Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metal Concentration of Groundwater in Owerri Metropolis, Nigeria

E. C. Ogoko

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35144

The present study was performed in order to assess the physicochemical parameters and metal concentration of groundwater in Owerri municipal area. Water samples were collected in triplicates from thirteen different sites. Electric conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, oxygen demand and chloride were determined by standard methods. Sulphate and nitrate were determined by UV- Spectrophotometric method whereas the metals were evaluated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results of the study revealed that both the physicochemical and metal parameters evaluated were within the limits recommended by WHO and SON. But arsenic concentration in one (Sample 6) out of the thirteen borehole sites had a pollution index above unity (1.11). The groundwater samples assessed were suitable and potable for drinking and other domestic purposes except water from site 6 (Egbu) which was contaminated with arsenic. Results also revealed that there is significant difference between the physicochemical parameters and the metals concentrations evaluated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Energy Content of the Municipal Solid Waste of Ado – Ekiti Metropolis, Southwest, Nigeria

O. L. Rominiyi, O. P. Fapetu, J. O. Owolabi, B. A. Adaramola

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/32340

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a: material discarded as worthless to the city and this has been a serious threat to the eco-system. This can be channeled into a very useful form to generate energy and thereby converting it to wealth. The waste samples were harvested, sorted, sundried, pulverized and sieved using a sieve size of 500 . The moisture content of the constituents of the waste sample was determined. The digital bomb calorimeter (Cal – 2k Eco Calorimeter) was used to test the calorific value of the prepared waste samples. The results indicated that the polythene products waste has the specific energy content of 35,959 kJ/kg while the bones component of the waste sample has 6,994.39 kJ/kg. The mean specific energy content is 17.57 MJ/kg. The total energy content of the MSW generated within the urban metropolis is 4,449,426.14 MJ/day. This implies that when used per day for steam production 51.5 MW of electricity could be generated in Ado-Ekiti.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Evaluation of Household Horizontal Slow Sand Filter

Haile Arefayne Shishaye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/32421

Slow sand filtration has been recognized as an appropriate technology for drinking water treatment in rural areas, and is recognized as a suitable filtration technology in reducing turbidity and coliform concentrations. It is capable of improving the physical, chemical, and microbiological quality of water in a single treatment process without the addition of chemicals, and can produce an effluent low in turbidity and free of bacteria. The objective of this study was thus to develop a household-scale horizontal slow sand filter (HSSF) with a low-cost treatment process, which can be operated and maintained by a member of the families. It therefore involves obtaining different grain sizes of sand as a filter media and water quality data from laboratory after filtering the water in different slopes of the HSSF tool. So, the primary product of this project was the developed recommendations and design criterias for the use of HSSF technology to improve water quality. Accordingly, the developed tool was found capable to produce remarkable results in removing turbidity and coliform concentrations in water. The average percent removal of coliforms was found to be 100% with effect from the 9th day; while, turbidity had become within the permissible limit in the first day of filtration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glued laminated Timber Produced with Tropical Brazilian Wood Species

André Luiz Zangiacomo, Giovana G. Balanco, André Luis Christoforo, Francisco Antonio R. Lahr

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34690

Despite the wood versatility, its application is, sometimes, difficult because of its properties and performances under different work conditions are not completely known. The present work, developed in Laboratory of wood and wood structures (known as LaMEM), Department of Structures, School of Engineering of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, seeks to contribute for a better utilization of the alternative tropical wood species, especially in the employment to the production of structural elements of glued laminated timber, once that Brazil has a great potential of these species which are under applicated. In this context, the determination of the physical properties, the strength and the stiffness of some alternative tropical species are realized, and the stiffness of structural elements made of the specie, wich presented the best results in specimens tests, were determinated. Beams are tested with two adhesives classes, two pressure intensities and two ways of lamination. Experimental methods suggested in Brazilian Technical Codes Association were used. The specie Cedrinho (Erisma sp.) presents the best results, and conclusions are made: Cascophen and castor oil adhesives did not influence the beams stiffness properties; the same thing happens for the two pressure intensities, 0,8 MPa and 1,2 MPa. The glulam beams stiffness properties can be influenced by the ways of lamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maximum Power Point Tracking for Satellite Solar Power Load Matching under Different Light Panels

Ali Jasim, Yuri Shepetov

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35895

This paper presents, providing the matched load solar power plants satellite with multi-directional panels of photovoltaic cells under different light panels by introducing the method of tracking the point of maximum power photovoltaic panels using maximum power coefficient (KP). Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller for solar power system is modeled using MATLAB Simulink. The model consists of PV array, boost converter, MPPT controller, charger, batteries and main bus. The proposed is a maximum power coefficient (KP) and modified hill climbing MPPT method. The boost converter model is changed by varying the duty cycle, so that the maximum power point could be tracked when the environmental changes. Traditional method fail to ensure successful tracking of the maximum power point under different light panels. This performs in significant reduction in the power generated as well as the reliability of the photovoltaic energy production system. The power system is simulated in operating parallel mode worked on main bus with VOUT= 40, 45, 50 volts dependence Pout from duty cycle D. Existing methods of maximum power point tracking of such systems not always can to search surely for maximum power point if there are existing  some local maximums of power under different light panels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Pre-harvest Sprays of Calcium and Potassium on the Storage Behaviour of Banana Fruits

Venkata Satish Kuchi, J. Kabir

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35771

Aims: The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of pre-harvest sprays of calcium and potassium chlorides on the quality of banana (Musa acuminata) fruits in storage.

Study Design:  The experiment was laid out in Factorial Completely Randomized Design (FCRD) with two treatments in first factor and five treatments in second factor. Each treatment is replicated thrice.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Postharvest Technology of Horticultural crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal. The field work was conducted in the farm of AICRP on tropical fruits at Mondouri in the Nadia district, West Bengal. The experiment was conducted during December 2013 to February 2015.

Methodology: Calcium chloride (1% and 2%) and potassium chloride (0.5% and 1%) was applied twice (first at time of male bud removal, second 30 days after the first spray) to the entire bunch of fruits of selected plants of two banana cultivars ‘Grand Naine’ (AAA) and ‘Martaman’ (AAB) and fruits were harvested at commercial maturity stage. Uniform size fruits from 2nd, 3rd and 4th hands of each treatment were used for the experiment in two factor Factorial Completely Randomized Design. Observations were recorded on physiological loss in weight (PLW), marketability and various biochemical characters at different stages of ripening indicated by change in peel colour as green stage (S1), yellow with trace of green (S2) and all yellow with brown spots (S3).

Results: The results indicated that although treatment Martaman x CaCl2 1% (V2T3) possessed least PLW both at S2 and S3 stage, V1T3 (Grand Naine x CaCl2 1%) and V1T4 (Grand Naine x CaCl2 2%) with medium PLW had high marketability of 58.67 and 56.67%. respectively at S3 stage of ripening due to retention of significantly high level of chlorophyll at the initial stage i.e., S1 and S2. This high level of chlorophyll content enhanced the green life of V1T3 and V1T4 to 9 days and consequently prolonged the storage life to 13 days and 12 days respectively. The response of Martaman to the different treatments caused very slow level of biochemical changes compared to the observed response of Grand Naine treatments even at S2 stage. However, the chemical constituents of the fruits from different treatment combinations involving Grand Naine (V1T3 and V1T4) and Martaman at the late stage S3 are significantly different (p >0.05).

Conclusion: Grand Naine variety sprayed with CaCl2 1% produced the best banana fruits with extended shelf life and proved to be the best treatment that could be recommended to growers for improved marketability storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Igala Language Spell Checker

Sani Felix Ayegba, Musa Ugbedeojo, Benson-Iyare Jessica Chinezie, Onoja Abu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35445

Spell checkers are important components of Natural language processing applications such as office automation systems, machine translation systems and other similar tools. In this paper, we modeled a language processor for Igala which can detect and correct non word or typographic errors. Lexicon look up approach was adopted for determining validity of words while a variant of similarity key technique based on number of common characters was used to generate the list of correct alternatives for misspelled words. Test and evaluation results of the system indicated that it can handle various types of Igala language spelling errors.