Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in the Activities of Sugars and Sugar Metabolic Enzymes in Grape Berries during Development

Shafia Bashir, Nirmaljit Kaur, N. K. Arora

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38532

Accumulation of sugars is an important metabolic process that occurs during grape berry development. Sugars are transported into the berry mainly in the form of sucrose and are broken down into glucose and fructose by the enzymes invertase and sucrose synthase. Changes in activities of invertase and sucrose synthase in the juice of three table grape genotypes (Flame Seedless, Perlette and Muscat Hamburg) was studied during four developmental stages. The characteristic rapid increase in the rate of sugar accumulation in the juice throughout the development was preceded by the activity of invertase. At the same time the rate of sugar accumulation also increased the activity of sucrose synthase. There is a possibility that sugar accumulation in grape juice occurs by pathway involving changes in the activity of enzyme for this process to operate. The results of the present study suggests that in the grape genotypes studied, invertase and sucrose synthase activities are positively correlated with high berry sugar content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microstructural Evolution of Aluminum-4043/Nickel-Coated Silicon Carbide Composites Produced via Stir Casting

P. K. Farayibi, B. O. Akinnuli, S. Ogu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/37349

Aluminum-silicon carbide (Al/SiC) metal matrix composites have become a promising engineering material owing to its high strength to weight ratio. However, there is formation of aluminum carbide phase which is deleterious to the physical properties of the composites and needs to be eliminated. In this paper, the stir casting of Al-4043/Ni-coated SiC composites was investigated and reported. The Al/SiC composites were produced by melting Al-4043 lumps, injecting SiC powder with varying weight fraction into the Al melt and pouring the stirred mixture into a sand mould at 680°C. Prior to the use of the SiC powder, the powder particles were coated with 15 µm thickness of nickel to prevent dissolution of the SiC into the Al melt. The microstructure of the composites was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopes to reveal the microstructural features and phases present. The result showed that composite microstructure was characterized by filament-like and particulate-like features which are uniformly distributed in the Al matrix. The volume fraction of the filaments increased with increasing SiC reinforcement fraction employed during processing. The microstructure formed is predominantly Al-SiC eutectic microstructure with uniformly dispersed SiC particles. The Ni coating has presumably prevented the formation of Al4C3 and promoted the formation of eutectic microstructure. A higher strength is anticipated with the filaments randomly oriented and uniformly dispersed in the Al-4043/Ni-coated SiC composites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sabiá Wood (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Bentham.)

Maria Fátima do Nascimento, Diego Henrique de Almeida, Tiago Hendrigo de Almeida, André Luis Christoforo, Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38747

Wood is a natural material with technological properties that vary between species (genetic factors) and for the same species (edaphoclimatic factors). For the use of wood in civil construction, physical and mechanical properties are of interest. The aim of this research was to determine the physical and mechanical properties of the Sabiá wood (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Bentham.) from Caatinga, and to evaluate the possibility of its use in civil construction. From a batch obtained from Juazeiro do Norte (CE), Brazil, with moisture content 12%, test specimens were fabricated to determine their physical and mechanical properties, according to ABNT NBR 7190:1997 Brazilian Standard Code. As physical properties were determined: density at 12% moisture (ρ12); radial (RRT), tangential (RTL) and longitudinal (RLT) shrinkages. Mechanical properties considered were: strength in compression parallel (fc0) and perpendicular (fc90) to the grain, tensile strength parallel (ft0) and perpendicular (ft90) to the grain, shear strength (fv0) and cleavage (fs0) parallel to the grain, modulus of elasticity (EM) and rupture (fM) in static bending, and modulus of elasticity in compression parallel (Ec0) and perpendicular (Ec90) to the grain. The characteristic strengths (fk) were also determined for including the wood batch in the strength classes (ABNT NBR 7190:1997). The results obtained allow to classify the studied species as C40 / dicotyledons (fc0,k = 48 MPa) with density 1.04 g/cm3 and small values ​​of shrinkage. These results enable the use of Sabiá wood for structural purposes in civil construction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Forging Machine for Improved Blacksmithing in Nigeria

R. A. Adebayo, P. K. Oke

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38696

Aims: To perform an investigation in the production processes and methods of operation of the blacksmith forging machine in six blacksmith shops in Nigeria.

Study Design: Qualitative study combined with a survey. 

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out in five states (Edo, Ondo, Osun, Ekiti and Oyo) in Nigeria between February 2016 to August 2017.

Methodology: Investigation of the production processes was done using questionnaires. The questionnaires were administered to ninety people and they were grouped according to their ages in all the states. The mechanical and metallographic examination was carried out in engineering materials and development institute (EMDI) Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples of selected blacksmith products were machined into shapes and sizes suitable for the tests. The selected products were grounded using emery paper of grades 220, 320, 400 and rough polished on glycerol-lubricated silicon carbide paper. In evaluating the performance of the forging machine, three mild steels of length 177 mm each were heated and hammered by the machine to produce three chisels shape of 15 mm in diameter. The electric hammer consists of a flywheel of diameter 300 mm mounted on the motor shaft.

Results: The analysis of the questionnaire shows that young people do not go into the blacksmith business because of the stress involved and they are unable to forge the heated metals effectively. This is an indication that blacksmith may soon fade out if it is not modernized and mechanized to reduce the stress involved in the processes. The forging capability is 85Joules (energy at strike).

Conclusion: The machine has been constructed, tested and compared with the local and imported products using mechanical and microstructural test. The products from the imported equipment have the higher ultimate and fracture stress but lesser ductility than the products from developed equipment because of the occurrence of strain hardening.

Open Access Original Research Article

Arching of Railway Turnouts by Analytical Design Method

Wladyslaw Koc

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/39093

The paper involved the issue of arching of the railway turnouts. This is an issue which is given relatively less attention to scientific and research activities. Reference has been made to the book by Wladyslaw Rzepka, under the title “Curved turnouts in plan and profile”, which has been used in Poland for more than 50 years as the main source of information relating to the turnouts on the curve. The book is a compilation of elaborations describing the contemporary state of knowledge being to a large extent a display of German achievements of the forties and fifties in the twentieth century. It has been pointed out that the theory accumulated in the book was adapted to the contemporary calculation needs. The major drawback in the given solutions seems to be ambiguity in the adopted reference system. In the present study an analytical approach is made to the subject matter, and the adopted system of coordinates is connected to the initial position of the turnout being arched. Three possible turnout arching variants have been analyzed to determine some universal mathematical relations. They describe the coordinates of the main track end and the diverging one, the value of the circular arc radius of the diverging track and equations of both the tracks. The analytical record also proves useful for authentic applications. It should be noted that it may be particularly beneficial to use the analytical method to design connections of parallel tracks located in a circular arc (using curved turnouts).

Open Access Original Research Article

Age Differences in Body Image Perceptions of Tribal Adolescents

S. Beulah Margaret, P. Sreedevi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38528

The present study on age differences in body image perceptions of tribal adolescents was conducted at Tribal welfare schools and colleges in and around Adilabad district. Expost- facto type design was adapted for the study. The sample comprises of early adolescents in the age range of 11-13 years (90) and late adolescents in the age group of 16-18 years (90), thus total 180. The major results of the study indicate that late adolescents had low positive perceptions on body image and had more regrets on their hair texture, used more cosmetics, accessories and took more initiatives like changing diet to lose weight for their physical outlook when compared to early adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profitability of Agroforestry System: The Case of Udham Singh Nagar District of Uttarakhand State, India

Anuj Kumar, S. K. Srivastava

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36495

The paper has examined the profitability of the prevailing agroforestry system in Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttarakhand state. Two blocks of Udham Singh Nagar district was selected for study purpose. In which it was found that two spacing of agroforestry was followed by sample farmers i.e. 7m x 3m and 5m x 4m. Study was conducted by taking in to account of sole cropping system and Agroforestry system for comparing the profit realised by both the systems. CACP (Commission for agricultural cost and prices) concept was used to determine the cost and return from both the spacing and with sole crop too. The result indicated that Agroforestry with spacing 7m x 3m is profitable in comparison to spacing 5m x 4m but with comparison to sole crop both spacing of Agroforestry system was found to be beneficial. The study has suggested that policy support in terms promotion of agroforestry system is MSP (Minimum Support Price) should be there for wood produce too as in case of crop produce so that more farmers will be encouraged towards practicing Agroforestry system.