Open Access Original Research Article

Supersalts Na2AlX5 (X = F, Cl): Quantum Chemical Study of the Structure, Vibration Spectra and Thermodynamic Properties

Evance A. Ulime, Alexander M. Pogrebnoi, Tatiana P. Pogrebnaya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/33643

Theoretical investigation, prediction and design of novel supersalts Na2AlX5 (X = F, Cl) have been performed. The formation of the supersalts was considered through association reactions between different building blocks: Superalkalies and superhalogens, ionic (Na2Xand AlX4), as well as dimers Na2X2 and traditional salts AlX3. The optimization of geometrical structures, and determination of vibrational spectra of supersalts and their respective building blocks was carried out by the DFT/B3P86 and MP2 methods; The McLean-Chandler basis set and the extended basis set (cc-pVTZ for Na, Al; aug-cc-pVTZ for F, Cl) were used. Different possible geometrical configurations for the supersalts Na2AlX5 were considered. Consequently, two structures were proved to be isomers: A structure with two cycles in perpendicular planes with a tail (C2vsymmetry) and a compact structure with a tail (Cs symmetry). Evaluation of their relative concentrations in equilibrium vapour was done, and the energies and enthalpies of the association reactions were determined. The enthalpies of formation ∆f(0) of gas-phase supersalts are: -2250±45 kJ×mol-1 (Na2AlF5) and -1380 ±20 kJ×mol-1 (Na2AlCl5).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Grain Yield, Quality and Nutrients Content in Four Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes

Madhubabu P., K. Suman, Ramya Rathod, R. Abdul Fiyaz, D. Sanjeeva Rao, P. Sudhakar, A. Krishna Satya, V. Ravindra Babu, C. N. Neeraja

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34673

 

Aims: The main objective of the study is to combining the higher yield and micronutrient content along with good grain cooking quality in polished rice.

Study Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in the farm of Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India. The duration of the study was two successive wet seasons 2013 and 2014.

Methodology: The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Four rice accessions consist of two parent lines (Samba Mahsuri and Chittimutyalu) and two derivatives (BPCM1 and BPCM2) were grown under normal agronomical conditions, evaluated for their yield, grain quality and nutritional properties. The four genotypes were profiled with RM markers.

Results: Both the derivative lines BPCM1 and BPCM2 have shown higher yield advantage (4.5% and 8.8%) than the parent Samba Mahsuri along with quality parameters like amylose content (23.3%, 25%) and gel consistency (21.5, 23.7) as well as high zinc content (20.6 ppm, 24 ppm) moderate iron content (3.6 ppm, 4.3 ppm) in polished rice. High heritability (0.91%) was found for the all traits studied. The association of grain yield is significant with harvest index, test weight and straw yield. Grain zinc content was significantly and positively associated with iron content and negatively associated with total protein. The experiment result indicates that, the micronutrient enhancement could be possible along with grain yield and cooking quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils: A Novel Procedure

R. Galaviz Gonzalez, J. M. Horta Rangel, E. Rojas Gonzalez, L. Pérez Rea, T. Lopez Lara, J. B. Hernandez Zaragoza

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34402

Buildings built on shrink-swelling soils may experience serious damage due to volumetric strains. These strains are produced by drying-wetting cycles generated when water content fluctuates in the mass of soil. In order to study this behavior, theoretical models taking into account the soil-water retention curve have been developed. The retention curve is used to indirectly estimate some parameters describing the hydraulic behavior of soils, as for example the hydraulic conductivity and the diffusion coefficient. The precision of indirect methods to determine the hydraulic parameters depends largely on the accuracy of the experimental points of the soil-water retention curve and the equations used to simulate this curve. However, it is possible to skip the second step and simply use the experimental data of the characteristic curve to obtain these parameters. Therefore, a procedure based on an interpolation method with variable increments is proposed. This procedure generates a polynomial equation for the retention curve which simplifies the method and avoids errors caused by the fitting process of the theoretical with the experimental retention curve. In addition, no fitting parameters are required with this procedure. The results obtained with this method are similar to those reported by the traditional indirect methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics of Parboiled Paddy under Microwave Drying

Keshavalu ., Brajesh Kumar Panda, Shafat Khan, Sagar Nagvanshi, S. L. Shrivastava

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/32841

Microwave drying provides high heating rate and rapid moisture removal. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of bed thickness and power levels on drying kinetics and to assess the quality of parboiled paddy under microwave drying. Effect of process variables, namely microwave power (180, 360, 540 and 720 W) and bed thickness (1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6 cm) were studied on drying rate, moisture ratio, moisture diffusivity and activation energy. Drying time significantly decreased with increase in power while increased with increasing bed thickness. Drying rate curves revealed that drying occurred only in falling rate period. The drying data  were fitted with several established thin layer drying models. Moisture diffusivity increased with increase in power and decreased with increase in bed thickness. The highest diffusivity of 30.8×10-10 m2/s was found at 720 W and 1.5 cm thickness while the lowest diffusivity of 3.08×10-10 m2/s was observed at 180 W and 6 cm thickness. The highest value of activation energy was found to be 7.718 W/g for 1.5 cm bed thickness whereas the lowest was 2.58 W/g for 6 cm bed thickness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Numerical Prediction of Ammoniacal Nitrogen Concentrations Profile in Soil within the Vicinity of Soluos Dumpsite in Lagos State, Nigeria

L. Salami, A. A. Susu, O. Koleola

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/33034

The presence of pollutants in soil is a threat not only to human life but also to surface and groundwater integrity as well as the vegetations in the area. This work was carried out to predict the ammonia nitrogen concentrations in soil within the vicinity of Soluos dumpsite in Lagos state of Nigeria. A one – dimensional transport model of David and Peter was used in this work. The model was solved using explicit finite difference method implemented in Matlab 7.9 with the aid of model parameters obtained through screening method of sensitivity analysis of model parameters of Bhamnani and Singh. The predicted results revealed a regular trend of decreasing ammonia nitrogen concentrations as the depth increases downward in the soil which was in line with the experimental data used for the validation of the predicted results. The experimental data validated the predicted results to a 99 percent confidence level. This indicated that the model parameters used in this work are suitable for Soluos dumpsite and the one – dimensional transport model employed is useful in the prediction of ammonia nitrogen concentrations in the soil. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Aba River Contamination Using Eichhornia crassipes as Bio-indicator

C. I. Akagha, V. I. E. Ajiwe, P. A. C. Okoye, C.O Alisa, A. U. Nkwoada

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34436

The seasonal variation of heavy metal contamination levels in Aba River of Abia State in Nigeria was investigated using Eichhornia crassipies. Routine sampling was performed on bi-monthly bases to cover the Nigerian Rainy season and Harmattan season. Iron (Fe) showed more abundance with maximum concentration (69.5 mg/kg) mainly in Dec/Jan at UST, PZA, ABT and DST sampling points. The lowest concentration of iron was obtained in Apr/May for UST and DST and in Oct/Nov for PZA and ABT. Manganese showed maximum concentration (7 mg/kg) in the dry season at PZA and NBL during Oct/Nov months. The lowest concentration was in Dec/Jan at UST, PZA and ABT which were Harmattan seasons. The varied concentrations of zinc (Zn) demonstrated no pattern or trend except at Oct/Nov of ABT at value of 9.7 mg/kg, while lead (Pb) metal was significantly identified during the months of Feb/March (end of Harmattan) and April/May (beginning of Rains) during the seasonal study. Chromium metal (Cr) was uniformly distributed but significant at NBL during months of Jun/Jul. Nickel (Ni) metal was detected mainly at UST, PZA and NBL at trace levels. Copper was mainly detected during rainy seasons of Apr/May and Jun/July but remained at low concentrations when compared to other metals. Hence, UST and PZA sampling points contained the most active level of heavy metals, while Harmattan season showed the highest phyto-chemical activity of the heavy metals. Therefore Eichhornia crassipes showed metal removal in the following order Fe > Mn> Cr > Ni > Pb > Zn > Cd.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synergetic Effect of Proximate and Ultimate Analysis on the Heating Value of Municipal Solid Waste of Ado – Ekiti, Metropolis, Southwest Nigeria

O. L. Rominiyi, T. K. Olaniyi, T. M. Azeez, J. F. Eiche, S. A. Akinola

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/32953

The municipal solid waste which is a threat to the environment can be effectively utilized to boost the economic prosperity of where this waste is being generated. One of the way by which it can be utilized is energy production. The results generated in the proximate and ultimate analysis of the waste sample can be used to determine the specific energy content of the solid waste in the absence of bomb calorimeter. The samples of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) were sorted, sundried, pulverized and sieved. These analyses were carried out on the combustible components of MSW in Ado-Ekiti to determine the percentage Moisture Content (MC), Fixed Carbon (FC), Volatile Matter (VM) Ash Content (AC), Nitrogen Content (N), Sulphur Content (S) and Total Carbon (C) by monitoring the weight change at different desired temperatures according to the standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) carried out on the combustible components of MSW in Ado–Ekiti showed that the moisture content of the components varied from 0.82% in polythene products waste to 12.79% in leaves and vegetables, volatile matter ranged from 6.70% in textiles to 67.12% in bones, the fixed carbon varied from 13.89% in rubber and leather to 81.62% in textiles, ash content ranged from 4.78% in coconut and palm kernel ton 76.48% in charcoal, the total carbon varied from 57.85% in paper and cardboards to 88.37% in textiles. The nitrogen content ranged from 0.36% in polythene products to 5.88% in fruits. Sulphur content also varied from 0.03% in coconut and palm kernel to 0.26% in leaves and vegetable. The lower the moisture content, volatile matter, ash content and nitrogen content the higher the specific energy content of the MSW while the higher the, sulphur content, total carbon and fixed carbon the higher the specific energy content of the MSW .The heating value of waste can be determined by the analytical method using the data obtained in the proximate and ultimate analysis of the solid waste sample.