Open Access Original Research Article

Jute Production: The Need for Linkage among Research, Farmers and Industries in West Bengal, India

A. Shamna, S. K. Jha, A. K. Chakraborty, S. Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38295

The research study was conducted in four major jute growing districts of West Bengal to analyse the problems in jute sector as a whole and to develop a model to frame for the effective functioning of the jute sector. The major constraints faced by the jute farmers in the jute production (n=120) was analyzed using rank based quotients which indicated (1) the high cost of labour (2), Middle men (3), Lack of knowledge about fibre grades (4), unavailability of labour and so on. Similarly one of the major problems in this area is workers’ unavailability which have been scored highest (0.99) followed by cost of labour (0.86), competing with synthetic products (0.68) and lack of demand among others (0.63). Industrial views on jute fiber production and procurement showed that, 86.5 per cent of the respondents were unhappy with the retting method and required them to be improved so that no part of the fibre should be wasted, they think that there should be more participation come from the State government. After analyzing the existing linkage, the study had come out with a new model for the better performance of the jute sector, involving all the stakeholders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Land Tenure on Food Security Status among Smallholder Farmers in Kilifi South Sub-County, Kenya

J. M. Chege, J. K. Lemba, P. P. Semenye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/32587

Food security is critical to the economic, social, religious, political and cultural development Worldwide. It plays a great role in economic growth, poverty reduction and sustainable development in Kenya. A study was carried out in Kilifi South Sub-county in the coastal areas of Kenya, one of the areas where food insecurity incidences are prevalent. The study assessed the effect of land constraints on food security status among smallholder farming communities through interview schedules. Non experimental design using descriptive survey was adopted for the study. Possession of title deed, type of land ownership and land size data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The results indicated that 81% of all the farmers were food insecure. Those who possessed title deeds were 12% food secure while those who did not have title deeds were 7% food secure. The farmers who had individual type of land ownership were 9% food secure while the ones who owned land as a family were 5% food secure and those who rented land were 5% food secure. Farmers with 5-10 acres of land were 14% food secure while those with 3-5 acres were 3% food secure and those with 1-2 acres were 2% food secure. There was a significant (P= .05) positive relationship between food security and possession of title deed, type of land ownership and land size. This implies that possession of title deed, type of land ownership and land size are some of the most significant issues affecting food security in Kilifi South Sub-county. To further enhance the understanding and improvement of food security status in Kilifi South Sub-county, possession of title deed is necessary. This will help households make long-term investments in new agricultural innovations hence improved food production and food security levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling Groundwater Behavior in Ferozpur Subcatchment of Jhelum Sub-basin of Kashmir Valley

Syed Rouhullah Ali, Junaid N. Khan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38143

Aims: The study aimed at modeling the groundwater behavior in the Ferozpur subcatchment of Jhelum sub-basin of Kashmir Valley using the GMS (MODFLOW) model.

Study Design: The study was carried out in three different simulations for three-time slices viz Baseline (1985-2015), Mid-century (2030-2059) and End-century (2070-2099).

Place and Duration of Study: Division of Agricultural Engineering, SKUAST-K, Shalimar between August 2015 and July 2016.

Methodology: The Subcatchment was first delineated and then various physiographic maps were prepared in ArcMAP 10.2 using LISS III image of the Kashmir valley. The delineated map was the input to the GMS (MODFLOW) 10.2 for digitizing the area. The various global, optional packages and layer property of the study area were collected as raw data from different Government organizations and some of the packages were computed. Three different simulations were carried out after giving all the inputs as packages to GMS for different time slices keeping all the inputs same except recharge from precipitation.

Results: The groundwater behaviour for different time slices was analyzed and flow budget was computed on the basis of precipitation conditions. As a consequence of increased precipitation, average annual groundwater recharge from all sources and sinks would increase by 7712.45 m3/year in Mid-Century (MC) (2030-2059) and 373847.6 m3/year in End-Century (EC) (2070-2099) and the average groundwater levels would rise by 0.9 mbgl (metres below ground level) in MC and 1 mbgl (metres below ground level) in EC, compared to baseline (1985-2015).

Conclusion: The groundwater behaviour and prediction for 21st century indicated an increasing trend of average annual groundwater recharge from all sources and sinks. Average groundwater levels would rise in MC and EC when compared with baseline. Water table is rising up due to increase in groundwater recharge both in MC and EC compared to baseline time slice and it would lead to waterlogging problems in future and also there are chances of floods in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating the Effect of Load-shedding on Outage Rate in a Low Voltage Network

B. O. Olajiga, P. K. Olulope, A. O. Melodi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/37201

It has been observed that Low Voltage (LV) network in Ado-Ekiti have high outage frequencies and durations. There have been incessant power outages, voltage drop and rise during peak and off–peak periods on the LV network. These are the major electricity supply challenges being experienced in the low voltage distribution networks. An investigation to the causes of the outages became necessary to determine measures to increase supply availability on the LV network. In this work, causes of LV network faults, interruptions and outages were investigated and analyzed using quantitative statistical method. In the course of the investigation, it was discovered that the average rate of outage/fault occurrence in the LV network when considered with load-shedding ranges from 0.012 to 0.039 events/hour, that is from 2-7outage event/week at an average of 5outages per transformer per week of operation while the rate without load-shedding ranges from 0.0065 to 0.021 events/hour. Prominent among the categories of outages analyzed are “no supply’’ (46.7%) and “low voltage” (40.8%). System reliability was also measured using customer and load-oriented indices as the assessment tool.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity and Soil Fertility Status of Mango-Based Agroforestry System in Red and Laterite Zone of West Bengal

Suren Murmu, Korla Aditya Chowdary, Debjit Roy, Bikas Chandra Patra, Pratap Kumar Dhara

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38285

Aim: To find out suitable mango based agroforestry system.

Design: Randomized block design.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiment was conducted during 2015 and 2016 at Regional Research Station, Red and Laterite Zone, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Jhargram, West Bengal, India.

Methodology: The experiment involves fruit tree mango and tree species lamboo and three arable crops viz. pigeon pea, maize and lady’s finger. The fruit plant was planted at a spacing of 10m × 10 m (100 plants ha-1) and lamboo were plated within the two fruit plants (300 treeha-1).

Results: Yield of mango (450 kg ha-1) and lamboo (1.96 m3 ha-1 year-1) were highest when they are intercropped with pigeon pea followed by maize at the time of end of experiment. The yield of arable crops was highest during the second year when compared to first year. Studies of the soil fertility revealed that the percentage increase in available N (36.46%), P2O5 (43.04%) and K2O (14.25%) as well as organic carbon percentage (27.78%) were observed under all mango based agroforestry system and maximum productivity with better soil health improvement was under intercropped with pigeon pea.

Conclusion: That intercropping of pigeon pea in mango based agroforestry system will improve crop yield as well as soil fertility status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Process Parameters on Oil Yield in Process Optimization for Extraction of Essential Fatty Acid from Fish Using Solvent Extraction

Navin Chandra Shahi, Sudhir Goutam, Rajeev Ranjan Thakur, Anupama Singh, Umesh Chandra Lohani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38391

Fish oil is the fraction of lipid which is extracted from fish and its waste products. It is mainly composed of SFA, MUFA and PUFAs. PUFAs like omega-3, omega-6, ALA are long chain fatty acids (PUFAs) and is rated very highly, due to its active role in the prevention of many diseases. Extraction of fish oil is carried out by leaching process where solvent extracts the desired solute and is later is separated. The extraction process is affected by leaching temperature and time which is reflected in terms of yielding of oil. Therefore, this research work was undertaken to study the effect of solvent (hexane and isopropanol) mixture along with operating temperature and time and subsequently to optimize the taken parameters on the basis of oil yield. Experiments were conducted using Box-Behnken design with three variables at three levels having equal intervals. Variables selected for the experiment were extraction temperature (70, 80, 90°C), extraction time (5, 6, 7 h) and solvent ratio (hexane: isopropanol) (1:2, 1:1, 3:2). Responses selected were oil yield (%), acid value (mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (meq/kg). The data from all the experiments were analysed using design expert software version 9.0.6.2 and functions for responses were developed using multiple regression analysis and the second-order model was fitted for each response. It was observed that time and temperature had a highly significant impact on oil yield. With the increase in the level of both parameters, yielding of oil also increased. The results obtained were optimized using RSM. Optimum levels of variables were 82.0°C, 5 h and 0.5with oil yield value 71.1%.

Open Access Review Article

The Challenges of Water Resources Availability and Development in Huai River Basin, China

Rawshan Othman Ali, Zhao Chunju, Zhou Yihon, Nadeem Nawaz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/38191

The impact of climate change was examined on the processes for water uses in domestic, production and eco-water consumption, which is central to the allocation and conservation of water resources in the ecological system and socio-economy in arid Northeast of China. The population growth requires an adequate supply of water especially during glacier ice- melt, irregular rainfall, water pollution and reservoir dwindles. Our focus was on the relationships between natural factors and social factors, as well as the effect of different scales of water use for socio-economic expansion and ecosystem water demand. It incorporates the factors of water ecology-economy and water social economy into a large intricate system with respect to the interactive relationship between socio-economic and eco-environmental systems. Again, it empirically measures changing water resource susceptibility under several climate and human activities which develop coherent water resource allocation thresholds to deliver sustainable growth of ecosystems and the socio-economic system in China's northeast region. The paper recommends measurable adjustments to present regime of water utilization in regards to impending and inevitable changes in climatic and human actions around the Huai River Basin (HRB) tributaries. In effect, outcomes of the research will assist in mitigating imminent water scarcities and shortages for both economic and social development of the study area.