Open Access Original Research Article

Pressure-driven Flow Instability with Convective Heat Transfer through a Rotating Curved Square Duct with Strong Curvature

Md. Arifuzzaman, Muhammad Minarul Islam, Sanjit Kumar Paul, Rabindra Nath Mondal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/31612

The present paper investigates pressure-driven flow instability with convective heat transfer through a rotating curved square duct with curvature ratio 0.5. Spectral method is used as a basic tool to solve the system of non-linear partial differential equations. The outer wall of the duct is heated while the inner wall cooled, the top and bottom walls being thermally insulated. The duct is rotated in both the positive and negative direction, and investigated combined effects of centrifugal, Coriolis and buoyancy forces. For positive rotation, the unsteady flow characteristics are investigated for the Taylor number 0≤Tr≤1000, and it is found that the multi-periodic flow turns into chaotic flow through various flow instabilities, if Tr is increased in the positive direction. For negative rotation, however, time-dependent flow behavior is investigated for −500≤Tr<0, and it is found that the multi-periodic flow precisely turns into steady-state flow, if Tr is increased in the negative direction. Streamlines and isotherms are also obtained, and it is found that the unsteady flow consists of asymmetric 2- to 6-vortex solutions. The present study shows that the convection due to the secondary flow, enhanced by the combined action of the centrifugal-Coriolis-buoyancy forces, increases heat transfer significantly from the heated wall to the fluid, and whenever the flow becomes periodic and then chaotic, as Tr increases, the rate of heat transfer increases remarkably.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Divergence of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) for Sixteen Important Yield Attributing Traits

Preeti Kumari, Reena Kumari, Nisha Rani, R. B. Verma, Rahul Verma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35230

Genetic divergence among sixteen genotypes of Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) for sixteen important yield attributing traits was studied using Mahalanobis D2 statistics. The total genotypes were grouped into 6 different clusters on similarities of D2 values. Among the different clusters, cluster I consisted the maximum number of genotypes (6 genotypes) followed by cluster II, cluster III and cluster IV (3 genotypes), and cluster V contain only one genotype. The highest intra- cluster distance was recorded for cluster I (2411.503) and lowest intra –cluster distance was observed in cluster V. Genotypes from cluster I could be used as parental line for hybrid breeding programme owing to their higher mean performance within group. The highest inter cluster distance found between cluster V and cluster I indicated wider genetic diversity among the genotypes between these groups. The present study revealed that the cluster IV showed highest mean values for fruit yield per plant and average fruit weight. Therefore, more emphases should be given to cluster IV for selecting genotypes as parents to produce new recombination with desire yield traits. Fruit yield/plant (g) contributed maximum (69.17%) toward total genetic divergence followed by fruit length (11.67% cm).The 2D PCA plot successfully grouped the samples according to their phenotypic resemblance and morphological characteristics. Selection of genotypes from distant clusters may be used in crop improvement programmes to produce populations with wide variability with transgressive segregants possessing high yielding.

Open Access Original Research Article

WhatsApp: A worth Medium of Communication for Transfer of Technology to the Masses

Saroj Kumari, Ritu Mittal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35695

The study considers to what extent WhatsApp is effective in dissemination of information. The objective of the study was to study the effectiveness of WhatsApp as channel for dissemination of information. The research was conducted on 90 rural women in Ludhiana district of Punjab. To elicit the information, WhatsApp package on ‘prevention of anaemia’ was prepared and administered. To see the effectiveness of WhatsApp package (information on anaemia) pre testing was done before intervention (WhatsApp package) and after administering the intervention, post testing was done. The WhatsApp package on ‘prevention of anaemia’ was found to be significantly effective as the level of knowledge before intervention was found to be in medium category but after intervention it increased to high level category.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Ecofriendly Automobile Brake Pad Using Different Grade Sizes of Palm Kernel Shell Powder

Mohammed Tiamiyu Ishola, Ojo Olatunji Oladimeji, Kaffo Omoniyi Paul

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35766

Serious health repercussions/risks such as asbestosis and mesothelioma have engendered automakers to earnestly consider the use of non-asbestos organic (NAO) brake pads in contemporary manufacturing. On this account, sustainable agro waste with higher heating value compared to other lignocellulosic biomass is considered as a better alternative to asbestos. As a result, palm kernel shell (PKS) is chosen and employed as a friction lining material for the designed NAO-based brake pad. The friction material was based on a simple formulation with five ingredients; PKS as base material while phenolic resin, steel slag, iron waste and carbon black were other additives. Mixtures of these constituents were obtained at varying compositions by using PKS of grade sizes 100 µm, 200 µm and 350 µm respectively. A mild steel mould shaped like that of a Pathfinder Jeep’s brake pad was fabricated for compacting the formed composite. The produced samples were subjected to tests such as hardness, compressive strength, wear, flame resistance, porosity, density and water absorption tests. The results affirm that grain size has substantial effects on compressive strength, hardness, porosity, ash content and wear rate of the brake pad. 100 µm grain sizes of PKS produced the optimum brake pad. Thus, the results show that PKS can be efficiently used for asbestos replacement in brake pad production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Axial Flow Paddy Thresher Equipped with Feeder Chain Type Mechanical Feeding System

Manish Ahuja, Baldev Dogra, M. K. Narang, Ritu Dogra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35696

The threshing of paddy which was usually done by manual feeding in threshers led to the reduction of threshing capacity due to half filling of threshing drum. This drawback had given rise to mechanical feeding system for wheat threshers which increased their threshing capacity. In this study, in order that the threshing capacity should increase, a feeder chain type feeding system for axial flow paddy thresher was developed. The type of feeder housing used in this thresher was of trapezoidal shape. The length of chain was 2830 mm and two sprockets having diameter 320 mm each. After preliminary testing, it’s performance evaluation was studied on PR-124 to ascertain the effect of cylinder speed (12.27, 14.44 and 16.61 m/s), conveyor speed (2.52, 2.96 and 3.4 m/s) and feed rate (4.08, 4.8 and 5.52 t/h). The threshing efficiency, non-collectable loss, broken grain, cleaning efficiency, sieve overflow and torque were 98.90%, 0.55%, 0.23%, 98.44%, 0.38% and 336.3 Nm respectively at the best combination of cylinder speed, feed rate and conveyor speed of 16.61 m/s, 5.52 t/h and 2.52 m/s respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Extrusion Processing Variables on Finger Millet Flours with Respect to Their Functional Properties Using Response Surface Methodology

Shrikrishna Nishani, Shalini Gaur Rudra, Eldho Verghese

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34495

Finger millet is fiber rich nutritious food which can be used by diabetic patients and also by healthy persons to maintain body weight owing to their inherent good amount of resistant starch and dietary fiber. Various degrees of structural transformations in the starches can be obtained through wide range of degree of cooking possible through extrusion processing. Response surface methodology was used to study the effect of amylose content (19.42%, 24.19%, 25.74%), moisture (21, 23 and 25%), screw speed (250, 300, 350 rpm) and barrel temperature (160,180 200°C) and their interactive effect on the extrudate properties. Percentage amylose in the finger millet flours was found to have significant effect on the bulk density, sectional expansion index and resistant starch of the extrudates. Expansion of extrudates was negatively correlated to amylose (p=0.022). Barrel temperature was found to be most prominent for modification of RS in finger millet extrudates. Higher amylose content lead to formation of more resistant starch in extrudates of finger millet. The effect of screw speed and barrel temperature was mostly seen on the water absorption index and water solubility index. Quadratic regression model (R2> 0.68) was found appropriate to model the physico-chemical parameters of the exrudates as function of extruder and raw material properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption of Cloud Computing Services in Healthcare Sectors: Special Attention to Private Hospitals in Colombo District, Sri Lanka

Ahamed Lebbe Mohamed Ayoobkhan, David Asirvatham

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34597

Cloud computing is the most important part of information technology that provides solutions to improve healthcare sectors. This innovation helps organizations to enhance or redesign the services at less expensive charges. The study investigates the integrated factors that impact in adopting Cloud computing technologies in healthcare industries in order to adopt innovation benefit. This study was conducted using quantitative method and questionnaires were distributed among 125 employees who are working in the IT departments of the private hospitals to evaluate their capability and readiness to embrace cloud computing services. Different techniques were used to analyse and decide whether Technology, Organizational, and Environmental Factors (TOE) influenced a major role in healthcare sectors’ decision making to consider cloud computing technology services as an effective investment. The findings of this study have significantly impacted the willingness of private hospitals in Sri Lanka to follow the cloud computing technologies.