Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Effect of Cassava Transformation Initiative on Cassava Tubers Availability to Small-Scale Cassava Processing Enterprises in Southwest Nigeria

O. T. Okhankhuele, Steven Van Passel, Z. O. Opafunso, O. O. Akinrinola, O. J. Ojo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36607

This study assessed the effect of the Cassava Transformation Initiative (CTI) on cassava tubers’ availability in Small-scale Cassava Processing Enterprises (SSCPEs) in Southwest Nigeria. The study took place from April to December 2016.The paper examined the availability of cassava tubers to the SSCPEs before and after the initiative. The paper used survey design, multi-stage sampling technique - purposive sampling and proportionate stratified sampling techniques to select respondents. Data were collected from 251 respondents (beneficiaries of the initiative). The respondents comprised 86% of 292 SSCPEs that questionnaires were retrieved from. The questionnaires were structured. Data were analyzed, using descriptive statistic - percentage, mean score, charts, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test hypothesis. The study revealed that, 74.1% of the respondents were female, while 25.9% were male, 71.7% fell into the age group, 40 to 59 years, 35% were not educated, and 31.9% had Primary School Certificate. The study also disclosed that, the CTI assisted in improving the availability of cassava tubers to the SSCPEs in the study area. The paper therefore recommend that policy makers, enhance cassava tubers’ availability, but also reduce the distance traveled by the SSCPEs to purchase cassava tubers, which will increase the SSCPEs’ productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of the Inter Tropical Front and Rainy Season Onset in Benin

Julien Djossou, Aristide B. Akpo, Jules D. Afféwé, Venance H. E. Donnou, Catherine Liousse, Jean-François Léon, Fidèle G. Nonfodji, Cossi N. Awanou

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36832

Rainfall onset in Benin is one of the major problems that the farmers face. This climatic factor is of a great importance for the productivity in Benin.

In this work, based on two criteria, we elaborated a new criterion, that allows us to determine with more precision, the rainy season onset in five synoptic stations in Benin: Cotonou, Bohicon, Savè, Parakou and Kandi. Then, we studied the InterTropical Front (ITF) position compared to each station at the onset date.

We used in this study, the daily rainfall data provided by the Agency for the Safety of air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA) for (1987-2016) years and the dekadal (10-day) ITF position data produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for (1989-2016) years.

Using these daily rain of the five stations and the ITF data, we calculated, the dekadal, monthly and annual rain amount, then we established a relation between the ITF position and the precipitation for each station.

Results obtained show that Cotonou have two rainy seasons. The long rainy season begins on April 7th and short season on September 11th. Bohicon, Savè, Parakou and Kandi know one rainy season that starts on April 8th, April 14th, April 29th and May 17th, respectively. Compared to these dates, the ITF islocated 679.04 km north to Cotonou, 604.46 km north to Bohicon, 597.78 km north to Savè, 573.29 km north to Parakou, and 475.33 km north to Kandi. The good correlation is obtained between the ITF position and the monthly precipitations for Parakou and Kandi regions. The correlation are good enough in Bohicon, Savè and Cotonou regions during the monsoon period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Perceived by the Pastoralists of Hilly Regions of Jammu and Kashmir in the Utilization of Indigenous Technical Knowledge

Adil Masood Khateeb, S. A. Khandi, M. S. Bhadwal, Muneer Ahmed Dar, Sajad Ahmed Wani, Fahad Shahjar, Farzana Choudhary

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36740

This article provides a systematic analysis of the challenges perceived by pastoralists of hilly regions of Jammu and Kashmir in the utilization of Indigenous technical knowledge. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect primary data from 120 ITK users. The findings indicated that practitioners faced various challenges in managing their indigenous knowledge. Inability to identify the right plant, no scientific validation, modification and optimization of indigenous technical knowledge, perception about indigenous technical knowledge that it is out dated,  inconvenient and time consuming nature of indigenous technical knowledge were most serious constraints perceived by the indigenous technical knowledge practitioners.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dehulling and Splitting on Nutritional, Organoleptic Quality, and Storage Stability of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L). Walp)

Shweta Suri, Anuradha Dutta, Y. V. Singh, R. S. Raghuvanshi, Sanjeev Agrawal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36963

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the changes that occur in the nutritional, organoleptic and storage stability of the cowpea variety Pant Lobia-5 in order to identify the best processing technique that may be taken up for commercialization.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, between July, 2016-June 2017.

Methodology: The cowpea variety 'Pant lobia-5' was subjected to two treatments viz Dehulling and Splitting in mini dal mill. For the purpose of analysis, the three forms of Cowpea were powdered and analyzed for proximate principals, mineral composition (Calcium, Iron, zinc, and magnesium), amino acid profile (Methionine, Lysine and tryptophan), dietary fibre content and antioxidant activity (total flavonoids, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity). ‘Dal’ the common Indian pulse item was prepared from the three forms of cowpea and analyzed for sensory qualities. Storage stability of the three forms of the cowpea was also evaluated. In order to identify differences in the three forms of pulses, results were statistically analyzed through One way ANOVA (Analysis of variance technique).

Results: The results revealed that whole cowpea seeds of Pant lobia-5 were nutritionally superior to the processed forms. However among the two processed forms, dehulled seeds had the highest protein content, specifically the amino acid tryptophan. Organoleptically too, dehulled seeds were found to be superior to the split and whole seeds. Storage studies showed that all forms of cowpea seeds can be stored safely up-to six months in air tight plastic containers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Indigenous Technical Knowledge Practices Followed by Pastoralists for the Treatment of Livestock Diseases in Hills of Jammu & Kashmir State in India

Adil Masood Khateeb, S. A. Khandi, M. S. Bhadwal, Muneer Ahmed Dar, Sajad Ahmed Wani, R. A. Bafanda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36739

The study was conducted in the hilly regions of Jammu and Kashmir State for documentation of unique Indigenous technical knowledge practices used for the treatment of various animal diseases. The information presented here is being collected from the indigenous technical knowledge practitioners of district Doda of Jammu and Kashmir. 120 ethno-veterinary practitioners of various age groups were interviewed during the study. Thirty six indigenous technical knowledge practices were identified and documented during the study. The data was collected with the help of a structured interview schedule through personal interview technique. In this paper 22 species of plants used for the treatment of 14 different ailments has been reported. The documented practices were for the treatment of maggot infestation, ectoparasites and endoparasites, retention of placenta, anestrus, mastitis, milk fever, foot and mouth disease, black quarter, poisoning, snake bite and for increasing milk production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Newly Introduced Exotic Plum Cultivars for Character Association and Genetic Improvement

A. S. Sundouri, S. K. Verma, M. K. Sharma, Amit Kumar, Nowsheen Nazir, Aroosa Khalil

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36796

Exotic plum cultivars have been introduced at Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar in order to broaden the spectrum of existing germplasm and recommendation of better cultivars for their commercial cultivation. The present study consisted of fourteen different plum cultivars of uniform age replicated thrice in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The data recorded revealed that the bud swell and tight cluster stage was first in cultivar Beauty on 30th March and 2nd April, respectively. The early date of first flower bloom was observed in cultivars Frontier, Red Beaut, Tarrol, Au-Rosa, Krassivica Plum and Beauty (7th April), while the date of full bloom (10th April), first petal fall (12th April) and complete petal fall (17th April) was reported late in cultivar Beauty. Maximum duration of flowering (15 days) was recorded in cultivars Frontier and Au-Rosa whereas minimum duration of flowering (9 days) was registered in cultivar Red Plum. Highest number of flower per branch was recorded in cultivar Au-Rosa (104.83) whereas, highest percentage of fruit set was recorded in cultivar Krassivica Plum (52.85%). Highest percentage of fruit drop was observed in cultivar Frontier (44.21%). Cultivar Red Plum matured earliest among all the cultivars whereas cultivar Grand Duke matured late. Maximum fruit yield (52.54 kg/tree) was registered in cultivar Frontier while minimum (18.07 kg/tree) was recorded in cultivar Kubio Plum. The study conclude on the note that cultivars “Frontier”, “Au- Rosa” and “Grand Duke” were of vital importance in relation to their maturity and yield and recommended for used in breeding programme for further improvement of plum.

Open Access Original Research Article

X-Ray Diffraction Characterization of Sedimentary Rocks in Demsa Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

B. L. Penuel, O. N. Maitera, M. E. Khan, Y. Ezekiel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/23053

This work involves the qualitative analysis and mineral (elemental) composition of rock samples in six sites (locations) in Adamawa State (Kenya) using several physical properties including colour, streak, hardness, specific gravity, luster, magnetism, taste and reactions to Hydrochloric acid (HCl). X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy was used in the identification of minerals in rock samples including:calcite, quartz, rutile, augite, srebrodolskite, sanidine and plagioclase. The samples were analyzed using an Emission-Transmission spinner stage with the theta-theta settings. Two theta starting positions were 0.0001 ending at 75,000, with a two steps 0.026 at 3.57 seconds per step. The tube current was 40mA and a generator voltage of 45V untilizing a copper anode. Qualitative analysis indicated the presence of carbonate ions in all the rock samples. Calcite was found to be predominant in four study locations. Therefore the possibility to harness calcite for indigenous economic development is possible.