Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Quantitative Characters of Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L). Moench] Genotypes

Vineeta Pandey, Arvind Kumar, Durvesh Kumar Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/37138

The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the quantitative characters of different genotypes of okra planted in plot size of 5.40 m2 with the spacing of 60 X 30 cm. Observations were recorded on plant height, number of branches per plant, stem diameter at final harvest, days to 50% flowering, number of pods per plant, weight of pods per plant, pod length, pod diameter and average pod weight. On the basis of overall performance of okra genotypes, it may be concluded that there was significant variation observed for growth and yield. Among all two genotypes namely, PB-520 and PB-236 were found better and superior for most of the characters and these genotypes may be recommended for cultivation under Tarai conditions of Uttarakhand.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Rings under Lateral Compressive Loading between Platens and Wearpads

Neha Arieckal Jacob, Sangarappillai Sivaloganathan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/37474

Aims: To investigate the buckling behavior of RHS Rings, under two kinds of transverse loading (a) between platens and (b) between wearpads, by experimentation and through Finite Element Analysis(FEA).

Place and Duration of Study: College of Engineering, UAE University, between December 2015 to June 2017.

Methodology: Experimental studies on sample RHS Rings compressed transversely between platens and wearpads were conducted. From the experimental observations, the behavior of RHS rings under both these types of loadings was hypothesized and explained theoretically. FE models were built to represent the experimental tests.

Results: Experimental and FEA results showed load-displacement curves with three distinct regions, namely the elastic region, elasto-plastic region and the post-yield region under both kinds of loading. However, the maximum load under wearpad loading was much lower when a similar RHS Ring is considered under platen loading. The behavior of RHS Rings is explained theoretically by considering the RHS Rings as an assemblage of horizontal beams and vertical columns.

Conclusion: Transverse compression of RHS Rings between platens cause each member columns and beams of the ring to be subjected to end moments and end reaction forces. Additional end moments are induced when RHS Rings are compressed between wearpads causing a reduction in the RHS Ring load carrying capacity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Incidence and Genetic Variability of Erysiphe pisi, the Causal Agent of Powdery Mildew on Peas in the Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India

S. Parthasarathy, M. Muthamilan, S. Harish, D. Alice, T. Raguchander

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/37933

Erysiphe pisi, which causes pea powdery mildew, is an obligate biotrophic pathogen that can easily adapt to its host plant. Understanding the natural incidence and genetic variations of the pathogen is essential for disease control and for breeding resistant variety to pea powdery mildew. The incidence was studied in different locations of the Nilgiris district, and the disease recorded from 32.61 to 45.55 and 14.08 to 20.84 per cent in leaves and pods, respectively. A total of 10 isolates of E. pisi were obtained from the diseased samples to study the genetic variability if any, among them using internal transcribed spacer region amplification and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs). PCR amplification of total genomic DNA with ISSR primers generated unique banding patterns depending upon primers and isolates. Twelve oligonucleotide primers were selected for the ISSR assays, which resulted in 742 bands for ten isolates of E. pisi. The number of bands obtained was entered into a PRIMER 7 to understand genetic relationship and Bray-Curtis coefficient for hierarchical cluster analysis. The results showed that the variability among the pathogen isolates was moderate. The above ten isolates were grouped into two major clusters and one single cluster had an average Polymorphic Information Content value (PIC) of 0.883 and Effective Multiplication Ratio (EMR) of 90. Hence, it is inferred that the E. pisi infecting peas in the Nilgiris consists of a single clonal lineage with a moderate level of genetic diversification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Rainfall and Temperature on the Yield of Major Crops in Gujarat State of India: A Panel Data Analysis (1980-2011)

Ritambhara Singh, Ganga Devi, D. J. Parmar, Snehal Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/37071

Fixed effects panel data approach for multiple year was used to analyse the impact of rainfall and temperature on the yield of major crops in the Western Indian State of Gujarat. During the period of study, the maximum temperature increased by 1.54°C in Saurashtra, while the minimum temperature increased by 5.41°C in Middle Gujarat. Rainfall increased by 401.77 mm in Saursahtra The results of regression of yield on weather and non-weather variables revealed that rainfall had a positive effect on most crops, while temperature had a negative impact confirming that high temperatures could be detrimental to food security in long run. Rice was found most hit of all crops, due to rise in temperature. Pearl Millet was the only crop that showed resistance to high temperature, due to its stress tolerant ability. Irrigation was found significant for Cotton, Wheat and Pearl Millet showing the importance of irrigation in these crops. Pearl Millet may be looked upon as a crop of future. As the consumption of rice is high, attention must be given to the crop. On the other hand, consumption of pearl millet must be promoted in diets and more area must be brought under the crop. Assured irrigation in cotton, wheat and pearl millet is necessary to harvest better yield. More area must be brought under irrigation in these crops. Furthermore, innovative technologies in agriculture must be promoted to face the challenges rising out of the changing weather parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Development of Power Operated Rotary Weeder for Rice

Kipoo Kiran Singh Mahilang, Swapnil Choudhary, V. M. Victor, Naresh ., Khilendra Kumar Sonboier

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/37844

Weeds  are  serious  problem  in  all  crops  but  they  are  even  more  so  in  “kharif” crops. For weed problem  several  study  and  research  work  has  carried  out  for  its  effective  control  and  measure  by  various  cultural,  chemical  and  mechanical method. The present study on design and development of power operated rotary  weeder for mechanical control of weeds in rice includes the  designing and fabrication of engine operated  mechanical  weeder  considering  the  optimum  shape,  size  and  location  of weeding  tools/cutting  blade. The weeder was provided with a 1.30 kW petrol start-kerosene run engine as prime mower. The power is transmitted from engine to ground wheel or traction wheel and to cutting unit was operated by means of belt and pulley. For cutting unit 3 hubs each containing 2 standard L – shaped blades were fitted on rotary shaft. Two ground wheels were provided made up of two different diameter rings to make the operation smooth and prevent jerks. In addition to the traction wheels, a rear gauge wheel was provided for the depth adjustment of cutting unit. After fabrication, the power weeder was tested under field condition. It was found that the power weeder has field capacity of 0.14 ha/h with 91% weeding efficiency and 60% field efficiency. The operational cost was found to be Rs 808.42 per ha.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integration of Agro-waste in Fibrous form in DIY Composites for Prospective Design Applications

Carlo Santulli, Maria Francesca Zerani, Agnese Petronella, Michela Pelagatti, Matteo Marcucci

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/37280

Different forms of waste from food production chain have been integrated into self-produced (DIY) matrices, based on starch or flour systems, to form biocomposites suitable for the prototyping of small design objects. The idea is to investigate the production of items with expressive and functional value, so that the waste materials, no longer suitable for nutrition purposes, can be “upcycled” into something that can have a “bond” with the user, therefore being durable. In particular, some examples are reported, which are related to waste with different “structural” nature, such as carrot peel, nutshells and orange skins. In the absence of significant literature on this particular use of these waste materials in DIY matrices, this is to be intended as a preliminary study. The possible application of the materials, which will need in the future full mechanical and thermal characterization, is in the meantime discussed and some design objects are proposed. Moreover, ways to prevent the formation of mould and therefore extending the use life on the material are also suggested, in the understanding that the use of waste would require coming to an application in a material intended not for “single use” purpose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Investigation, in vitro Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Evaluation of Leaf Extracts of Solanum erianthum

T. T. Alawode, L. Lajide, B. J. Owolabi, M. T. Olaleye, O. B. Ilesanmi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/37389

Aims: Solanum erianthum has been used in the treatment of various diseases by traditional medical practitioners in south-western Nigeria. The leaf extracts of the plant have been shown to possess antimicrobial activities. However, very little exists in literature on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the plant. This study examines leaf extracts of Solanum erianthum for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria between September 2015 and January 2017.

Methodology: Leaf extracts were subjected to successive extraction using hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. The extracts were screened for the presence of phytochemicals using standard procedures. The DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the extracts. The DPPH scavenging properties of the extracts were assessed by comparing their IC50 values with that of the standard (Ascorbic acid). The ferric reducing properties of the extracts were determined as the concentration that gave a ferric reducing ability equivalent to that of ascorbic acid. The total phenolic content of the extracts was measured as milligram Gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract (mg GAE/g). The membrane stabilizing properties of the extracts were determined and used as a measure of their in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. The anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts were compared with that of the standard drug (Indomethacin).

Results: Phytochemical screening showed that the extracts contain flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, phlobatannins, sterols and carbohydrates. In the DPPH assay, the extracts had IC50 values ranging between 0.379 and 2.025 compared to the ascorbic acid with IC50 value of 0.017. The ferric reducing properties of the extracts ranged between 1.187 and 6.743 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g of sample. The methanol extract showed the highest DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant properties. The phenolic contents of the extracts ranged between 3.039 and 4.196 mg GAE/g sample. In the in vitro anti-inflammatory assay, the ethylacetate extract, showed a membrane stabilizing property higher than that of Indomethacin at 0.2 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml. The anti-inflammatory activities of the hexane and methanol extracts are lesser than that of Indomethacin at all the test concentrations.

Conclusion: The results showed that the leaf extracts of Solanum erianthum possess a broad range of medicinal properties. This could justify the use of the plant in the treatment of various diseases by traditional medical practitioners in Southwestern Nigeria.