Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Sprinkler Irrigation System in Ganderbal District J&K State

Nasir Ul Rasheed Rather, Muddasir Ahmad Baba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/39414

Field experiments were carried at Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Shuhama (Jammu and Kashmir) to study the performance evaluation of sprinkler system. The climatic conditions of previous years were obtained and were taken into consideration before the starting of the experiment. The climatic conditions recorded for the experiment were wind speed and wind direction. The micro sprinkler arrangement was made of two types – point arrangement and linear arrangement. The volume of water was collected in water containers, systematically leveled on the ground surface and placed 0.75 x 0.75 m apart. The volume of water was measured by the aid of measuring cylinder. The water flow pressure for the experiment was kept 1.5 Kg/cm2 and 2.0 Kg/cm2. The pressure was measured by a pressure gauge. The riser height was kept 0.75 m and 1 m respectively. The data revealed that uniformity coefficient varied from 82.83 to 88.7 percent in point arrangement of micro sprinklers, whereas uniformity coefficient varied from 86.10 to 91.76 percent in case of the linear arrangement of sprinklers. Experiments revealed that the change in riser height and operating pressure affected the uniformity coefficient significantly. Data also revealed that wind velocity was found to be low in the morning as compared to evening. However, wind velocity didn’t show a significant effect on uniformity coefficient as wind velocity was found to be very low in the experimental area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Climate Variability on Malaria Incidence in the Buea Municipality of Cameroon; Implications for Malaria Control and Prevention

Lawrence Fombe, Amenchwi G. Amahnui

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38274

Changes in global climatic conditions have had profound effects on the environment and human health as epitomized by the changing disease patterns. The case of malaria in the Buea sub-division of the Southwest Region of Cameroon is of profound interest. Fundamental changes in rainfall and temperature conditions have far-reaching implications on malaria incidence as revealed by field data collected from the Regional delegation of public health in the Region which was corroborated with climatic data for a period of 5 years (2010-2014) obtained from the meteorological station of the Cameroon Development Corporation in Tiko. By use of descriptive statistical techniques and the coefficient of variation, results indicate both positive and negative effects of climate variability on malaria incidence in the study area. Based on this, it is incumbent on the government to integrate climate variability in health policy and ensure that all health programs take climate variability concerns in their plans and operations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Corn Fibre and Pectin Gel for the Development of Low Calorie and High Fibre Biscuits

Pankaj Preet Sandhu, Kiran Bains, Gisha Singla, Rajender Singh Sangwan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38966

Aim: The study was carried out to standardize low calorie-high fibre biscuits by using corn fibre and pectin gel.

Methodology: Corn fibre is a by-product of corn starch industry. It was used to replace refined wheat flour at 10 to 40% to level for the development of low calorie and high fibre biscuits. Pectin gel was used as a fat replacer in the corn fibre biscuits, the level of substitution of fat with pectin gel being 10 to 50%. The physical, sensory and nutritional characters of the biscuits were determined.

Results: The total dietary fibre (TDF) increased while carbohydrates and energy decreased significantly when corn fibre replaced the refined wheat flour at all the four levels. The colour, appearance, texture, taste, flavor and overall  acceptability of the biscuits was similar to control upto 20% supplementation of corn fibre, however, a significant reduction in sensory characteristics was observed when the level of supplementation was 30 or 40%. No significant shrinkage as expresses by the spread ratio of the biscuits was observed when pectin gel substituted the fat upto 20% level. A significant reduction in fat content of high fibre corn biscuits can be achieved by replacing it with pectin gel. The product can provide double advantage to the consumers as it has higher fibre (7.85 g/100 g) but lesser fat (18.68 g/100 g).

Conclusion: Supplementation of refined wheat flour with corn fibre upto 20% is appropriate to prepare high quality biscuits with desirable functional and sensory attributes. Further, the fat can be replaced satisfactorily with pectin gel upto 20%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of a Rainwater Harvesting System: A Case Study of University College Hospital, Ibadan City, Nigeria

Omolara Lade, David Oloke

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36623

Provision of water supply to meet urban demands is increasingly facing complex challenges due to water scarcity, population growth, ageing infrastructure, variability and uncertainty under climate change. Rainwater harvesting system (RWHS) can augment water supply to meet urban and rural needs with added economical and financial benefits. This study assessed the hydraulic and financial performance of a RWHS for the University College Hospital in Ibadan. Storage capacity, water savings, sensitivity analysis and MonteCarlo simulation were optimised using a Raincycle model. A comprehensive assessment of the proposed system was carried out, considering seven specified and eleven unpredictable variables. The specified variables are: basin area, pump hydraulic power, initial surface runoff, storage capacity, pump capacity, UV unit hydraulic power and operating period while the unpredictable variables are: filter coefficient, precipitation profiles, runoff coefficient, interest rates, energy cost, water demand, water rates, total cost, disposal and asset retirement obligation. The water savings and RWH performance were determined and return period was evaluated. The result of maximising storage capacity found 78.1% of demand could be met. The analysis of maximising water reduction revealed seven reservoir sizes with a prospective long-term profit. A 12 m3 tank estimated to save $51,072 over 50 years with a payback period of 1 year was found to be the best. The important effect of a given set of conditions on the economic feasibility of a RWHS was revealed by MonteCarlo simulation. The findings showed a significant reduction in the total fresh water consumption and the total cost can be obtained. The potential of using RWH as an alternative source of water for the Children’s ward is high. This method can be used for other sections of the hospital such as the accident and emergency unit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gene Effects of Resistance to Septoria tritici in Durum Wheat under Water Stress Level

F. Bnejdi, M. Saadoun, N. Rassaa, Mohamed El Gazzeh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/37092

Gene effects and narrow-sense heritability estimates for components of resistance to Septoria tritici Blotch (STB) assessed under three water stress levels were evaluated using two populations derived from crossing partial-resistant durum wheat inbred lines Agili and Jneh Kottifa and susceptible inbred lines Karim 80 and Razzek by the generation mean analysis. Populations included the resistant parents, susceptible parents, F1 and F2 generations and backcrossed BC1Pr and BC1Ps generations. The presence of an epistatic effect was dependent upon water stress level. In the absence of water stress, only additive and dominance effects were induced for the two populations and the two STB isolates. Therefore, in the presence of water stress levels, the variation of generation means was adequately explained by additive, dominance and digenetic epistatic effects for the two populations. The change in the mode of the gene effect of STB resistance inheritance depending upon water stress level complicated the procedure of incorporating genes of resistance in rentably cultivars Karim 80 and Razzek. In the absence of water stress, selection would be simpler, because only additive and dominance effects were implicated. However, the genetic mechanism will not be stable when the plant experiences water stress. For cultivars designed for exploitation in a wide range of environmental conditions, selection under water stress is suggested for the stability of resistance to STB. Narrow-sense heritability estimates varied between combinations of crosses–isolates–water stress levels and ranged from 51 to 72%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling of Body Weight and Component Parts Changes in Broiler Chicken Raised to Maturity

I. M. Sam, C. A. Essien, E. C. Ogundu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38994

The purpose of this study was to model the change in weight and major component parts of broiler chicken using three growth models (Gompertz, Logistics and Richard). A total of two hundred and seventy Abor acre strains of broilers were distributed into two experimental groups of male and female with 135 birds each. The birds were raised on deep litter system for 126 days and weighed individually on weekly basis. Three birds from each group of male and female were dissected bi-weekly to compare growth performance and major component parts using the three nonlinear models. The percent deviation of estimated weight and actual weights were computed. The results showed that Gompertz model gave the least deviation of live body weight and weights of component parts. Logistics and Richard’s model underestimated and overestimated live body weights and weights of component part at all phases of growth respectively. Coefficient of determination R2 (%) recorded for the three growth functions ranged from 93%-98%, giving a good fit for both male and female body weight and component part. Maturation rates (k) were variable but Richard’s gave the best estimate of this parameter. The findings in this study suggest that more than one growth model is required to effectively describe the growth of body weight and component parts of broiler chickens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical, Phytochemical and Sensory Evaluation of Acha-Carrot Flours Blend Biscuit

J. A. Ayo, F. E. Gidado

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38142

The study investigated physiochemical, phytochemical composition and sensory qualities of acha-carrot flour blend biscuits. Flour blends were produced by substituting carrot flour into acha flour at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25%. Pasting properties and functional properties of the flour blends were determined. Biscuits were produced from the flour blends and the physicochemical, phytochemical composition and sensory qualities of the biscuits were analysed. The protein and carbohydrate content decreased from 8.35±0.03 – 7.90±0.04 and 70.67±0.39 – 68.74±0.39%, respectively. The moisture content, crude fibre, fat and ash content increased from 5.33±0.10 to 6.39±0.01, 0.85±0.01 to 1.50±0.54, 13.80±0.33 to 14.24±0.06 and 1.85±0.00 to 2.73±0.01% respectively, with increase in the added carrot flour (5-25%). The carotenoids, saponnins, flavonoids, and anthocyannins increased from 4.68±0.04 – 7.87±0.05µg/g, 0.05±0.00 – 0.12±0.00, 0.01±0.00 – 0.03±0.00, and 0.05±0.00 – 0.07±0.00 mg/100 g, respectively. The water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling capacity increased from 2.32±0.19 – 3.24±0.08, 1.96±0.20 – 2.24±0.08, and 5.91±0.64 –7.6±00.85 ml/g, respectively, with increase in the added carrot (5-25%). Loosed bulk density, packed bulk density, emulsion activity, and foaming capacity decreased from 0.63±0.05 – 0.55±0.03 glcm3, 0.86±0.02 – 0.78±0.01 g/cm3, 56.50±0.71 – 54.50±0.71%, and 6.83±0.82 – 3.33±1.27%, respectively. Peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and setback decreased from 216.83±0.06 – 143.21±0.05, 142.17±0.04 – 105.46±0.02, 74.67±2.60 – 37.75±2.72, 351.58±0.09 – 207.71±0.07, and 209.42±0.06 102.25±0.05RVU, respectively. The 85:15% acha-carrot biscuit sample was the most preferred with a corresponding increment of 2.5, 9.4, 25.4, 21.6 and 20% of protein, crude fibre, ash content, carotenoids, and anthocyanins, respectively. Addition of carrot to acha could be said to have greatly improve the quality of acha.