Open Access Method Article

Dual-layer SDN Model for Deploying and Securing Network Forensic in Distributed Data Center

Aymen Hasan Rashid Al Awadi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34752

Many data centers nowadays begin to switch to SDN (Software-Defined Networking), to gain the main features like predictability, centralized management, quality of service and enhanced security. Comparing with traditional networks, SDN provides the ability to separate the control plane from the data plane with variety of protocols and functionalities like OpenFlow. Therefore, SDN reveals new opportunities to build large, complex and scalable networks using various network applications and services. As for network security and forensic aspects, the centralized control plane presented by SDN enhances the process of monitoring and analysis of network traffic to find the potential threats. However, it is so difficult to diagnose the cause of malevolent behaviors in large network with various services, communications, applications and protocols, without systematic model to investigate for the attacks that could happen in the data center. In this paper, we present new insight for the current trends in the aspect of SDN attacks and faults in distributed data centers in addition to the forensic challenges that have not been addressed yet. To diagnose such issues, we proposed an SDN prototype model based on the proven Provenance Verification Point (PVP) and expanded it to work in widely distributed data centers. The proposed prototype deployed as a centralized forensic middlebox working on collecting information and logs from the control and infrastructure layer of the SDN topology to find the root cause of the malicious attacks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-economic Determinants of Poverty in Malaria Endemic Areas of Kenya

Dawit G. Ayele, Muna Shifa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34660

Background: Poverty is a major issue in Kenya and even though there has been a remarkable economic growth, it has still not led to a significant poverty reduction in the country.

Objective: This study examined the factors associated with poverty in malaria endemic areas of Kenya. Using various well-being indicators, we calculated a composite index of household wealth to measure poverty/deprivation levels.

Methods: Data from the 2015 Kenya Malaria Indicator Survey (KMIS) was used. Generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) was used to estimate our model. Unlike the conventional estimation techniques, GAMLSS allow modelling not only of the mean (or location) but other parameters of the distribution of the response variable as linear and/or non-linear, parametric and/or additive nonparametric functions of explanatory variables and/or random effects.

Results: Our results show that households with more educated and male household heads were wealthier than those headed by females and with less education. The study further indicated that urban residences were wealthier than rural residents in all provinces, however, household with a negative diagnosis for malaria are wealthier than those with positive outcomes in both urban and rural areas.

Conclusion: The positive relationship between malaria occurrence and poverty implies that poverty alleviation and malaria eradication should be simultaneously targeted in Kenya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Automating Behavior? An Experimental Living Lab Study on the Effect of Smart Home Systems and Traffic Light Feedback on Heating Energy Consumption

Johannes Buhl, Marco Hasselkuß, Paul Suski, Holger Berg

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34414

In the face of growing popularity of eco-feedback innovations, recent studies draw attention to the relevance of the human factor for a more effective design of eco-feedback. This paper explores these challenges more deeply by employing a mixed methods approach. We provide in-situ insights from a Living Lab experiment on the effect of smart home systems and traffic light feedback on heating energy consumption in private households. Our results from an interrupted time series analysis of logged data on indoor room temperature, CO2 concentration and consumption of natural gas show that the interventions do not affect heating as expected, neither for automating behaviour via high-tech smart home systems nor via low-tech traffic light feedback. Smart home systems do not promise a significant reduction of heating energy consumption and a traffic light feedback on indoor air quality does not lead to a reaction of indoor CO2 concentrations, but may reduce heating energy consumption. Qualitative interviews on heating practices of participants suggests that comfort temperatures, lack of competences and inert heating systems do override expected effects of the feedback interventions. We propose that high-tech smart home systems should carefully consider the handling competences of users. Low-tech feedback products on the other hand should by design stronger address user experience factors like comfort temperatures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling the Determinants of Fertility Differentials among Women of Child Bearing Age in Ghana

Azasoo Makafui Ama, Jakperik Dioggban, Albert Luguterah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/35272

Aims: To examined the factors which determine fertility levels, their trend, and how they affect fertility.

Study Design: The design used was Survey Design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study used secondary data from the 2010 Population and Housing Census and some excerpt from the 2014 Ghana Demographic Health Survey which were conducted by the Ghana Statistical Service, 2014.

Methodology: The study used multi-factors additive Negative Binomial regression models.

Sample: A total number of 64,140 women between the ages of 15-49 years were used for the analysis.

Results: The study discovered that, higher education and prevalent contraceptive use had a higher inhibiting effect on fertility than the other determinants of fertility. Respondents with no formal education were 65.4% (IRR=1.654, 95% CI: 1.965 - 2.016) more likely to have children as compared to their educated counterparts. Modern contraceptive use is prevalent among women with higher education with most of these women in urban areas.

Conclusion: To stem fertility related challenges, all stakeholders must intensify campaign for female education and promotion of contraceptive use among females of child bearing age, because fertility affects all aspects of economies both nationally and internationally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Nusselt Number Dependence on Reynolds Number in Solar Air Heaters of Varying Constructal Rib Geometries

Isaac F. Odesola, Ebenezer O. Ige, Akeem B. Adebiyi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/32359

The most serious challenge in solar air heater is that the thermal performance is generally poor due to low heat transfer coefficient between the absorber plate and air flowing in the channel. Thermal performance in solar air heater is a critical issue because of usual low heat transfer coefficient. Hence, artificial roughness is being employed to enhance the rate of heat transfer in solar air heater. This study involved simulation of radiant air transport with geometric roughness such as square, rectangle and semi-circle rib. The operating parameter considered are; relative roughness height (e/D) values of 0.0283, 0.0566, 0.08500; relative roughness pitch (P/e) values ranged from 3.3 to 10 and the Reynolds number ranged from 100 to 2000 for standard laminar flow in a solar air heater. The absorber plate is heated with a uniform heat flux of 1000 W/m2 for all the constructal ribs used in this study. The effect of geometric roughness investigated is based on both velocity and energy fields obtained via conservation principles of Navier-Stokes equations solved numerically on a finite element based platform. Thereafter, the results obtained for Nusselt number (Nu) dependence on Reynolds number (Re) for various constructal rib geometries at selected roughness pitch investigated are here presented. For P/e at 3.33, Re ranged at 100 to 2000, Nu was observed to be 5.82 to 11.88; 11.32 to 17.98; 5.94 to 20.81; 0.85 to 9.33 for square, rectangle, semicircular and smooth ribs respectively. At P/e of 5.0 and investigated Re values, Nu was reported as 5.37 to 12.59; 9.72 to 16.20, 5.49 to 19.05, 0.85 to 9.33 for the respective constructal geometries. The Nu values obtained for P/e at 10.0 for the respective Re and geometric shapes 4.94 to 17.21, 14.71 to 33.61, 5.09 to 19.57, 0.86 to 9.33. The present study observed that Nusselt number considerably increased with roughness pitch for square and rectangular shaped rib geometries while it decreases slightly for semi-circle ribs but remains unchanged in smooth or rib-less ducts. Therefore, it can be concluded that rectangular and semi-circle shaped ribs offer a promising alternative in the design of micro solar-air heaters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Herbicides Efficacy to Control the Complex Weed Flora of Dry Direct Seeded Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Raghuveer Singh, Virendra Pratap Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34011

First thing which strike in researcher’s mind whenever they talk about dry direct seeded rice (DSR) is weed, no doubt Dry DSR is a promising resource conservation technology (RCT) but its acceptance among rice growers is obstructed due to heavy weed conquest. A field study was conducted at GBPUAT, Pantnagar to evaluate the efficacy of herbicides to control the complex weed flora of Dry DSR (Oryza sativa L.). Total ten herbicides were evaluated in the experiment which were consisted application of Pyrazosulfuron 25, Pretilachlor 750, Chyhalofop butyl 90, Fenoxaprop 60, Cyhalofop butyl +(chlorimuron + metsulfuron) 90+20, Fenoxaprop +(chlorimuron + metsulfuron) 60+20, Azimsulfuron 35, Bispyribac sodium 25, Fenoxaprop +Ethoxysulfuron 60+15 and Oxyflurofen + 2,4-D 300+500 g ha-1 respectively. Grassy weeds dominant the field throughout the growing season. Up to 60 days after sowing (DAS) sedge share 25-30% in total weed population in weedy plot, but later on grassy weeds surpass and maintain above 85% of total weed share up to harvest. Among different herbicides Fenoxaprop +Ethoxysulfuron 60+15 recorded highest weed control efficiency (91.9%) followed by Fenoxaprop +(chlorimuron + metsulfuron) 60+20 (85.6%) and Bispyribac sodium 25 g ha-1 (85.4%) at 60 DAS. Pre-emergence herbicides like Pyrazosulfuron 25, Pretilachlor 750 and Oxyflurofen + 2,4-D 300+500 g ha-1 were not found effective to control weeds and face heavy weed infestation from very early stage of crop. Post-emergence herbicides like as Fenoxaprop +(chlorimuron + metsulfuron) 60+20 recorded the highest grain yield (34.01 q ha-1) followed by Fenoxaprop +Ethoxysulfuron 60+15 (31.78 q ha-1) and Bispyribac sodium 25 g ha-1 (31.75 q ha-1) which were at par with two hand weeding (32.63 q ha-1) and Pyrazosulfuron at 25 (4.42 q ha-1) Pretilachlor 750 g ha-1 (4.38 q ha-1) gave non-significant yield increase over the weedy (4.16 q ha-1) plot.

Open Access Original Research Article

SCADA-Based Monitoring and Remote Control of Circuit Breakers

O. C. Osunbor, O. A. Ezechukwu, L. O. Alumona

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34200

This paper presents a descriptive analysis of automated supervisory control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)-based monitoring and remote control of circuit breakers. The automated supervisory control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system architecture has two main parts – The Hardware and The Software. The hardware comprises the circuit breaker monitor (CBM), the personal computer (PC) concentrator and the Global Positioning System (GPS) clock receiver. The circuit breaker is made up of the intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) which are found in the breaker cabinet in the switchyard. The global positioning system (GPS) receiver and the personal computer (PC) concentrator are also found in the control house. A point to multipoint (wireless) connects the personal computer concentrator with the intelligent electronic device. This kind of arrangement work as master-slave architecture. The circuit breaker monitoring slave unit is positioned at each breaker in the switchyard and are wired together to achieve the signals from controlled circuit breaker.