Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of External Mechanical Stimulus on Response of Linked Structures Made from Lightweight Metals

Prashant P. Gargh, T. S. Srivatsan, Shivakumar Sastry

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35313

A progressive increase in interest in the use of linked metal structures has become increasingly evident in the time spanning the last three decades. These structures are gaining increasing attention and use in a spectrum of performance-related applications. This has certainly necessitated the need to study their mechanical response when subject to the influence of an external mechanical stimulus.Use of the finite element approach for purpose of analyzing the deformation response of linked structures when subject to loading, both in the elastic regime and plastic regime, was chosen for purpose of analysis. Simulation of the deformation behavior and/or response of structures containing a network of thin links and thick links were carefully studied. The approach was applied to two light-weight metals.The two light-weight metals chosen were an aluminum alloy and pure copper. For various levels of loading, as fractions of the yield load of the chosen metal, the analysis was computationally conducted using the finite element method.Results were carried out to study the variation of stress with strain under conditions of plane stress. The mechanical response quantified by displacement experienced by the centroidal nodes was recorded and compared using 3-D bar graphs for the chosen five load levels. The load levels chosen represent both the elastic regime and inelastic regime of the stress versus strain response of the chosen metal. This formulation is useful for purpose of studying the mechanical response of linked metal structures under the influence of an external mechanical stimulus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling and Optimization of Laser Alloyed AISI 422 Stainless Steel Using Taguchi Approach and Response Surface Model (RSM)

O. S. Fatoba, O. S. Adesina, G. A. Farotade, A. A. Adediran

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/24512

This research paper demonstrates the application of Taguchi method and Response surface Methodology (RSM) for optimization of alloyed depth in laser alloying of AISI 422 martensitic stainless steel. The experiment was designed and carried out on the basis of standard L9 Taguchi’s orthogonal array in which three laser processing parameters such as laser power, scanning speed and powder feed rate were arranged at three levels. The processing parameters played an important role in the quality of alloyed coating produced and proper control of these processing parameters resulted in quality alloyed depth and hardness property. From the analysis of mean values of variance (ANOVA) and response surface numerical analysis, the significant laser processing parameters were indentified. The results showed that laser power and scanning speed are the most significant parameters affecting the alloyed depth of laser surface alloying (LSA), while the influence of powder feed rate is much minimal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Fungicides and Botanicals against Mango (Mangifera indica) Anthracnose

Pavitra Kumari, Rajender Singh, Rakesh Punia

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35899

Mango anthracnose disease caused severe damage to mango yield so its control is required. For this purpose the current investigation was carried out under in vitro and under field conditions during, 2016 at CCS, HAU, Hisar. The experiment was carried out through poison food technique under in vitro and through foliar spray under field conditions. Five fungicides along with three botanicals were evaluated in vitro against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of anthracnose disease of mango. Carbendazim completely inhibited mycelial growth up to 100 per cent. Copper oxychloride was found least effective among all five fungicides. Among botanicals eucalyptus leaf extract was found most effective in inhibition of fungal growth up to 58.5 and 70.4 per cent at 5 and 10 per cent concentration, respectively. Neem leaf extract at 10 per cent concentration inhibited mycelial growth up to 57.0 percent. The best performing in vitro two fungicides and two botanicals when tested under field condition, carbendazim (0.1%) twice at 15 and 30 DAI (days after initiation) of disease was found most effective in controlling the disease up to 71.43 per cent and 65.22 per cent in Langra and Dashehari cultivars, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Meat Hygiene and Associated Health Hazards Awareness among Consumers of Jammu District of Jammu and Kashmir

Rayees Ahmed Bafanda, S. A. Khandi, Sheikh Umair Minhaj, Adil Masood Khateeb

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36045

The present study analyses the awareness regarding meat hygiene and associated health hazards among consumers in Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir. After preparing the comprehensive list of meat markets operating in Jammu district, three meat markets were selected, and from each selected meat market ten retail meat shops were randomly chosen. From each randomly selected retail meat shop, a list of consumers was prepared. Out of the list four consumers were selected randomly from each randomly selected retail meat shop to make a sample size of 120 consumers. Thus a total of one twenty respondents consuming meat were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected through well structured interview schedule after proper testing of schedule and using appropriate scales. The data were coded, classified, tabulated and analyzed using the software; Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS 16.0). The presentation of data was done to give pertinent, valid and reliable answer to the specific objectives. Frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviation were worked out for meaningful interpretation. Majority of consumers were consuming meat from their childhood with unaltered consumption habit. Consumers were less concerned about cleanliness and health status of retailers. Very few respondents enquired for license of shop and meat inspection by veterinarians while, majority of respondents enquired regarding freshness and quality of meat before purchasing. Visual examination was preferred indicators by majority of respondents. Consumers were less concerned about the hygienic processing, hygienically slaughtering and dressing of healthy animals. High awareness was noticed about zoonotic diseases, mainly for bid flu, rabies and tuberculosis. Majority of consumers were aware that improper handling and consumption of raw meat could lead to diseases but very less consumers have awareness about symptoms of meat borne diseases. A significant proportion of respondents showed reduction in the consumption of chicken and eggs due to the fear of bird flu outbreak. Consumers preferred information on price, quality and freshness while purchasing meat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Cost Effectiveness of Growth and Reproductive Performance of the Archatina archatina Fed Compounded Feed and Natural Feed Materials

Anold Tatah Kong, Essia Uwem, Delvis Fru Ngang, Brain Viyof Vegah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35734

This study evaluated the response of the giant African land Archatina archatina snails to three different diets, with regards feed intake, feed conversion, shell length and weight gain. A comparative cost analysis of growing snails with the different diets was also carried out. 180 snails were divided into three treatments and replicated thrice with 20 snails per replicate. Treatment I consisted of natural feed items only, Treatment II of compounded feed, while Treatment III was a mix of natural and compounded feeds. Each replicate was given 100 g of feed every two days and water was given ad libitum. Feed leftovers and shell length were regularly measured and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that Treatment III snails had significantly (P=0.00) higher levels of feed intake than the replicates of Treatment I and Treatment II while no statistically significant difference in weight gain (P=0.37), feed conversion (P=0.11) and shell length (P=0.17) were observed for the three different treatments. Though more expensive at commencement for poor farmers, Treatment III was found to have the best potentials for sustainability of snail farming.

Open Access Original Research Article

Meat Hygiene and Associated Health Hazards Awareness among Butchers and Meat Retailers in Jammu District of Jammu and Kashmir

Rayees Ahmed Bafanda, S. A. Khandi, Sheikh Umair Minhaj, Farzana Choudhary

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36107

Meat is a perishable commodity and therefore from production till consumption it needs to be innocuous. Many pathogenic micro-organisms grow in the meat if hygienic procedures are not followed. Meat acts as a vehicle for disease transmission mainly bacterial, protozoan and helminthic. Lack of appropriate  hygienic slaughtering and meat handling techniques are causing unnecessary losses of meat as well as valuable by-products from animal carcasses Thus the awareness of good hygienic, sanitary practices and health hazards by personnel engaged in unorganized meat production will improve safety and suitability of meat which will lead to increased marketability and consumption, finally resulting into better socio-economic and health status of all personnel engaged either in animal rearing, trade or processing of meat. The present study was conducted in Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir State to evaluate the meat hygiene and associated health hazard awareness among butchers and meat retailers in Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir. Three Major slaughter houses of Jammu district situated at Nagrota, Old Rehari and Gujjar Nagar were selected for the study. A list of butchers in the selected slaughter houses was prepared. Ten butchers from each slaughter house were selected randomly. After preparing the comprehensive list of meat markets operating in Jammu district, three meat markets were selected, and from each selected meat market ten retail meat shops were randomly chosen. From each randomly selected retail meat shop, one person was selected purposively who was actively involved in animal slaughter and sale of meat at retail meat shop. Thus, a total of thirty butchers and thirty retailers were selected in all. Data was collected through interview schedule as well as through observations. The data was coded, classified, tabulated and analyzed using the software; Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS 16.0). The presentation of data was done to give pertinent, valid and reliable answer to the specific objectives. Frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviation were worked out for meaningful interpretation. It was observed that contact with infected person and improper meat handling was considered as a major risk for transmission of diseases by most of meat handlers. Majority of meat handlers were aware of the public health significance of their business. Few had limited knowledge about cross contamination and presence of microorganisms in meat. Poor awareness was found regarding different zoonotic diseases (except bird flu), which can be transmitted through meat handling. Meat handlers avoided the meat handling work only when suffered major diseases. They were frequently wrong in judging the condition/diseases in which animals should not be slaughtered. The finding indicates that lapses exist between meat handlers’ decision and the scientifically correct decision and thus final decision about the fitness of carcass and offal’s must rest only with the veterinarian.

Open Access Original Research Article

Flowering, Fruiting and Physio-chemical Characteristics of Bael (Aegle marmelos Correa.) Grown in Northern Districts of West Bengal

Arghya Mani, Arun Kumar Singh, Niyati Jain, Sukanya Misra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/36310

A study was conducted during the fruiting season of bael, an important minor fruit of tropics and subtropics on medicinal and religious aspects. This was done to determine the flowering, fruiting and physio-chemical properties of the fruits and to evaluate the best accession collected from different locations. The fruits were harvested from distinct locations on North Bengal and were brought to the lab where they were analysed for their bio-chemical properties. The result showed that all the different accessions have different and distinct characters. By going through all the results, clearly it can be concluded that the bael trees growing wildly in North Bengal or in homestead shows wide variations and diversities. Abundance of flowering and fruiting was profuse in ACC-1, ACC-6, ACC-15, ACC-17, and ACC-25. Earliest fruiting was observed in ACC-11 (17th March) and ACC-20 (17th March). Fewer seeds were observed in ACC-3 (14.33), ACC-9 (13.67), ACC-14 (18.33) and ACC-15 (15.67) which is considered desirable for fresh consumption. Thinnest rind was observed in ACC-11 (2.14 mm) followed by ACC-25. Maximum Total Soluble Solids (° Brix) was observed in ACC-25 (16.33 ° Brix). Titratable acidity was recorded maximum in ACC-3 (0.67%) followed by ACC-11 (0.62%). Total sugar was recoded maximum in ACC-11 (11.14%) followed by ACC-25 (10.85%). Maximum reducing sugar was observed in ACC-11 (4.47%) followed by ACC-8 (4.33%), ACC-17 (4.23%) and ACC-25 (4.32%) also showed a high value of reducing sugar content as compared to other accessions. Hence, it could be concluded that ACC-11 (Alipurdwar) is the most superior accessions followed by ACC-25 (Hilli).