Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Different Rice Varieties and Fertility Levels on Relative Economics and Quality of Rice under Aerobic Conditions

Sandeep Kumar, Sarabdeep Kour, Shivani Lalotra, Kartikeya Choudhary, Hari Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34118

The study was undertaken at Research Farm of Division of Agronomy, SKUAST-J, Chatha. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized complete block design with four varieties viz. PR-115, DRRH-3, PAC-837 and PR-121, as one factor and four fertility levels viz. 0:0:0, 90:45:22.5, 120:60:30 and 150:75:37.5 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, as second factor with three relications. The results revealed that among four varieties, variety PAC-837 recorded highest grain and straw yield. The quality parameters, Length: Breadth (L:B) ratio before cooking was recorded highest in PR-115 and L:B ratio after cooking was recorded highest in DRRH-3. Protein and amylose content were found higher in variety PAC-837. Rice variety PAC-837 also recorded higher net returns (Rs. 4002.28) and B:C ratio (1.24). Amongst the fertility levels, the application F4: N150P75K37.5 kg ha-1 fertility level recorded highest grain and straw yield over other fertility levels. Quality parameters viz. L:B ratio before cooking and after cooking, protein and amylose content also followed the similar trend, B:C ratio (1.52) was higher in F3: N120P60K30 kg ha-1. On the basis of quality and relative economics it may be recommended that rice variety PAC-837 found ruminative with application of F3: N120P60K30 kg ha-1 fertility level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio – Economic and Profitability Analysis of Catfish Production in Akure North Local Government of Ondo State, Nigeria

J. A. Folayan, O. F. Folayan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/14483

This study examined the Socio-economic characteristics of catfish farmers, estimated the cost and returns, and determined the profitability and ascertaining the factors that affect catfish production in Akure North Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. The work examined the various constraints militating against catfish production in the study area. The result showed that majority (75%) of the respondents were male, 77% had formal education, while 68% of the respondents stocked between 501 to 1000 units of fingerlings. The result of profitability analysis shows that an average profit of ₦8766.40 (an equivalent of 53.24 US dollar) could be realized per month and the enterprise could be adjudged as profitable. It is recommended that fish farmers be advised to form association that would enhance expansion of operation, while the government should encourage catfish production via discouragement of catfish importation into the country as well as extending credit facilities to credit worthy catfish association.

Open Access Original Research Article

Droughts and Agricultural Development in Africa: The Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Mitigation Strategy in Food Security

Josephine K. W. Ngaira, Kevin Omwayi Ngaira

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36271

Climate change indicators, particularly frequent droughts which have occurred in Africa since the Sahelian drought of 1968-1972 cause devastating effects to the agricultural sector. These effects include; crop failures, water and pasture shortage, famines, hunger and economic underdevelopment to rain fed dependent agricultural systems in Africa. Different stakeholders have proposed various strategies which focus on mitigating the negative effects caused by drought on agriculture. Some researchers have emphatically proposed the introduction of genetically modified organisms/crops (GMO) as a strategy to mitigate the negative effects of drought on food security in Africa. This research investigates whether GMOs are functional solutions to ensuring sustainable food production in arid Africa. Data for the study was collected and analyzed from; interviews with subsistence farmers in Kenya,  reports from the National Bio Safety Authority, Kenya Agricultural Livestock and Research Organization,  drought scenarios in Africa since 1968-72 and attending GMO organized workshops.  It was established that GMO crops are accepted by large scale cash crop farmers in 28 countries and banned in 38 countries worldwide. They are not accepted by small scale subsistence farmers who cultivate indigenous crops. Agricultural research should therefore, focus on alternative methods of improving the quality and yields of indigenous food crops which are cultivated by small scale farmers, instead of introducing the GMOs which promote monoculture and agricultural dependency on few selected crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Community Level Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Comparative Case Study between Selected Naga Tribes in India

Vimenuo S. Kuotsu, P. K. Pal, Deepa Roy, Sabita Mondal, Litan Das, Satarupa Modak

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35939

Aim: To assess the community level vulnerability of two dominant Naga tribes, viz. the Angami and the Ao due to climate extremes and variability.

Study Design: Exploratory research design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Mokokchung and Kohima district of Nagaland, the abode of the Ao and the Angami respectively. One community/village under each district, dominated by one of the said tribes was purposively selected. The study was conducted in the year 2013-14.

Methodology: 90 tribal households (10% of total) on proportionate random sampling basis were selected for the study. The livelihood vulnerability was assessed from exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of the community and these were assessed using the methodology advocated by IPCC (2007) and aggregated as Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI).

Results: It was seen that the relative exposure of the Ao community was 0.24 and of the Angami community was 0.42; whereas average sensitivity value of the Ao was 0.43 and that of the Angamis was 0.34. The aggregated adaptive capacity of both the communities was same (both having adaptive capacity value=0.70) which was also statistically at par at p= .05. As a result, both the Angami and the Ao were considerably vulnerable (LVI= ‒0.156 and ‒0.120 for the Angami and the Ao respectively).

Conclusion: The Angami and the Ao Naga tribes falls under subsistence level of vulnerability and any minor change in strength of exposure or sensitivity or weakness in adaptive capacity may force the community to be vulnerable.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Functional and Sensory Evaluation of Biscuits Produced from Wheat, Defatted Soybean and Coconut Flour

J. U. Obaroakpo, I. Iwanegbe, A. Ojokoh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/30836

Aims: The functional and sensory properties of biscuits produced from wheat flour, defatted soybeans and coconut flour were investigated to determine its quality and acceptability.

Study Design: The flour blends were formulated as sample A (100% wheat flour), sample B (80% wheat flour + 10% defatted soybean flour + 10% defatted coconut flour), and sample C (60% wheat flour to 20% defatted soybean flour, + 20% defatted coconut flour) respectively.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Technology, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State; for a duration of 2 months, between August to October, 2014.

Methodology: The biscuit was baked using the straight dough method described by Chuahan et al. (1992). Sensory evaluation was determined according to the methods described by Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, (1985). Physicochemical evaluation was determined by the method described by AOAC (1990).

Results: The result of the sensory analysis recorded sample C as the most acceptable in all the qualities (color, taste, texture and general acceptability). The functional properties recorded sample B as the highest in bulk density with a mean score value of 46.27, while A and C recorded 26.71 and 26.67 respectively. Sample B recorded the highest solubility value at 73.62% while sample A and B recorded 69.14% and 57.24%. Sample C recorded the highest swelling capacity [87.97%], while sample A and B recorded 65.96% and 61.18% respectively. Sample C recorded the highest water absorption capacity [14.38%] while sample A and B recorded 12.37% and 12.60% respectively.

Conclusion: This research was therefore aimed at producing quality and acceptable biscuits from wheat flour, defatted soybean flour and defatted coconut flours. The potential of coconut and defatted soybean flour in biscuit production was also determined in this research.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Integration of Technology in Teaching and Learning of Mathematics: ----- The Missing Link

Farai Chinangure, Lawrence Mapaire

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36184

This article was motivated by observations made by the researchers that most mathematics educators were shying away from using technology to teach mathematics even in well-resourced schools while learners were embracing technology and using it as a source of inquiry in their everyday lives. The paper further explores how various strategies can be put in place to motivate educators to use technology in teaching and learning of mathematics. The researchers feel that very little is being done to bolster educators’ confidence in grabbing this opportunity and help learners to benefit from availability of technology. The study adopted a mixed method research design and was informed by the social constructivist and critical theories.  Data was elicited through ten focus group discussions held in a district in the Free State province where the researchers worked as mathematics facilitators. Data from educators were analyzed thematically The study established that educators were reluctant to embrace technology to teach mathematics; while in the contrary learners were fast catching up with changes in technology in such a way that lessons were boring to most learners.  Technology (internet and digital media) was supposed to inform instruction to make lessons learner-centered, more interesting and relevant to the current needs of learners. It was observed that most male mathematics educators were more interested in attempting to use technology than their female counter parts who used it for social networking. To restore the dignity of mathematics teaching and learning, a comprehensive strategy to motivate educators not to shy away from technology was to be adopted. Among other things the study recommended training, provision of free WIFI to schools, allowing learners to bring and use their smart phones at schools and introducing incentives such as additional remuneration to motivate educators.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stress Analysis of Composite Gear Shifting Lever by Finite Element Method

Antaryami Mishra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36414

An attempt has been made in the present investigation to find out the suitability of using teakwood, and natural fibre reinforced polymer composites made by utilizing the waste like wood dust in a Tata Sumo car Gear shifting lever. Finite element method has been used to find out the various stresses responsible for failure of the lever at maximum load. Solid Modelling has been done by using CATIA software Ver.5 and stress analysis is carried out using ANSYS Ver- R14.5 finite element package. Three different types of composites of teak wood dust in 10, 15 and 20 weight percentages in epoxy matrix are examined along with pure steel and pure teak wood levers. It is observed that stresses developed are much less to the theoretical calculated values of the composites so also the data available for steel and teakwood. Further the composite with 10%  teak wood dust may be the best material out of all the composites under consideration as the equivalent stress and shear stresses responsible for failure are much less in comparison to other composites.