Open Access Short Research Article

The Impact of Anthropogenic Activities on the Fosu Lagoon in the Central District of Cape Coast: Integrated Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination

George A. Adjei, Christian K. Adokoh, John K. Bentum, George Y. Hadzi, Evans M. Ameho

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31275

Effluents from humans and industrial discharges into the environment pose a serious threat to human health and aquatic life. In view of this, levels of some heavy metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Ti, V and Mn were determined in sediment samples collected from one of the most polluted water bodies (Fosu Lagoon) in the central region of Ghana using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) - (Varian – AA240 FS). The average concentrations of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), Titanium (Ti) and Vanadium (V), from the various sites ranged from 138.75 mgkg-1 (Ti) to 4.90 mgkg-1 (Zn). Among the concentrations of heavy metals found in the sediment samples, Ti recorded the highest concentration of 4600 mgkg-1 followed by Mn (290.00 mgkg-1) and then Cu (235.93 mgkg-1). The sequence of distribution followed Ti>Mn˃V>Cu>Pb˃Zn. The mean concentration of Mn, Cu, Ti and V exceeded the USEPA and WHO standard guideline whiles Pb and Zn were below the standard regulation limits. The Pearson correlation analysis between the heavy metals at the various sampling points was generally weak, with both positive and inverse correlations demonstrating that heavy metals may be coming from different anthropogenic sources. Comparing results from this study with previous works in the same Lagoon showed increased anthropogenic activities around the lake which pose potential pollution threats to the lagoon especially, the heavy metal pollutants which may be toxic to humans and aquatic life.

Open Access Original Research Article

DIAUTIS: A Fuzzy and Affective Multi-agent Platform for the Diagnosis of Autism

Mohamed El Alami, Najoua Tahiri, Fernando de Arriaga

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-28
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33716

Autism is a disease that appears in the first stage of life and produces significant imbalances in the behaviour of people affected by this disease. According to existing data, autism is growing at an alarming rate. Its early diagnosis is important to be able to administer to the patient the aids it refers to, especially those related to learning.

DIAUTIS is a platform that aims to help the clinical team, doctors, parents, tutors and schools in the diagnosis of this disease. Its ability to cognitive, fuzzy, and affective computing, with the capability to learn from experience, endows the multi-agent system many possibilities. One of them is to present collections of tests of various categories, evaluate the results of the child, and present a final model of his/her condition and the severity of the disease.

The tests performed show that DIAUTIS is ready to initiate a long series of diagnostic tests with reliability and efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Developing an Automatic Switch for Home or Industrial Power Supply Changeover

Bamidele Onipede, Samuel Joseph, Omakoji Odiba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32785

Continued development of automatic change over switch is a necessary requirement for the principle of energy mix especially in developing countries characterised by insufficient mains power supply. In this paper, we report how we were able to intuitively use basic electronic components to implement an efficient automatic change over switch. In the event of a power failure from the mains supply, this automatic changeover is designed and constructed to switch on a standby generator and transfer the installation load to it (the generator) and vice versa when power is restored. The switching time was calculated and tested to be about 0.88 ms which is sufficient to prevent any noticeable disruption in the power supply to the installation load, whether home or industrial.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetic Modeling of Anaerobic Digestion of Restaurant Waste Water

Loveth Nwanneka Emembolu, Joseph Tagbo Nwabanne, Onu Chijioke Elijah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33397

This work presents the treatment of Restaurant wastewater using anaerobic digestion technique. The physicochemical analysis revealed that most of the wastewater parameters were reduced after digestion to an acceptable level. The bio-kinetics of the anaerobic digestion was well described by the first-order kinetic model. The kinetic parameters calculated for the batch digestion process were 0.0494 day-1 for K, 108.96 mg/l for Ks, 0.0282 day-1 for Kd, 1.5886 mg/mg for Y and 0.0789 day-1 for µmax. The kinetics of the biomass growth and substrate utilization rate together with the kinetic data obtained were used to develop a mathematical model for a continuous flow reactor unit under homogeneous steady state condition. As the food to micro-organism ratio increased, there was a decrease in the biomass concentration and an increase in the hydraulic retention time. The developed design data can be used in the design of the continuous process plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Statistical Bias Correction of Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Data from the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security - Climate Portal for Mount Makulu, Zambia

Charles Bwalya Chisanga, Elijah Phiri, Vernon R. N. Chinene

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33531

Although Global Climate Models (GCMs) are regarded as the best tools available for future climate projections, there are biases in simulating precipitation and temperature due to their coarse spatial resolution and cannot be used directly to assess the impact of projected climate change. The study objective was to investigate how bias correction methods impact the modelled future climate change under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) for 2020-2050.Reanalysisdata (1980-2000) and bias correction approaches (change factor [CF], nudging and Quantile Mapping [QM]) were used to calibrate GCMs [GFDL-ESM2M, MIROC-MIROC5, MPI-ESM-MR, and NCAR-CCSM4] data under RCP8.5 scenarios (2020-2050) for Mount Makulu, Zambia (latitude: 15.550° S, longitude: 28.250° E, altitude: 1200 m). Bias correction methods enable the comparison of observed and modelled impacts between the future climate scenarios and the baseline. A widely used bias correction method is the QM. QM adjusts a GCM value by mapping quantiles of the model’s distribution onto quantiles of the observed time series data. In spite of nudging being robust and easy to implement, it suppresses high-frequency variability and introduces artificial phase shifts. CF cannot provide information on future climate changes in high frequency variability that may be critical for specific impact applications such as estimates of peak discharge in hydrological catchments or inputs for crop models. Future climate signals shows that the number of days with and the amount of precipitation (mm/year) for 2020-2050 would range from 62 - 92 days and 211.9 - 906 mm/year, respectively. On the other hand, maximum and minimum temperature would increase in the in the range of 1.23 - 1.97°C and 1.45 - 2.68°C, respectively. QM can be used for precipitation while the CF can be used for temperature. Nudging is a widely used technique for online bias reduction, where modelled fields are continuously forced toward observed climatology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological and Morphological Responses of Amaranthus hybridus L. (Green) to Simulated Nitric and Sulphuric Acid Rain

A. A. J. Mofunanya, L. Soonen

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31863

Aims: To determine the physiological and morphological responses of Amaranthus hybridus leaf area, shoot height, stem girth, leaf number, petiole length, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) of leaf, shoot and root, relative growth rate (RGR) and chlorophyll (chl.) content to simulated nitric and sulphuric acid rain.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Botany, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria, between February and April, 2016.

Methodology: Thirty five poly bags were used. Simulated nitric and sulphuric acid rain (SNAR and SSAR) of pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and a control pH of 6.0 were separately prepared and sprayed every two days. The research was carried out in a greenhouse under controlled conditions.

Results: Results showed highest decreases at pH 2.0 and lowest decreases at pH 4.0 in all the physiological parameters studied. Highest decreases are depicted by lowest measured values while lowest decreases by highest values in all measured parameters as affected by SNAR and SSAR. Acid rain treated plants showed necrosis, chlorosis and leaf deformation. Chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll of acid rains treated plants revealed a trend of decrease in content with increasing period of development. Mean values for leaf area response to simulated HNO3 and H2SO4 acid rains of pH 2.0, pH 3.0 and pH 4.0 at 4 weeks period of development were 14.60±0.33d, 17.50±0.47d, 18.80±0.11d and 14.94±0.23d 17.70±0.20d, 17.92±0.28d as against control value of 22.62±0.26d cm2. Mean values for shoot height response to acid rains had values of 16.48±0.59d, 19.65±0.66d, 20.46±0.88d, 15.82±0.59d and 18.27±0.12d, 19.74±0.17d and 24.48±0.23d cm. Mean values for chl. a, b and total chl. at 28 days for SNAR and SSAR pH 2.0 and pH 6.0 were 18.9±0.12, 23.4±0.04 mg g-1 FW and 42.3, 20.0±0.3, 23.6±0.3 mg g-1 FW and 43.8 and 58.2 0.3, 71.2 0.3 mg g-1 FW and 129.4 respectively.

Conclusion: Physiological and morphological parameters studied responded negatively to simulated nitric acid (HNO3) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) rain with significant decrease at all acidity levels with respect to the control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wireless Charging System for an Implanted Sensor

Ali H. Al-Fatlawi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33867

Increasing the demand for developing implantable devices and sensors promotes the concept of the wireless power transfer. The implanted glucose sensors, for example, shall be built small enough to allow implanting it inside the patients' body [1] to indicate the readings easily. It grants the patients the ability to read data simply through a receiver located out of the body. However, there is a problem in most of these sensors in providing them with the necessary power by using traditional chargers because any direct contact with these devices is impossible. Therefore, scientists and researchers investigate new solutions and methods to maintain transferring enough power to charge the battery of the sensor. Among all of these methods, the inductive coupling proves its ability in transmitting the power wirelessly to the application with high efficiency. This paper presents a wireless charging system to transfer the power from an external charger to an implanted device based on the inductive coupling. It discusses different considerations and possibilities in designing and implementing the proposed charger to provide enough power to the largest possible distance.