Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling Crustal Structures of Southern Nigeria Basins from Aeromagnetic Data: Implication on Hydrocarbon Prospectivity

D. A. Obi, A. M. George

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39330

Aeromagnetic data has been used by many authors worldwide in evaluation of subsurface basin configuration. This study covers parts of five basins (Niger Delta, Calabar Flank, Anambra Basin, Mamfe Basin, and Lower Benue Trough) in Nigeria. The study utilized twenty aeromagnetic maps on a scale of 1:100,000. The maps were digitized manually along flight lines and a total of 16,689 data points obtained. The data was processed using computer techniques including map merging, reduction to pole, polynomial and power spectrum filtering for residual and regional anomaly separation, and forward and inverse 2.5D Saki modeling. Results obtained from power spectrum depth analysis indicate depth to magnetic sources vis – a –vis sediment thickness from the Niger Delta area (2.75 km - 3.75 km), Anambra basin (1.5 km – 2.6 km), Calabar Flank (1.3 km – 2.3 km), Mamfe basin (2.0 km – 3.4 km), and Lower Benue Trough (1.5 km – 3.2 km). Also, depth to basement results from forward and inverse modeling indicate the Niger Delta has thickness of sediments ranging between 1.0 km- 8.0 km, Anambra basin (1.4 km – 2.7 km), Calabar Flank (0.8 km- 2.5 km), Mamfe Basin (1.0 km – 2.7 km), and Lower Benue Trough (1.4 km – 2.7 km). Also, results from modeled number of intrusives indicate that the Calabar Flank has five intrusives, Niger Delta has four intrusives, Mamfe basin has six intrusives, Anambra basin has five intrusives, and Lower Benue Trough has four intrusives. The implications of the increased number of intrusives are that generated hydrocarbons might be converted to gas, this is more likely in areas around Calabar Flank, Mamfe basin and Anambra basins, given the high number of occurrence of intrusives within these areas. Whereas areas around the Niger Delta and Lower Benue Trough with significantly increased depth and lower number of intrusive are less prone to excessive heat from the intrusive and may produce more oil. The study support further exploration activities within the Niger Delta and Lower Benue Trough areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytomorphology of Callistephus chinensis as Influenced by Differential Planting Geometry, Pinching and Compound Nutrient Sprays

Muneeb Ahmad Wani, F. U. Khan, Imtiyaz Tahir Nazki, F. A. Khan, Shabir Hussain Khan, Tahir Ali, Neelofar .

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40510

Vegetative growth of China aster (Callistephus chinenesis (L.) NEES) cv. Powder Puff as influenced by pinching, planting density and nutrient sprays was evaluated in a biannual (2016 and 2017) field experiment and the data was presented in pooled form. The experiment comprised of two levels of pinching (P0 = no pinching, P1 = pinching), 3 planting densities (30 plants m-2, 36 plants m-2 ,42 plants m-2) and three levels of commercial nutrient sprays (S1= 3 sprays, S2= 4 sprays and S3 = 5 sprays), constituting a total of 18 treatment combinations replicated thrice in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The elucidation of analysed data indicated that pinching at visible bud stage, significantly improves plant spread (37.73 cm), leaf area (5883.25 cm2), Leaf Area Index (LAI) (21.15), chlorophyll content (60.63), number of primary (16.64) and secondary branches (23.19), Increasing planting density increased plant height (81.26 cm), LAI (23.63). On the other hand wider planting density significantly improved, plant spread (35.61 cm), leaf area (5779.45 cm-2), leaf chlorophyll content (59.85), number of primary (16.12) and secondary branches (22.45). Four (S2) and five (S3) sprays of CalMax® Gold, significantly improved plant height (79.95 cm) plant spread (33.22 cm, leaf area, LAI, number of primary/secondary branches and chlorophyll content. Pinching results in tangible reduction of plant height, but improves the net photoassimilation and overall vigour, architecture and growth of plants. Wider planting density in advantageous in improving the overall growth of China aster. Application of 4 and 5 nutrient sprays are beneficial in improving the vegetative growth of China aster.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fuel of Electric Power Generators on Soil Properties

A. B. Wahab, D. A. Adesanya, O. Ata

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39810

Inadequate supply of energy to buildings has informed the use of service items like generators that depend on different types of fuel for its operations which are sources of pollution to various components of the environment. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of fuel of generator on the selected biophysical and chemical properties of soil to which it comes in contact. The study was carried out in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. Five sampling points that were contaminated by the fuel and oil of generators and control points not contaminated and mixed with its fuel were purposively selected in the study area. The soil samples collected were put in labelled polythene bags and taken to the laboratory for the analyses of soil pH, moisture content, porosity, bulk density, particle size distribution and organic matter respectively. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques such as frequency distribution T-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the significance of the effect of fuel of generating sets on biophysical and chemical properties of the soil mass. The results of the analyses established that there were significant variations in the mean values of moisture, porosity, particle size distribution-silt content and organic matter content of soil not mixed with fuel/oil of generators (8.2840, 0.4040, 8.00 and 5.0200) and soil mixed with fuel/oil (3.1040, 0.2120,19.60 and 2.4440) respectively. The study concluded that fuel of generating sets disposed of on soil mass would negatively affect its properties necessary for the sustainable growth of flora component of the ecosystem and could cause pollution potential inunder ground water sources to be explored by the building occupants. It was therefore recommended that there is need to use environment-friendly power sources and the associated fuel waste of generators must be properly managed so as not to be a source of threat to the functions and properties of soil resources in the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organic Cultivation of Ridge Gourd (Luffa acutangula Roxb.)

Nishant Barik, Deepa Borbora Phookan, Vikash Kumar, Thanuram Teron Millik, Dhruba Jyoti Nath

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40696

An investigation was carried out during Kharif 2016 to study the performance of ridge gourd as influenced by organic inputs at Experimental farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications comprising seven treatments. Different organic manures such as compost, vermicompost and enriched compost were applied in two different doses i.e.2.5 t ha-1 & 5 t ha-1 along with rock phosphate and biofertilizer consortium. One of the treatments consisted of the recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) which is conventional treatment. Growth and yield attributing characters such as the highest number of fruits per vine (19.92), yield (1.95 kg vine-1), fruit length (19.79 cm), average fruit weight (97.86 g), vine length (6.02 m) were recorded in conventional treatment (T1). Whereas the highest fruit girth (12.78 cm) was recorded in rock phosphate + biofertilizer consortium + vermicompost at the rate of (@) 5 t ha-1 (T5). The least days for male flower appearance (35.50 days) was found in rock phosphate + biofertilizer consortium + compost @ 5 t ha-1  (T3) and for female flower appearance (37.28 days) was in enriched compost @ 5 t ha-1 (T7).Treatments consisted of the organic source of nutrients recorded better performance in quality parameters as compare to the conventional treatment. The highest ash content (7.62 %), total sugar (5.43 %), reducing sugar (4.02 %) were recorded in enriched compost @ 5 t ha-1 (T7) while the highest ascorbic acid content  (4.51 mg 100g-1) was found in enriched compost @ 2.5 t ha-1 (T6). Regarding soil parameters the highest organic carbon (1.48 %), available P (68.91 kg ha-1), available K (132.41 kg ha-1) were found in enriched compost @ 5 t ha-1 (T7). The highest available N was recorded in rock phosphate + biofertilizer consortium + vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1(T5). Keeping all in view T5 (rock phosphate + biofertilizer consortium + vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1) can be recommended as eco-friendly and adopted in field condition to reap good sustainable yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change Indicators for the Caribbean Region: General Trends in Temperature and Precipitation (1900–2009)

Rafael Infante

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39951

It is important to evaluate how the climate has varied and changed in the past. Mean historical temperature and precipitation data can be mapped to show the baseline climate and seasonality by month for specific years. The information presented shows mean historical monthly temperature and precipitation data from 1900 to 2009 for the countries that comprise the Wider Caribbean Region. Average temperatures in the region ranged from 20 to 26.6ºC. The mean historical monthly temperatures over a period of 19 years (1990 to 2009) indicated an increase in average temperatures for all of the countries studied. On average, rainfall increased in the region over the last 20 years of the study period. An increase in both the dry and rainy seasons was also observed; since most of the increase occurred during the dry season, this suggests the possibility of a shift in rain patterns. These trends will assist in the interpretation of climate change and the occurrence of global warming in the region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Extrusion Variables on Proximate Composition Some Nutrient and Antinutrient Contents of Dakuwa Extrudates Produced from Blends of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour L) Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L) and Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus)

M. Yusuf, M. Halilu, K. B. Filli

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40037

Extrusion process was used in the development of Dakuwa extrudates from blends of (Sorghum bicolour L) groundnut (Arachis hypogeal L) and tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L). The influence of extrusion variables on proximate composition, some nutrient and antinutrient content of dakuwa extrudate were ascertained using the Three Factor Three Levels Full Factorial Experimental Design (TFTLFFED). The variables used includes feed moisture content (18, 22 and 26%) barrel temperature (90, 100, and 110ºC), feed composition 50:20:30, 50:25:25 50:30:20). The extrusion was carried out using twin screw food extrusion cooker (SLG 65-III Model China). The results showed that extrusion significantly (p<0.05) affect the proximate nutrient and antinutrient content of the extrudate. Extrusion decreased the moisture and the crude fibre from 22 to 6.25% and 2.65 to 2.44% respectively. It increased the protein, the ash content and the carbohydrate content from 14.73 to 16.89%, 1.50 to 2.06% and 49.74 to 64.64 % respectively. Extrusion decreased the phytic acid and tannins from (5.56 and 3.25 mg/100g) un-extruded to (3.36 and 2.45 mg/100 g) extrudate. Extrusion increased the calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc from (0.47, 1.05, 3.25 and 0.60 g/100 g) un-extruded to (2.33, 1.79, 3.49 and 1.53 g/100 g) extrudate.

Open Access Method Articles

A New Formulation to Calculate Effective Tension in Large Pipeline Free Spans

Gabriel Nascimento, Nelson Szilard

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39377

Since the 70’s, when offshore oil exploitation advanced, submarine pipeline design has been the subject of many researcher studies. Pipeline free spans are common and frequently assessed. In spite of this, up to this day, there is no simple and specific formula to calculate the effective tension (Seff), which takes into account the pipeline sagging in moderate or large span lengths. Therefore, engineers normally apply finite element analyses, even for preliminary evaluations. On the other hand, there are simple formulae to calculate other parameters such as the deflection, the moment and the natural frequency, which require previous knowledge of the Seff value. In the present contribution, an approximate formula is proposed, in order to solve the beam differential equation for both pinned and fixed end conditions and make it possible to calculate the Seff value using a straightforward and relatively simple equation, which takes into account the pipeline sagging. The values calculated using the proposed method were compared to numerical results obtained for many different cases, varying the span length and the effective tension. The analysis results showed that the proposed equation is highly accurate for practical conditions and, therefore, may become a useful tool for the assessment of the pipeline free spans.