Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Character Association in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genotypes for Yield and Yield Related Traits

Sunil ., K. D. Sehrawat, Mujahid Khan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35186

One hundred and seventy barley germplasm lines (101 two rowed and 69 six rowed) and three standard checks (BH393 six rowed, BH946 six rowed and BH885 two rowed) were evaluated for ten quantitative traits using augmented block design consisting of 10 complete blocks during rabi season of 2014-2015 at Wheat and Barley section research farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana. Grain yield per plant exhibited strong positive association with biological yield/plant, number of grains/spike, number of tillers/plant and 1000 seed weight for both the two rowed as well as six rowed barley genotypes. Path coefficient analysis revealed that all the characters had direct and positive association with grain yield/plant except peduncle extrusion length which had negative direct effect in case of two rowed barley. Biological yield/plant, harvest index, number of tillers/plant, days to 75% flowering and peduncle extrusion length had positive direct effects on grain yield/plant for the six rowed barley. This suggested that selection will be quite efficient in enhancing yield and its contributing traits in context of germplasm evaluated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of the Stage of Ripening on the Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Functional Properties of Flours Made from Whole Plantain Fruit

U. E. Inyang, S. E. Nkop, E. B. Umoh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36712

Background and Aim: Plantain processing generates large quantities of peel that is discarded despite its nutritional and bioactive constituents. The aim of the study was to produce whole plantain flour at unripe, semi-ripe and fully ripe stages and compare the nutrients, anti-nutrients and functional properties of the flours.

Study Design: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out.

Place and Duration: Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, from September 2016 to March 2017.

Methodology: Freshly harvested unripe plantains were shared into three portions. Portion 1 was processed into whole plantain flour immediately. Portions 2 and 3 were ripened naturally and processed into flours at semi-ripe and fully ripe stages, respectively. For flour production, unpeeled plantains were washed, steam blanched (100°C for 10 min), cooled, sliced, oven dried (60°C), milled and sieved to obtain the flour used for analysis.

Results: The results revealed that all the parameters analyzed varied with ripening stages. Protein, carbohydrate, Na, and Fe in the flours decreased from 6.39%, 86.73%, 28.14mg/100g, and 2.45 mg/100 g at unripe stage to 5.98%, 85.69%, 27.96 mg/100 g and 2.38 mg/100 g at fully ripe stage. Conversely, fat, ash, crude fibre, K, Ca, Mg and Zn increased from 0.70%, 2.57%, 3.61%, 476.09 mg/100 g, 148.52 mg/100 g, 121.32 mg/100 g and 3.60 mg/100 g in unripe plantain flour to 1.16%, 3.43%, 3.74%, 481.21 mg/100 g, 149.58 mg/100 g, 124.11 mg/100 g and 3.66 mg/100 g, respectively in fully ripe flour. All the anti-nutrients decreased significantly (P = .05) with ripening. Bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities as well as swelling index decreased while foaming capacity increased with stages of ripening.

Conclusion: Production of flours of high nutrients and low anti-nutrients from unpeeled plantain at various stages of ripening would ensure efficient utilization of plantain fruit with no waste generation and should be exploited.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil and Plant Nutrient Status as Modified by Different Types of Mulching in Cauliflower

Vijay Kumar, J. C. Sharma, Mukesh Kumar, Santosh Kumar Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36644

Mulching is a surface management practice that improves soil environment. A field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil in mid hills of Himachal Pradesh, India to evaluate the effect of different types of mulch on plant available nutrients and total nutrient contents in cauliflower crop. In two years (2010 & 2011) of experiment four types of mulching material i.e., black plastic mulch (BPM), grass mulch (GM), pine needle mulch (PNM) and no-mulch (NM) were used in RBD with three replications. After completion of two years of experiment the practice of mulching significantly increased the soil organic carbon (SOC) as well as available nutrients (N, P, K, Ca & SO42--S) as compared to NM. However, the higher content of SOC was found in organic mulching (GM & PNM) and the highest content of available nutrients was observed in BPM followed by PNM, GM and NM. Concentration of N, K and Ca nutrient in plant was significantly influenced by mulching treatments while the highest concentration of nutrients was estimated in BPN followed by PNM, GM and NM. Thus, practice of mulching could be the better option for improving the nutrient status in soil as well as plant for improvement of quality and quantity of cauliflower crop in mid hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Subsurface Drainage System with Reference to Water Table Response in Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu, India

M. Punitha, R. Rajendran

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36558

Water logging and subsequent soil salinity are the two major effects of irrigated   agricultural lands. Low lying areas are susceptible to water logging. Subsurface drainage is an effective control measure for salinity removal and waterlogging. Subsurface drainage pipes were installed in 0.95 hectare area respectively in Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai. Drain pipes with different spacing of 7.5, 10 and 12.5 m with drain depth of 60 and 80 cm having drain diameter of 63 and 75 mm were installed by using two drain lateral lengths of 15 and 20 m were installed to combat the problem of water logging. Analysis of data collected on discharge from individual pipe drains revealed that the maximum. The maximum 0.4 m reduction of groundwater table during the crop period of the experiment achieved in 7.5 m drain spacing whereas, it was minimum in 10 cm and 12.5 m drain spacing. Spacing of 7.5 m and depth of 80 cm was recommended to achieve better performance in study area to alleviate waterlogged condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Incomplete Pollination on the Physical Quality Attributes of Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cv. Red Delicious

Ejaz Ahmad Parray, Munib Ur Rehman, Syed Sami Ullah, Mohammed Touseef Ali, Tariq A. Bhat, Ishfaq Rafiq, Ghulam Hassan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36682

An investigation was carried out at Commercial orchard, Shalimar (Jammu & Kashmir) during 2016-17 to find out the effect of different stigma excision levels (incomplete pollination) on the physical characteristics of Apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cv. Red Delicious. The six treatments were pinching off 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 styles below the stigma from each of forty flowers per side. The remaining stigmata were hand-pollinated on the second day following treatment. Flowers were pollinated with Golden Delicious pollens. Only flowers with five stigmata were used and each flower was considered an experimental unit. The results revealed that the maximum fruit length (7.09 cm), fruit diameter (7.34 cm), shape index (0.96), fruit weight (203.21g), fruit firmness (8.15 kg/cm2), seed number (8.57), were recorded in fruits from flowers with no stigma pinched. Therefore, indicating that improved seed set (proper pollination) provides a relatively inexpensive and efficient practice to improve the physical quality attributes of apple fruit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drainage Investigations for the Design of Water Table Management Systems in AEC&RI, Kumulur, Trichy District, Tamil Nadu

A. Selvaperumal, I. Muthuchamy, S. Vallalkannan, H. V. Hemakumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36888

A water table management system synonymously referred as Controlled Drainage and Subirrigation system or controlled and Reversible Drainage System was designed and executed in Eastern Farm A Block, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute Kumulur. This research article reports the pre-drainage investigations carried out in the study area for arriving at certain important design parameters for the design of water table management system for both drainage and subirrigation modes separately. Steady state hooghoudt equation was used for the design of drainage spacing and similarly the procedure followed by Doty at North Carolina University using Moody Equation and convergence analysis was used for subirrigation mode spacing. The spacing arrived for drainage mode was 15 m to that of subirrigation was 10 m respectively. Considering the feasibility of operation of both subsurface drainage and subirrigation, the spacing of 15 m could be recommended for water table management system of Eastern Farm A Block in AEC &RI kumulur, Tamil Nadu.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land-Use/ Land-Cover Change Detection and Analysis in Aglar Watershed, Uttarakhand

Aamir Ishaq Shah, Sumit Sen, Mehraj U. Din Dar, Vikram Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36019

Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) change has a significant impact on watershed processes such as hydrology, soil erosion, carbon sequestration, etc. While analyzing the interactions of various natural and human activities and assessing their impacts, the Land-Use/ Land-Cover change plays an important role. It forms an important component whose interaction with environment and humans need to be assessed.  Although LULC change is a result of both natural and human activities, they are often linked to human activities. Natural activities for e.g. flash floods, earthquake, rain triggered landslides, etc., play an important role in changing the LULC of an area andmay also result in drastic changes in watershed characteristics. One major example of this kind is the extreme rainfall events which occurred in June 2013. After these events, there are regions (or watersheds) of Uttarakhand, where significant agricultural land got converted to bare land. Due to advancement in the field of Remote Sensing and GIS techniques with the use of high-resolution satellite imagery, it has become possible to evaluate before and after scenarios of a landscape. The present study aims at detecting the Land-Use/ Land-Cover change from the year 1993 to 2015 and analysis of possible causes of change using multispectral satellite imagery from Landsat ETM+, Landsat Thematic mapper, and SRTM DEM. The LULC change analysis resultswere evaluated in relation to the geology, slope, and soils of the regionto ascertain possible factors responsible for the change.