Knapsack Problems

Farhad Ghassemi-Tari, Hamed Hendizadeh, Gary L. Hogg

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40420

We propose a first depth dual approach branch and bound (B&B) routine for solving the general form of multi-dimensional multiple-choice knapsack problems (MMKPs).We call this approach a discriminatory branch and bound method. This name is chosen due to the selection of a node for further branching based on a discriminatory criterion. Three selection mechanisms are developed and are incorporated in an algorithmic procedure to develop three algorithms. An extensive computational experiment is performed, to compare the number of nodes enumerated by the proposed algorithms against the traditional B&B. The results revealed that all the proposed algorithms lead to a considerable node enumeration reduction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Different GCM Models for Stream Flow Prediction

Manti Patil, Dhanesh Lal, Sateesh Karwariya, Rajiv K. Bhattacharya, Nihar Ranjan Behera

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40215

Aims: The goal of this work was to provide comparative analysis of different GCM models for stream flow prediction. These models were prepared by training, validation, testing and mean square error. The specific objective of this study was to compare different GCM models for climatic analysis. Future stream flow was predicted by the best one.

Study Design: For the prediction of future flow, an artificial neural network model was developed for down scaling the GCM data. The ANN downscaling model was used to predict the future stream flow of the river.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Ranganadi river which originates from the Nilam, Marta and Tapo mountain ranges in Arunachal Pradesh. The Ranganadi sub-basin spreads about 1749 sq. km. across the Lower Subansiri and Papum-Pare districts in Arunachal Pradesh and Lakhimpur district of Assam, where it joins with Subansiri-Brahmaputra river system at khichikagao. The study area was located between 94⁰02’34” E longitude and 27⁰14’01” N latitude in the Brahmaputra River basin of India. For this research, observed stream flow data from 1973-1983 and 2001 to 2009 were used.

Methodology: Neural networks are mathematical representations of a process that operates nerve cells. Each network is made up of nodes and links like nerve cells. In this study the best model was decided by using the different algorithms and varying the number of hidden neuron from 1 to 15 with various combination of learning rate from 0.01 to 0.9 and momentum factor from 0.01 to 0.9. Forecasting was done in three clearly separate stages. They were training mode, validation and testing phase. In training mode, the output was linked to many of the input nodes as desired and the pattern was defined. The network was adjusted according to this error. The validation dataset was used at this stage to ensure that the model was not over trained. In testing phase, the model was tested using the dataset that was not used in training.

Results: In this work proposed the best GCM model for checking the future flow scenario of Ranganadi river using ANN model. For model prediction, stream flow data was used from 1973-1983 and 2001 to 2009. Mean and standard deviation (mapstd) function was used for scaling all input and target data using MATLAB. HadCM3 CGCM2 and GFDL model were used for comparative study of the best model. With each one of the GCM models, we had varied the seven different algorithms for achieving the best ANN model. The ANN model takes into consideration adaptive system with different layer of hidden neurons, so we also varied the number of neuron with each algorithm and each model. The best result was obtained for Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with number of hidden neuron as 10. The Fig. 6. Showed that the value of correlation coefficient (R2) and Mean square error (MSE) was the best as compared to other GCM models.

Conclusion: The main conclusion was that ANN was optimized in terms of various training algorithm, number of neurons in hidden layer and changes the various combinations of learning rate and momentum coefficient. By using various combinations of algorithm and number of neurons used to minimize the performance error, the best result was obtained for Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with number of hidden neuron as 10. The Fig. 6. showed that the value of correlation coefficient (R2) and Mean square error (MSE) was the best as compared to other GCM models. According to that the future stream flow was predicted for Ranganadi River which indicated an increasing trend in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Manually Operated Ridge Vegetable Planter for Okra

Vinod Kumar, Vijaya Rani, Mukesh Jain, Anil Kumar, Sushil Kumar, Naresh .

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40526

A manual ridge vegetable planter was developed for the sowing of vegetable crops on ridges. It consisted of seed metering mechanism- an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer seed-metering roller having cells on its periphery, mainframe, speed reduction unit, handle, seed tube and tyne. Roller tyres were mounted on two forks, which were attached to the mainframe. Seed metering mechanism received power from rear roller tyre. Seed tube with conical seed capturing funnel was provided to guide seed to the boot of tyne. Tyne was mounted on tyne bolt for intra-row spacing adjustment. At forward speed of travel 1.60 km h-1, and at optimum 7 mm cell and 1.40 km h–1 peripheral speed of seed roller, it was evaluated for okra planting. Effective field capacity of the planter was 0.046 ha h–1 with field efficiency of 86.79%. The draft requirement of the planter was 4.4 kgf. Planting of okra seeds by developed planter resulted into net saving of Rs. 813 per hectare. The payback period and benefit cost ratio of the planter was 2.01 years and 1.56, respectively. The labour requirements with the developed planter were 21.73 man-hours per hectare saving 51.1% time of planting in one hectare area in comparisons to manual dibbling.

Open Access Short Research Articles

Reliability Analysis of Ten Unit Bridge Network Connected in Series with Critical and Non-critical Human Errors

K. Uma Maheswari, A. Mallikarjuna Reddy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40770

This paper represents about a complex system can produce a non –series parallel structure. The most simple non-series parallel structure is a bridge configuration. In this paper, we discuss the Reliability analysis of ten unit’s Bridge network with critical& non-critical human errors. People will always make mistakes when interacting with system design and development processes. Fortunately, human errors can be anticipated, and protective measures taken against their occurrence. This requires the application of human factors in process. It can yield major benefits in risk reduction while construction of complex systems and improved operability for system development processes. When dealing with reliability of complex system, it needs to explore difficulties with human errors early in design with the aim of improving design. Hence complex system development will be erroneous process through reliability technique when compare with other usability and walkthrough techniques. Also, human errors can be eradicated by using experienced people as well by standardizing the process and procedures of system design and development. This concept expresses the using of newly developed approach to perform system reliability analysis.

Open Access Review Article

The Energy Absorption Capability of Composite Materials for Use in Performance-Critical Applications: A Review

Sanjay Prasad, Kalyan Kumar Singh, Naresh Bhatnagar, T. S. Srivatsan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40576

Innovative and novel composite materials that can offer a healthy combination of properties to include physical, mechanical and thermal have in recent years been engineered for use in a spectrum of both performance-critical and non-performance-critical applications in industries spanning aerospace, automotive, defense, naval, civil construction and even consumer products. In the period spanning the last three decades, since the early 1980s, novel composite materials have been engineered for use in products that can withstand both the effects and after effects of shock loading. Based on the energy absorption capabilities and response characteristics of the chosen composite when subjected to the extrinsic influence of a blast load, valued observations in synergism with criterion for the design of both materials and structures were put forth. In this paper, an attempt is made at reviewing the energy absorption capabilities and blast response characteristics of structures made from novel engineered composite materials. The specific role of nature of composite material, processing technique used for the engineered composite and mechanical response is presented and briefly discussed.