Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling for Collecting Kinetic and Microbial Population to Study Bio-P Elimination

Aamr Alalewi, Shouwen Chen

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36137

A SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) was used to study the kinetics of the processes involved in the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) from wastewater. In addition to the  batchwise operated reactor, two types of  continuous plants, an A2/O (Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic) system and a UCT (University of Cape Town) system, have been operated to cultivate phosphorus removing sludge. Growth of phosphorus accumulating organisms has been established.  Concentration  profiles  indicate  the possibility  for  complete  phosphorus  removal  during  the  aerobic  period.  Kinetic models have been calibrated for anaerobic phosphate release and aerobic phosphate uptake. The models have been validated using experimental data from the different plants. The bacterial population of both the A2/O and the SBR remained stable over the period tested. However, the majority of the organisms isolated from the A2/O belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae, while the population of the SBR system was different. Representatives of Acinetobacter, regarded as a possible causal agent for biological phosphate removal, were only occasionally present in the sludge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of HACCP Safety System and Good Manufacturing Practices in a Multi-product Soft Drink Bottling Plant

Ogueri Nwaiwu, Vincent Ifeanyi Ibekwe

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/37310

Aims: To perform an evaluation of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) implementation and good manufacturing practices (GMP) in a multi-product soft drink company in Nigeria.

Study Design: Semi experimental study combined with survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out in December 2015 in a bottling facility in south-east Nigeria.

Methodology: HACCP audit and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were performed and scored after responses to specific questionnaires were obtained from plant staff. The GMP compliance (%) for corrective action taken on operational audit issues was determined by scoring the number of issues corrected over the total advised. Microbial quality of products was verified using membrane filtration and fill content was established with a 500 mL measuring cylinder. The beverage brix (%) was determined with a density meter and CO2 content (g/L) was ascertained using a CO2 tester according to manufacturer’s instructions. Traceability was performed by using the date code stamped on the finished bottled products as a reference point.

Results: The average percentage conformity was 90% for HACCP implementation and 74% for functioning of HACCP in practice. Application of FMEA to the audit showed that minor risks existed in HACCP implementation whereas moderate risks were found in functioning of HACCP in practice.  Evaluation of GMP compliance showed that raw materials and intermediate products were traceable and a review of previous audits which covered HACCP pre-requisite programs showed 90-100% compliance with corrective action required. Checks on microbial quality, brix, fill content and carbonation showed results that were within prescribed limits which indicated that safe products were manufactured.

Conclusion: The seven principles and 12 implementation steps of the HACCP system were firmly established and GMP was effective. However, the maintenance of the HACCP structure during operations requires improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Removal Evaluation Using the ASM2d Model

Aamr Alalewi, Shouwen Chen

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36138

Models can play an important role in the evaluation of upgrading strategies for biological nutrient removal. In this paper the calibration of ASM2d to a pilot plant with an intermittent aerobic/anoxic reactor is discussed. The performed modeling study was part of a retrofit study. An existing plant, removing only COD and where phosphorus was chemical precipitated, had to be upgraded towards full biological nutrient removal. Emphasis was put on the practical aspects of calibrating ASM no 2d efficiently. The calibration procedure was based on an 'expert approach' rather than on a system engineering approach. With only changing three parameters (reduction factors, analysis rates for PAOs and the decay rate for autotrophs), the model proved well capable of describing the performance of the pilot plant. A second set of parameter adjustments was tested. Good results were obtained as well, but more parameters had to be changed. New findings are that oxygen entering the treatment plant via the influent has an important influence on the simulated phosphate effluent concentrations. Further, reactions occurring in the final clarifier effect the effluent concentrations. This is indicated by the necessity to introduce and assign a virtual volume to the settler where reaction can occur. Both factors are extremely important to focus attention to because they are different between a pilot plant and a full scale system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Potential Evapotranspiration Models and Establishment of Potential Evapotranspiration Curves for Temperate Kashmir Valley

Latief Ahmad, Sabah Parvaze, S. S. Mahdi, B. S. Dekhle, Saqib Parvaze, Maliqa Majid, Fozia Shafiq Wani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36356

Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a crucial indicator of hydrologic regime of a region. It is an important variable in the estimation of actual evapotranspiration (AET) in hydrological and ecosystem modeling. Evapotranspiration affects the amount of runoff and thus the irrigation water requirements of crops as well as water resources management. The present study has been carried out to compare the commonly used PET methods for the Shalimar weather station in district Srinagar of Kashmir Valley. FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation is a standard method in estimating the PET. Other methods of PET estimation namely Modified-Penman, Hargreaves, Turc, Blaney Criddle, Christiansen, and Open Pan were compared with reference to Penman-Monteith method. Modified-Penman method was most correlated with the FAO-56 PM method with the coefficient of determination (R2) as high as 0.99. Modified-Penman method was followed by Hargreaves method with R2 of 0.98. Hargreaves method was then used to establish PET curves for other districts of Kashmir valley namely, Anantnag, Budgam, Baramulla, Kulgam, Kupwara and Pulwama where only data on air temperature is available. The highest annual PET was obtained for District Budgam being 951 mm and the least was obtained for district Baramulla being 759 mm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fermentation on the Nutritional, Anti- Nutritional and Functional Properties of Horse Eye Beans (Mucuna urens) Flour

F. A. Bello, V. T. Udo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/37311

Aims: To evaluate proximate, mineral, anti-nutrient and functional properties of unfermented and fermented horse eye bean (Mucuna urens) flour.

Study Design: Single factor (one way).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria between August 2016 to October 2016.

Methodology: The seeds were sorted, washed, cracked open, dehulled and divided into four groups. The first portion was milled and sieved to get fine flour which served as control (UMUA). The second, third and fourth portions were fermented for 24, 48 and 72 h and coded as FMUB, FMUC and FMUD, respectively. The fermented beans were drained, dehulled, cubed into smaller sizes oven dried, milled and sieved to get fine flour. The flours obtained were analysed using standard analytical methods.

Results: The result obtained from proximate composition showed that fermentation significantly (p˂0.05) increased the crude protein, crude fat and ash content of the samples when compared with the unfermented sample (control). However, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents were significantly decreased as fermentation period increased. The selected minerals analysed (i.e. iron and phosphorus) exhibited a significant (р<0.05) increase in fermented flour samples except magnesium, potassium and sodium content that showed a significant decrease. More so, fermentation showed a significant decrease in all the anti-nutrients analysed especially phytate which usually limits the bioavailability of minerals and essential trace elements like iron which strengthens the immune system. Functional properties of fermented samples showed significant decreased in bulk density, with significant (р<0.05) increase in water and oil absorption capacity as well as gelation temperature.

Conclusion: Fermentation improves the nutrient composition, reduces anti-nutritional composition of horse eye beans thereby increasing its safety for human consumption and enhanced its functionalities in food formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Field Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Formulations on Production Performance of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Kufri Sindhuri

Niraj Kumar, Anand K. Singh, Durga Prasad Moharana, Amrita Kumari, Anand Kumar, Mukul K. Gupta, Harit Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36814

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbiosis has notable impact on sustainable growth and development of various plants as they provide assistance to acclimatize with the biotic and abiotic conditions. In this concern, a field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2015-16 at Vegetable Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi in order to evaluate the effect of various mycorrhizal products at different concentrations on growth and yield parameters of potato. The field experiment consisted of 13 treatments involving different mycorrhizal products including Untreated (Control). The treatment T11 - NZBBA9050 @ 250 g/ha showed very promising result for almost all the characters under investigation viz., plant stand count at 30 DAP (92%), plant stand count at 60 DAP (90%), Plant height at 30 DAP (68.93 cm), Plant height at 60 DAP (112.00 cm), root length (32.63 cm), number of haulms/plant (5.33), number of tubers/plant (16.87), weight of tubers/plant (524.00 g), length of tuber (6.28 cm), width of tuber (4.80 cm), tubers yield/plot (24.67 kg) and tuber yield (27411.11 kg/ha) as compared to other treatments followed by T8 - NZBBA9049 @ 250 g/ha, T2 - Soil drench with Bolt SP @ 250 g/ha and T5 - NZBBA9048 @ 250 g/ha in potato. At much higher concentration, the mycorrhizal products imposed adverse effect on all the growth and yield parameters. As a conclusion, it can be stated that mycorrhiza can perform the role of a remarkable supplement for increasing growth and yield of potato along with commonly used fertilizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risks Associated with Radio-frequency Radiation Exposure at Close Proximities to Mobile Phone Base Stations in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

U. Nte Felix, O. Avwiri Gregory, E. Esi Oghenevovwero, Akpata Chinelo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/33104

This paper evaluates risks associated with Radio-frequency radiation exposure at close proximities to Mobile Phone Base Stations in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. It involved the use of RF field strength meter, a portable meter with a GPS. Clusters of telecommunication base stations in Port Harcourt were selected for this study, which are located in Rumuokoro, Mile 3, Garrison and Mile 1. The readings were taken from 5 m to 400 m from the telecommunication base stations (masts) in the north, south, east and west directions at about 1.0 m above the ground. The power density obtained ranged between 0.121 µW/cm2 and 10.847121 µW/cm2. The highest total power density and specific absorption rate were recorded at mile 1 location as 10.847 µW/cm2 and 3,639.17 µW/kg respectively. These results are below the standards stipulated by the International commission on non-ionizing radiation which is adopted by the Nigeria Communication Commission (NCC). The recommended permissible limits guidelines for safe frequencies between 400 and 2000 MHz, for occupational exposure is 22.5 W/m2, and general public is 4.5 W/m2 for 900 MHz. This means that at a distance of 5 m to 400 m away from the mast is safe according to these recommend permissible limit though there could be a long term effect on those residing at such distance permanently.