Open Access Original Research Article

Batch Equilibrium and Effects of Ionic Strength on Kinetic Study of Adsorption of Phenacetin from Aqueous Solution Using Activated Carbon Derived from a Mixture of Ayous Sawdust and Cucurbitaceae Peelings

Christian Sadeu Ngakou, Horace Manga Ngomo, Solomon Gabche Anagho

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/37300

The present study is based on the adsorption of phenacetin on activated carbon prepared from ayous sawdust, Cucurbitaceae peelings and the mixture of the two materials using the batch technique. EDX analysis of the activated carbons showed that each one of them was constituted of carbon and oxygen. The mixture of ayous sawdust and Cucurbitaceae peelings did not show an increase in the percentage of carbon. SEM analysis showed that the mixture showed a change in the nature of pore present in activated carbons. The FT-IR analysis shows after adsorption one peak around 2200 cm-1 and the larger peaks near 1100 cm-1 are the proof that both activated carbons have adsorbed phenacetin. Adsorption was carried out by variation of the pH, contact time, ionic strength and initial concentration. The equilibrium time was achieved within 2 hours for both activated carbons. The maximum adsorption occurred at pH 2 for all the activated carbons. The adsorbent/adsorbate equilibrium was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir’s  adsorption model. The ionic strength was investigated using KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2. The result showed that CaCl2 was the best salt in term of increasing the adsorbed quantities. Using the pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetic models, it was also observed that CaCl2 increased the initial rate of adsorption while MgCl2 increased the desorption rate constant. This can be attributed to the adsorbed calcium phenacetin complex that is more stable than the magnesium and potassium phenacetin complex. Multi-linearity observed in Weber and Morris diffusion model, implying that more than one mechanism affected the adsorption process and the intraparticle diffusion is not the only process that can control the kinetics of adsorption. We have also found that the mixture of the precursors favor the mass transfer from the solution to the adsorption site inside the activated carbons and their fixation.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fungicides on Sclerotia of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus

Shubhransu Nayak, Urmila Dhua, Soma Samanta

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/38825

The opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus flavus infects a vast range of agricultural crops and products, before and during harvest, handling, shipment and storage and can produce aflatoxins out of which Aflatoxin B1 was classified as group I human carcinogens by International Agency for Research on Cancer. This mitotic fungus produces sclerotia which can resist unfavourable environmental conditions by remaining dormant for long periods and may contain a considerable quantity of aflatoxins. Subsequently, sclerotia possess threat to contaminate the food chain and spreading of infection by adhering to crops in the field or during transportation. Thus suitable fungicides need to be explored for the management of sclerotia and Aspergillus flavus. Hence in the current investigation, the effect of three commercial fungicides indicated as CD, MZ and CH having active compositions Carbendazim 50%, Mancozeb 75% and Copper Hydroxide 77% respectively, was tested on sclerotia of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and the subsequent inhibition of mycelia growth and aflatoxin production was observed for two generations. Variation in colony characteristics could not be observed in either generation. Carbendazim and Mancozeb were found better than Copper Hydroxide fungicide for the inhibition of the germination of sclerotia but Mancozeb inhibited mycelia growth. Carbendazim and Copper Hydroxide had reduced the ability of the fungus to produce aflatoxin B1 whereas Mancozeb elevated the aflatoxin B1 production in the first generation. A. flavus cultures had no difference in Aflatoxin production in the second generation. Both mycelia growth and aflatoxin B1 production could not be inhibited by the same fungicide used in this study. Considering the deleterious effect of aflatoxins on human, animal health and agriculture, strategies need to be devised for the careful selection of fungicides to control Aspergillus flavus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardizing Row Spacing of Vetiver for River Bank Stabilization of Lower Ganges

Kasturi Ghosh, Sukamal Sarkar, Koushik Brahmachari, Sudipta Porel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39328

Aims: To find out the feasibility of Vetiver grass in different row-spacing with special reference to soil erosion control, impact on soil fertility and water conservation at the erosion-prone barren banks of the Bhagirathi River in Nadia district of West Bengal.

Methodology: The experimental treatments comprised of five different spacing arrangements (90, 75, 60, 45 and 30 cm) for Vetiver rows. For recording biometric observations plant height, number of tillers/plant and root length vetiver plants were taken accordingly (January 2017 to May 2017). Physico-chemical changes of experimental soil, water holding capacity, surface-runoff and soil conservation efficiency of each month were measured during the brief period of experimentation.   

Results: The study revealed that Vetiver has significant role in stabilization of erosion-prone river bank. Growing of Vetiver with indigenous nutrient supply of soil resulted in depletion soil fertility status initially. Planting of Vetiver with closer row spacing (30 cm) proved to be significant for quick stabilization of river bank, but as a long-term measure, wider row spacing (75 cm) is advocated for optimum growth and biomass production of this perennial grass.

Conclusion: From the present study it may be concluded that Vetiver has significant role to play in stabilization of erosion-prone river bank of lower Ganges. An initiative may be taken to promote Vetiver cultivation along the embankment of the river Ganges as a natural and cost-effective bio-engineering tool.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Evaluation of Cheeses: Cholesterol and Its Oxide 7- Ketocholesterol

Ellen Abreu da Cruz, Sibelli Passini Barbosa Ferrão, Rebeca de Carvalho Rosas, Vinícius Souza Rotondano, Gabriel Chaves Figueiredo, Sérgio Augusto de Albuquerque Fernandes

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39656

Aim: The present study sought to identify and quantify the contents of cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol in cheese samples (Mozzarella, Prato and Minas Frescal).

Study Design: The study used a completely randomized design in triplicate. ANOVA was used for the HPLC results comparing the means by Tukey’s test at 5% probability.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted at the State University of Southwest Bahia, Juvino Oliveira Campus, in Itapetinga-BA, Brazil, in the LAPRON (Natural Products Research Laboratory), CEACROM (Center of Chromatographic Studies and Analysis) and Laboratory of Milk and Dairy Products. Samples of Minas Frescal cheese were purchased in the municipality of Itapetinga-BA, Brazil in the months of September and October 2013, and samples of Mozzarella and Prato cheese were purchased from a dairy farm in Nova Venecia-ES, Brazil in October 2013.

Methodology: Cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol were identified by comparing the retention time of the sample peaks with the retention time of the standard peaks, and the characteristic wavelength was determined for each substance by using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results: The Prato cheese showed a higher cholesterol content, followed by the Mozzarella and Minas Frescal cheeses.

Conclusion: Presence of the oxide 7-ketocholesterol was not found, indicating that processing did not result in cholesterol oxidation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Spatial Variability of Soil Properties in Gopalapur Microwatershed, Gundlupet Taluk, Chamarajanagar District, Karnataka, India

Rajendra Hegde, K. V. Niranjan, Gopali Bardhan, B. P. Bhaskar, S. K. Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/38787

Evaluation of geostatistical tools was used for assessing top soil variability in Gopalapur micro-watershed, Gundlupet taluk, Chamarajanagar district, Karnataka, India to explore a scientific basis for predicting soil properties from unknown locations and to derive site-specific nutrient management strategies. The study area is a part of Central Karnataka Plateau, have hot, moist semi-arid with medium to deep Red loamy soils, low AWC and LGP 120-150 days. The Grid survey at 250 × 250 m interval was carried out and collected 97 georeferenced surface soil samples (0-15 cm) from five land use systems such as agriculture, scrubland, forest, grassland and fallow land. Three interpolation methods such as ordinary kriging, inverse distance weighting (IDW) and spline were used to generate spatial distribution of eleven soil variables viz. pH, EC, organic carbon, available K2O, P2O5, sulphur/boron and DTPA extractable Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Experimental variograms were fitted with the exponential, spherical, Gaussian and linear models using weighted least squares. The model with the smallest residual sum of squares (RSS) was further interrogated to find the number of neighbours that returned the best cross-validation result. The choice of the exponent value for IDW and splines as well as the number of the closest neighbours was decided from the root mean squared error (RMSE) statistic, obtained from a cross-validation procedure. On this experimental field, ordinary kriging performed best for topsoil and exponential method of kriging gave the best results of interpolation with the smallest residual sum of squares (RSS). We conclude that ordinary kriging is a superior method with the least RMSE and lowest RSS value for interpolation of topsoil spatial distribution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risks Assessments of Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation in Water and Tilapia nilotica Fish from Maguite Island of Fitri Lake

Djibrine Adoum Oumar, Guira Flibert, Abdelsalam Tidjani, Nodjimadji Rirabe, Madjimbaye Patcha, Tarnagda Bakary, Abdoullahi Hissein Ousman, Traoré Yves, Savadogo Aly

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39384

The purpose of this study is to assess concentration of selected metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd and Fe) in the muscle, flesh and bone of Tilapia nilotica fish and in the water of Fitri Lake. It was carried out in Maguite Island of Fitri Lake, Batha region in Chad. Samples were collected from April to December 2016. A hundred of fish samples and three (3) sites of water collection were concerned. The content in heavy metals is determined using a spectrophotometer. The averages of heavy metals (mg/L) in water are 0.04 (Fe), 0.01 (Zn), 3.01 (Cu), 5.78 (Cr), and 0.07 (Cd). All the fish tissues have an important level of heavy metals content. Muscles have the lower content. Heavy metals content (mg/kg) vary from 55.72 to 88.45 for Fe, 36.45 to 50.24 for Zn, 20.26 to 32.19 for Cu, 0.34 to 17.82 for Cr and 0.02 to 0.07 for Cd. All the analyzed parameters exceed the acceptable limit according to international standards. The high level of heavy metals content in fishes and water of the lake is an indicator of an important pollution activity around the lake or drained by the lake.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Efficacy of Inorganic and Bio-Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Rainfed Winter Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Shyamal Kheroar, Bikas Chandra Patra, Debjani Halder, Swapan Kumar Barman, Kausik Mandal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/40129

Modern agriculture exclusively depends on chemicals, hence, the study was carried out with the objective of reducing dependency on chemical fertilizer, to find out best integrated dose of inorganic and bio-fertilizer for successful rainfed rice cultivation and analyses the effect of inorganic and bio-fertilizer on the soil fertility. Integrated nutrient management is best for sustainable rainfed rice cultivation rather than purely organic or chemical. Reduction in chemical fertilizer to an extent of 20% with bio-fertilizer not only curtails the cost of production; it also increases the yield of rainfed rice by enhancing the growth and yield attributing characters. Recommended fertilizer dose with Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium (T4) recorded the highest rice grain yield (6.59 t ha-1), Maximum gross return (Rs.1,02,930.00), highest net return (Rs.71,230.00) and benefit–cost ratio (2.25), which were at par with T7 (net return of Rs.65,330.00 and benefit–cost ratio of 2.11). 50% RDF + Phosphobacterium (T9) exhibited lowest gross return (Rs.74,350.00), net return (Rs.44,190.00) and benefit-cost ratio (0.86).