Open Access Original Research Article

A Review on Effects and Control of Seepage through Earth-fill Dam

O. E. Omofunmi, J. G. Kolo, A. S. Oladipo, P. D. Diabana, A. S. Ojo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/28538

All earthfill dams have seepage from water percolating slowly through the dam and its foundation. Many seepage problems and failure of earth-fill dams have occurred because of inadequate seepage control measures. This study was reviewed the conditions, causes, and effects of seepage and control measures in the earth dam. Types of earth dams such as homogeneous embankment, zoned embankment and diaphragm embankment well were highlighted.  Seepage conditions, such as rapid water level decreases or the water falling below the level expected with normal use (sudden drawdown condition), wet spots and aquatic vegetation (like cattails) below the dam; causes, such as poor compaction of environment soil, poor foundation and abutment preparation, Rodent holes, Rooted tree roots and wood and so no and effects due to piping, internal erosion, solutioning, internal pressure and saturation and uplift, heave and blowout were highlighted. This study also examines the control measures included cut-offs; upstream clay blanket; filter blanket; seepage drains; berms and loading berm; upstream and downstream slope protections; And relief well. Besides, in order to keep continuous watch on the health of dam and monitor that is, take curative steps before failure occurs., instruments such as pore pressure, settlement gauges, horizontal movement devices, and seismic activity measurements should be embedded into the dam were mentioned.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Growth Regulators on Seed Yield and Quality of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

Pradeep Singh, V. S. Mor, R. C. Punia, Sunil Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35163

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an important seed spices crop of family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) with cross-pollination as mode of reproduction. Coriander is an important seed spice, cultivated in almost states of India and gaining export importance. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) have emerged as magic chemical that could increase agricultural production at an unprecedented rate and help in removing or circumventing many of the barrier imposed by genetics and environment. Therefore considering significance of coriander in national economy, a field experiment was conducted at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to study the impact of growth regulators on seed yield and quality of coriander. The research material comprised of four genotypes viz. DH-5, DH-36, DH-228 and DH-246 was grown with three replications in factorial RBD. Two PGRs namely NAA and GA3 each at 50 ppm and a control (water spray) were used as treatments at the time of 50% flowering. The foliar application of growth regulators such as NAA and GA3 at 50 percent flowering was found most effective to enhance the plant height, number of branches per plant, number of umbels per plant, number of seeds per umbel, number of seed per umbellate, seed yield and seed quality parameters such as test weight, standard germination, seedling length, seedling dry weight, vigor index-I & vigor index-II, dehydrogenase enzyme activity, field emergence index and seedling establishment. So, the application of NAA and GA3 was useful in more seed setting, high seed yield and quality of all the genotype. Among all the genotypes, Hisar Anand (DH-5) was found the highest seed yielder followed by Hisar Bhoomit (DH-228), Hisar Surbhi (DH-246) and Hisar Sugandh (DH-36).

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Manual Juice Extractor for Small Scale Applications

A. D. Eyeowa, B. S. Adesina, P. D. Diabana, O. A. Tanimola

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/33360

Transformation of locally produced fruits into juice helps to enhance profitability in orchard farming. Several fruit juice extractors exist but there is need to make available juice extractor that has low production cost. This is to ensure that they are readily available and affordable for local fruit processors. A manually operated juice extractor was designed and fabricated using locally sourced materials. The extractor consists of a feeding unit, extraction unit, juice collector, waste outlet, frame and bearings. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) a synthetic fluoropolymer was used in the construction of the screw shaft and stainless steel for the extraction chamber. Rotational motion needed by the screw shaft to compress and transport the fruits was supplied manually to the machine through a handle. The screw shaft crushes, squeeze and facilitate the movement of residues to the waste outlet while the juice passes through the screen to the juice collector. Tests were carried out to investigate the performance of the machine on the basis of juice yield, extraction efficiency and extraction loss. The efficiencies obtained were 57%, 53.6% and 52.9% for water melon, tangerine and pineapple respectively. The extraction efficiencies for water melon, orange and pineapple were 71.3%, 65.8% and 63.8% respectively. The extraction losses for water melon, orange and pineapple were 2.5%, 4.3% and 3.5% respectively. The capacities of the machine for watermelon, orange and pineapple were 19.51 kg/hr., 15.97 kg/hr. and 18.10 kg/hr. respectively. The juices produced from the extractor are of good quality which further proves the effectiveness of the extractor. The manual fruit juice extractor is cheap, durable and cost of operation is low and could be used by an average Nigerian household and small scale farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Images and Rights of Migrants in the Kenyan Media

Abraham Kipkemoi Kisang

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/32385

Existing research shows that media coverage has a significant influence on public and policy makers’ attitudes towards migrants and migration. Yet in Kenya, scholars have ignored media coverage in research examining public opinion towards migration or media’s portrayal of migration. The study examines how research has presented migration as depicted in the media, specifically; negative news portrayals of migrants have strong implications for opinion towards migration as opposed to positive portrayals. It is also important to note that high volumes of media coverage regarding any particular issue should increase awareness and concern in the minds of the public. Although the media highlights human rights perspective of the migrants, their reporting portrays migrants as a threat to national security. It does not challenge the involvement of those responsible for safeguarding borders; consequently such skewed coverage is likely to injure the reputation of the entire migration. Scholars and policy makers must acknowledge the agenda setting role of the media as it influences policy change and academic research. The research is part of the larger literature which seeks to increase more knowledge on media and migration. Further this paper utilized agenda setting theory and network theory in explaining portrayal of migration by Kenyan media. In addition, this paper used survey data and content analysis of media coverage of migrants and migration to examine the influence of news exposure on attitudes in the society. The paper purposively selected four main media outlets due to their regional coverage and data was retrieved from Media Council of Kenya’s Newbase for print and Volicon for broadcast media while at the same time conducted 8 interviews on editors. The findings showed the media predominantly portrayed migrants as victims, threats to security; this increases awareness and concern about rights of migrants as witnessed from militarization of migration in Europe. While it is evident immigration issues attract media attention, there is need for human rights advocates and the media to increase information that reduces uncertainties surrounding immigration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biosorption of Nitrophenol from Aqueous Mixture of Phenolic Compounds Using Sawdust of Parkia biglobosa

Deborah Olubunmi Aderibigbe, Abdur-Rahim Adebisi Giwa, Asiata Omotayo Ibrahim, Isah Adewale Bello

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34196

The present study investigated the potential of sawdust of Parkia biglobosa, an agroforestry by-product, for the removal of 4-Nitrophenol (4NP), from its aqueous solutions (singly) and in combination with phenol (binary) and chlorophenol (ternary). The effects of sawdust dose, initial concentration of phenolics and pH of the solution on the adsorption were investigated through batch adsorption experiments. Five isotherm models were employed to describe the equilibrium experimental data. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics were also studied. The equilibrium time for the sorption was observed to be 720 min, while the optimum dose was 0.500 g. The kinetics of the adsorption could be best described by the pseudo-second order model, while Freundlich isotherm gave the best fit in all the systems studied. The thermodynamics of the adsorption revealed that the process was not spontaneous at low temperatures as ∆G was positive; but it was endothermic in the single, binary and ternary systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Dichlorvos and Endosulfan Pesticide Residue Levels in Selected Fruits and Vegetables Sold in Some Major Markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

A. Y. Bamigboye, O. T. Adepoju, C. B. Olalude

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35005

Pesticides are used to increase the yield of agricultural products. They are very hazardous and toxic for organisms as well as for humans but when used properly, they constitute an important input in fruits and vegetable production. The application of different pesticides results in the contamination of soil, water and food. These pesticide residues are dangerous for environment and human health too. Different classes of pesticides are used on the basis of their active ingredients and thereby necessitated the need to monitor its accumulation on the fruits and vegetables. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the residues of some pesticides in fruits and vegetables purchased from various markets in Ibadan, Oyo State.  A selection of oranges, cucumber, jute leaf, bitter leaf, banana, African spinach and fluted pumpkin leaf was purchased from four major markets in Ibadan. Extraction of the samples was carried out using a mixture of chloroform; methanol; orthophosphoric acid to determine the residual concentration of pesticides. Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer was used for quantitative analysis. The results showed that Ccucumber had the highest concentration of dichlorvos (4.98±0.02) µg/kg while banana had lowest level of endosulfan 0.77±0.02 µg/kg. All values were all below the maximum residual limit (MRLs) and European Union (EU) set for vegetables and soil by the Codex 2009 (WHO and FAO). These results showed that the fruits and vegetables from these major markets in Ibadan are safe for human consumption. However, there is a need for continuous monitoring so as to guide the usage of pesticides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) to Different Levels of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium

Nilanjana Datta, Jitesh K. Hore, Shreyasi Mallik, Tapas Sarkar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/32812

The experiment was carried out with the aim to standardize the dose of NPK of fenugreek cv. Hissar Sonali in gangetic alluvial zone of West Bengal. The experiment was carried out at the Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India during the year 2013-14 and 2014-15. The variety ‘Hissar Sonali’ was used under the study. Three levels of each nitrogen (40, 60 and 80 kg/ha), phosphorus (60, 80 and 100 kg/ha) and two levels of potassium (20 and 40 kg/ha) were included in this investigation. There were altogether 18 treatments. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications. Among different treatment combination maximum plant height of 75.74 cm at 75 DAS were recorded with N80P80K40. Plants grown under N60P80K40combination, exhibited the maximum number of secondary branches (15.94) per plant. The minimum days required for 50% flowering was noticed in N40P60K20 (49.36 days) and test weight (15.24 g) was observed in N60P80K40 combination. Maximum projected yield (17.20 q/ha) was recorded in N60P80K40 followed by N40P80K40 (16.31 q/ha) and N60P100K40 (15.80 q/ha) as compared to lowest yield of 11.70 q/ha under N40P60K20 combination. From yield maximization point of view, the most effective treatment was NPK @ 60:80:40 kg/ha followed by NPK @ 40:80:40 kg/ha and NPK @ 60:100:40 kg/ha under alluvial plains of West Bengal.