Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of Clay Mineral Deposits in Ohiya, Southeast Nigeria Using the Self Potential Method and Lithologs

D. E. Azunna, G. U. Chukwu, E. U. Nwokoma, A. Akenami

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/26621

A self potential survey was carried out on the study area. Four prospects were considered. The prospects investigated had a total area of 2.34 km2. 18 profiles were obtained from the prospects alongside three other random considered profiles. A total of 315 SP measurements were obtained using the direct potential method with a 10 m increase in the electrode spacing along each of the profiles. Obtained data show a potential range of -2 mV to -600 mV and 1 mv to 251 mV. On analysis, SP spectral signatures and the tomography map reveals that there were also non-conductive materials like silt, sandstone, sand, etc. which constitutes impurities and the overburden. The Iso-Potential contour map of the study area also reveals Nkwoebo, Egbeada and Umuoram as areas of likely kaolin abundance. Litho-logs of excavated sites were obtained to give us a quantitative clue of the mineral in the investigated prospects. It was observed that the overburden thickness is about 1.22 m, the thickness of kaolin deposit to be above 12.2 m and the average bulk reserve is about 74,360,000 metric tons.

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Technology: A Contribution to Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Onyia Chibuzo John, Engr. Rufus Ogbuka Chime, Agbata Osita Benedict, Nnam Leonard Ekenechukwu, Enekwenchi Kingsley Kanayo, Young Charles

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/30166

In Nigeria, many established and establishing technological industries produce effluents that add to Global warming which have been on the increase continuously in the years back, conveying several undesired significances to Earth and human life. Forecasts propose that the significances will linger over the years to come. Among the solutions to assuage this problem is the adoption of green technologies. As a result, this paper examines the contribution of green technology to sustainable development of other countries and compare it with that of Nigeria. It also presents an avenue via which green technology can improve Nigeria’s sustainable development, and also examines Policy Requirements for its Development in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Modeling and Prediction of Land Use/Cover Dynamics in Onitsha Metropolis, Nigeria: A Sub-pixel Approach

S. U. Onwuka, P. S. U. Eneche, N. A. Ismail

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35294

Based on a sub-pixel approach, this study analysed the Land Use/Cover (LU/C) dynamics of Onitsha Metropolis in Anambra State, Nigeria. Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite imageries of 1986, 2001 and 2016 were characterized into different LU/Cs using Ridd’s Vegetation, Impervious Surface, Soil and Water (VIS-W) model via Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA). LU/C endmember fractions obtained were hardened to produce the final LU/C maps of the study area, per study years considered. Cellular Automata Markov (Ca-Markov) chain and the Land Change Modeler (LCM) were used to predict future LU/C for the year 2031 and the transition of each LU/C categories between 2016 and 2031, respectively. Also, the Chi-square test was used to test the significance of change in LU/C fractions between 2016 and 2031. ArcGIS 10.5, Idrisi Selva and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 22) were used to perform the analyses. The result of the LU/C classification on one hand, revealed the dynamics of LU/C endmember fractions for the study years and on the other hand, revealed the actual area coverage of each LU/C category. It showed clearly that vegetation reduced drastically over the three epochs from 178.72sq.km in 1986 to 147.70 sq.km in 2001 and slightly to 140.87 sq.km in 2016; impervious surface increased from 26.10 sq.km in 1986 to 62.28 sq.km in 2016; soil cover decreased from 8.65 sq.km in 1986 to 3.10 sq.km in 2016; and water cover, experienced an increase from 11.44 sq.km in 1986 to 18.75 sq.km in 2016. The Ca-Markov and the LCM models further revealed that all LU/C fractions, apart from soil possessed very high probability of being retained in 2031, thus, are envisaged to be slightly modified in future. However, the result of the Chi-square test confirms no statistically significant difference in the LU/C fractions between 2016 and 2031 (P=.964, α = .05). Therefore, it was upheld in this study that the rapidity of urbanisation in Onitsha Metropolis has drastically reduced while the degree or intensity of urbaneness was on the increase, especially in recent years and the same trend is expected to continue except otherwise, other factors set-in. The continuum-based approach of this study however, presents an objective means of characterizing LU/C fractions and recommended in modelling the urban fabrics of any area, especially when other non-linear and chaotic urban phenomena, such as Urban Heat Island (UHI); urban land suitability/compatibility, flooding, physiological discomfort, etc. are of interest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Oil Pollution on Soil Properties along Pipeline Right of Way at Osisioma Ngwa, Abia State, Nigeria

E. I. Elenwo, C. A. Anyanwu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34379

The study examined the effects of oil pollution on soil properties along pipeline right of way at Osisioma Ngwa, Abia State, Nigeria.A transect of 50 m x 500 m was laid along the oil pipeline right of way and also in the control plot (natural forest) of 1.5 km away from the oil pipeline. Soil samples were collected at 50 m interval from 9 selected sample points within the laid transect along the oil pipeline right of way and control plot using a properly calibrated soil auger and core samplers. The soil samples were collected in the topsoil (0-20 cm depth) and subsoil (20-40 cm depth) into well labeled polythene bags. Thus, 36 soil samples were collected for laboratory analysis using standard methods. Descriptive and inferential statistics (pairwise t-test and Spearman Rank Statistics) were to analyze the data. Findings revealed that sand content was predominant in the study area. Clay was significantly higher in the control plot than polluted soil (t=2.347; p=0.006). The mean bulk density was significantly higher in the polluted plot than the control plot (t=4.107; p=0.03). The soil pH was significantly more acidic in the polluted soil than the non-polluted soil (t=4.283; p=0.004). The total organic C and total N were significantly lower in the polluted soil than the non-polluted soil while slight variation was observed in available P, exchangeable Ca and exchangeable Na between the polluted soil and non-polluted soil. However, exchangeable Mg and exchangeable K were significantly higher in the control soil than the polluted soil. The exchangeable acidity, Zn, Pb and Cu were significantly higher in the polluted soil than the non-polluted soil.Total hydrocarbon was significantly correlated with pH (r=0.696; p<0.05); available P. (r= 0.660; p<0.05) and EC (r=-0.672, p<0.05). The study recommended among others that liming should be employed to neutralize and reduce the acidity level in the polluted soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Suitability of Using Ipetumodu Potter’s Clay for the Production of Ceramic Pot Filters

Kamar Taiwo Oladepo, Sunday Oluwatosin Fajuke, Adedayo Samson Ojo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34740

Ceramic filtration is one of the household water treatment methods of providing potable water to rural dwellers in developing nations. This study reports an effort to produce ceramic pot filters from locally available clay using rice husk and sawdust as the combustible materials; the fractions of the combustible material used in preparing the pots were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by volume. The filters were tested for flow rate and effectiveness in the removal of turbidity, suspended, dissolved and total solids. The filter that contains 20% rice husk was found to be the most efficient because of its acceptable flow rate and effluent water quality; the first-hour flow rate was 1.66 litres per second while the turbidity of the effluent was reduced from 38 NTU to 4 NTU after five hours of filtration. The efficiency of suspended solids removal ranged between 67 and 89%. The next phase of the study, which is in progress, involves the construction of a hydraulic press to facilitate the production of the filters in a sustainable manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Artificial Ageing on Relative Storability of Primed Seed Lots of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)

Sunil Kumar, O. S. Dahiya, Pradeep Singh, V. S. Mor

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35198

The primed seeds lot of two varieties of fenugreek HM-57 and HM-103 having two lots each (L1 was having standard germination above 70% and L2 was having standard germination below 70%) were stored under ambient condition and the observations was recorded during 2013-14 to assess the storability of primed seed lots of before artificial ageing (40 ±1°C for 72 h) and after artificial ageing of primed seed lots. It was observed that standard germination (%), root length (cm), shoot length (cm), seedling dry weight (mg) and vigour indices significantly decreased whereas, electrical conductivity (µS/cm/seed) of seed leachates increased  with artificial ageing. Maximum germination was retained by HM-57 with, hydration (6 h) and dehydration at room temperature followed by dry dressing with thiram @ 0.25% treatment in good quality seed lot L1 (standard germination above 70%) after artificial ageing.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Integrated Building Performance Index for Assessing Office Buildings in Nigeria

Olanipekun Emmanuel Abiodun, Olugboyega Oluseye, Ojelabi Raphael Abiodun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/33904

Building performance is a function of a number of variables each of which is important to analyse concurrently when conducting a POE study. The development of framework for assessing buildings is significant as it will provide an evaluation tool for ensuring sustainable buildings. This study developed an index for evaluating the overall performance of office buildings in Nigeria. A Total of 51 professionals in the built environment were surveyed. The data obtained were analysed using content analysis technique, pair wise comparison (one sample t-test) and regression analysis. The results showed that; the performance criteria which are pertinent to the performance of office building in order of their importance were building integrity (54.54), indoor air quality (53.69), safety and security (64.04), thermal (46.77), spatial (7.27%), visual (44.01), spatial (43.33) and acoustic performance (43.62); priority placed by individual professional, architects rated safety and security and building integrity (18) most important and acoustic least (9) important, builders rated IAQ and visual performance (20) most important and building integrity (8) least important, estate surveyors ranked safety (21) and building integrity (17) performance most important and acoustic performance (7) least important, mechanical engineers rated safety (22) and building integrity (0) performance most important and acoustic performance (7) least important. A regression model based on the TBP criteria identified was developed (TBP Index = 13.36ð+12.57ŋ+12.46Ɣ+15.34ω+ 12.38ɸ+15.58φ+18.30ψ). It was concluded that safety and security was rated most significant of all the performance mandates, followed by indoor air quality, building integrity, thermal performance, spatial performance, visual performance and acoustic performance.