Open Access Original Research Article

Efficient Association Rule Mining for Retrieving Frequent Itemsets in Big Data Sets

Chandaka Babi, Mandapati Venkateswara Rao, Vedula Venkateswara Rao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39546

Information retrieval and decision-making demand a scalable and efficient methodto process and extract relevant information from Big Data. Data mining is a refined analysis of a large quantity of data to determine new information in the outline of patterns, trends, and relations. With the spread of the World Wide Web, the quantity of data stored and made available electronically has increased enormously, and methods to retrieve information from such big data have gained immense significance for both business and scientific research communities. Frequent Itemset Mining is one of the most extensively applied procedures to retrieve useful information from data. However, when this method is applied to Big Data, the combinatorial outburst of candidate itemsets has become a challenge. Recent developments in the area of parallel programming have offered outstanding tools to overcome this problem. Nevertheless, these tools have their own technical drawbacks, e.g. unbiased data sharing and inter-communication costs. In our study, we examine the applicability of Frequent Itemset Mining in the MapReduce framework. We introduce a new method for extracting large datasets: Big-Frequent-ItemsetMining. This method is optimized to run on extremely large datasets. Our approach is similar to FP-growth but uses a different data structure that is based on an algebraic topology. In this study, we demonstrate the scalability of our techniques.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioefficacy of Fungicides Against Phytophthora infestans Causing Late Blight of Potato under Laboratory Condition

Saidul Islam, Rahamatulla Middya, Bholanath Mondal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39402

The experiment was conducted in laboratory in aqueous environment to evaluate bioefficacy of fungicides against Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary causing late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during February, 2015. Infected leaves of potato var. Kufri Jyoti were collected from field in morning hours, cut into small pieces (1.0cm x 0.5cm), and were placed in petriplates containing fungicides suspension (0.1, 0.05 and 0.025%) and sterile filtered tap water. The plates were incubated at room temperature for 48 h and observed under microscope. Derosal (carbendazim) and Shine-35 (metalaxyl) showed very negligible or little effect. However, metalaxyl when associated with mancozeb (Matco) inhibited mycelial growth and sporangia formation. Blitox (copper oxychloride), Avtar (hexaconazole + zineb) and Vitavax Power (Carboxin + Thiram) inhibited mycelial growth only at higher concentration. Adequate inhibition of mycelial growth and sporangia formation was recorded in Indofil Z-78 (zineb), Indofil M-45 (mancozeb), Mirador (azoxystrobin), Acrobat (dimethomorph) and Melody Duo (Iprovalicarb + Propineb). Highest inhibition of both mycelial growth and sporangia formation were evidenced in Ethaboxam (a thiazole carboxamide fungicide) followed by FolioGold (Chlorothalonil + Metalaxyl) and Kavach (Chlorothalonil). This rapid laboratory evaluation method is truly useful to select effective fungicide(s) against late blight of potato quickly within 48-72 h.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bunch Feeding of Nitrogen (N) and Potassium (K) on Yield Characters in Banana, cv. Barjahaji (Musa AAA Group) under Assam Condition, India

Thanuram Teron Millik, Kartik Baruah, Vikash Kumar, Nishant Barik

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/38889

The present investigation was carried out at the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat (India) during March 2015 to June 2016 to know the effect of the application of different nutrient and their combination as bunch feeding on growth and yield of banana. Nitrogen and Potassium were applied in the form of different chemicals along with FYM and compared with control. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications comprising nine treatments. Results revealed that the highest yield of (58.65 t   ha-1), highest finger length (22.28 cm), finger girth (14.10 cm), volume of fingers (254.25 cc), weight of finger (148.73 g), weight of second hand (4.00 kg), and bunch weight (19.00 kg), were observed when the bunch fed with T7 (500 g fresh cow dung + 7.5 g Urea + 7.5 g  K2SO4). However, the highest pulp to peel ratio of 3.40 was recorded in T6 (500 g fresh cow dung + 7.5 g Urea + 7.5 g KCl). Whereas, maximum rind thickness (3.71 mm) was observed in T4 (500 g fresh cow dung + 7.5g K2SO4). The perusal of result revealed that most of the growth, yield, and yield attributes were found highest in treatment receiving 500 g fresh cow dung + 7.5 g Urea + 7.5 g K2SO4. Therefore, treatment T7 (500 g fresh cow dung + 7.5 g Urea + 7.5 g K2SO4) is considered to be the best treatment that can be adopted under field cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Modulus of Elasticity in Static Bending of Wood in Structural Dimensions as a Function of Longitudinal Vibration and Density

Raquel Schmitt Cavalheiro, Diego Henrique de Almeida, Tiago Hendrigo de Almeida, André Luis Christoforo, Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/39531

In order to use wood in a sustainable and rational way, it is necessary to estimate its characteristics, and in the case of civil construction, the physical and mechanical properties are the most interesting. The aim of this research was to estimate the modulus of elasticity of structural pieces of Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. wood through static bending (MOEsb) and longitudinal vibration (MOElv) methods, in addition, to generate regression models to estimate the modulus of elasticity of static bending. Tests for MOEsb and MOElv estimation were carried out according to ABNT NBR 7190:1997 and FAKOPP Enterprise, respectively. Linear and quadratic regression models were used to estimate MOEsb as a function of MOElv. A multivariate regression model was also generated considering the wood density. According to the discussion of the obtained results, MOElv and MOEsb average values estimated for the studied batch of Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. wood were 9.70 and 9.07 GPa, and average density 381.21 kg/m3. Regression models proposed for estimation of MOEsb presented the coefficient of determination close to 60%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of an Improved Crucible Furnace Using Locally Sourced Materials for Teaching and Learning Purposes in Metallurgical Laboratory

Gbasouzor Austin Ikechukwu, Philip N. Atanmo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/37249

Technologies have become more affordable and penetrate every aspect of life, even in developing country, like Nigeria. However many of the users in developing countries are still finding difficulty in using the technologies due to lack of experience as they undergo a technological leap. The aim of this research work explores the approach to designing, developing an improved crucible furnace by using our locally sourced materials for teaching and learning purpose in Metallurgical Laboratory. This research was considered in order to eliminate the use of poor heat sources which contaminate the molten metal in a furnace. And also to eliminate the harmful effect of using coal as fuel, by lining the inner wall of the casing with refractory blocks made from heated mixture of kaolin, clay sawdust and water after which the inner pot and electromechanical devices (temperature controller, known as light indicator), were employed in the furnace assembled. During the performance of the equipment it was observed that the furnace has a fast heating rate 61.240C/min to attain a pre-set temperature of 1915°C, and a fuel consumption rate less than 1.4 liters/hr. It has good heat retaining capacity, and can easily be maintained and safe to use.

Open Access Short Research Articles

Effects of Solid Waste Disposal on the Physicochemical Properties of Borehole Water along FUTO Road, Eziobodo, Owerri-West, Nigeria

C. C. Ejiogu, C. B. Okpara, K. D. Opara, I. O. Onyeocha, C. Azubuike, A. A. Emeh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/36170

Non-adherence to adequate refuse disposal and increase in population of inhabitants dominated by students who continue to seek residence in Eziobodo community have been identified as one of the major threats to groundwater source in the study area. Borehole water samples were obtained from two boreholes along FUTO road, Eziobodo, and analyzed for the following physico-chemical parameters: pH, electrical conductivity, Turbidity, Nitrate (NO₃⁻), Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO₃⁻-N), Phosphate (PO₄⁻), Phosphorus (P), Total Hardness and Total Chloride using standard methods and compared with the World Health Organization Standards for drinking water. The experiment was repeated after a period of five months. The pH values obtained from analysis of both samples decreased slightly from 6.8 and 5.7 at the beginning of the experiment and to 6.2 and 4.9 after the time interval indicating that groundwater in the study area were acidic. The Electrical Conductivity value for both samples was 30 μs/cm at start of experiment while values increased slightly to 34 and 31 μs/cm after the time interval. The samples showed 0.00 for Turbidity. Nitrate values were 38.50 mg/l and 36.00 mg/l at start of experiment with very slight increase after the time interval. Nitrate-nitrogen values for both samples were 8.70 mg/l and 8.10 mg/l with slight increase after the time interval. Phosphate values for both samples were 46.80mg/l and 0.60mg/l at start of experiment and increased to 48.10 mg/L and 7.40 mg/L after the time interval. Phosphorus values increased from 15.20 mg/l and 0.20 mg/l to 16.10 and 3.30 mg/L. The Phosphate and Phosphorus values for Borehole Water Sample1 (BHWS1) were above the WHO permissible limits. Total Hardness values for both samples were 0.30 mg/l and 0.28 mg/l and remain virtually the same after the time interval. Total chloride values increased slightly for both samples from 186.00mg/l and 208.50 mg/l to 186.08 and 210.1mg/l after the time interval. Generally, the concentrations of the analyzed parameters were within the WHO Standards except for pH, Phosphate and Phosphorus. These results indicated that the water sources were contaminated and maybe unfit for human consumption except when treated. This, therefore, calls for appropriate treatment measures before the consumption of these waters by the populace in order to avoid long term accumulative health problems of these pollutants. Proper waste management strategies such as incineration, composting, should be adopted to avoid indiscriminate waste disposal and unnecessary seepage into the underlying groundwater. The study also identified rising groundwater level as a factor making the groundwater more vulnerable to pollution. Hence, the need to have a programme of effective and periodic monitoring of ground water quality.

Open Access Review Article

Pesticide Residues in Vegetables: Practical Interventions to Minimize the Risk of Human Exposure in Tanzania

P. A. Kiwango, N. Kassim, M. E. Kimanya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2018/38976

Malpractices in the use of pesticides in vegetable production have been reported in the horticultural sector in developing countries. This can result in excessive use of pesticides and, subsequently, in unacceptable levels of pesticide residues in foods of horticultural origin. Consumption of vegetables containing unacceptable levels of pesticide residues is of public concern due to its potentially harmful effects on human health. In this work, we reviewed the current status of pesticide application, the occurrence and exposure of pesticide residues in vegetables as well as factors influencing the problem of pesticide exposure in Tanzania. The review has realized that pesticides are rarely applied to vegetables following good agricultural practices. Further, pesticide residues in vegetables are not monitored and exposure studies are limited. Studies on the influence of vegetable processing on pesticide residues at household level have been done at laboratory scale. However, the influence of these processes to the residues at the community level is unknown. The review suggests the need for broader research on the pesticide application practices to establish the important practices that have significant association with the occurrence of pesticide residues in vegetables. Results from this research will allow for the allocation of resources for improvement, monitoring and control of these practices to minimize the risk of unwanted pesticide residues in vegetables. Continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in food, as well as the correlated human dietary exposure, is highly recommended in order to inform policymakers and risk managers of the status of the risk of exposure to pesticide residues.