Open Access Original Research Article

Maximization of Transfer Ratio and Minimization of Harmonics in Three Phase AC/AC Matrix Converter

Raheel Muzzammel, Umair Tahir

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33416

Energy saving and different working voltage applications are widely employing matrix converters. Matrix converters are used to convert three phase AC input voltages to three phase AC output voltages of required magnitude and frequency. Pulse width modulation is a technique used for converting three phase AC input to three phase AC output. In this research paper, pulse width modulation based matrix converter will be designed to acquire voltage of desired magnitude and frequency. Voltage transfer ratio will be maximized in this technique so that any desired voltage magnitude could be achieved. Secondly, harmonics will be made reduced in this design. Simulations will be performed in Matlab and characteristics of output waveform will be observed with respect to characteristics of input waveforms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bio-stimulants on Improving Floral Characteristics, Yield and Quality of Apple cv. Red Delicious

Mohd Zubair, F. A. Banday, Umar I. Waida, Jahangir A. Baba, S. S. Hussain, Munib-u- Rehman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33634

The Effect of bio-stimulants on improving floral characteristics, yield and quality of apple cv. Red Delicious was studied in the Division of Fruit Science, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar during the year 2013 and 2014. Twenty five year old apple trees of cv. Red Delicious were selected at the Sher-e-Kashmir university of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Shalimar, Kashmir. The soluble boron of solubor (0.1%) and bio-stimulants of Biozyme (1.5 ml/lt) and triacontanol (10 ppm) and their combinations were sprayed at three timings: (i) At pink bud stage (ii) three weeks after fruit set of apple (iii) two months after second spray. Two months after second spray, solubor was replaced with 0.5% CaCl2.The results revealed that combination of solubor + biozyme + triacontanol and solubor + biozyme was more effective to improve floral and yield characteristics with fruit set (74.71 and 69.50%) and yield (97.75 and 92.70 kg/trees) Fruits were harvested and analysed for their physico-chemical characteristics. Foliar application of solubor + biozyme + triaconatanol and biozyme + triacontanol improved fruit color, size, weight, volume, firmness and TSS, sugars while acidity declined in all treatments at various stages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Tar Generated during Updraft Gasification of Woody Biomass in Auto-thermal Packed Bed Reactor

Joseph H. Kihedu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33654

This study presents characteristics of tar formed during updraft gasification of biomass by using mass spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis. Tar content in producer gas is higher at the lower-middle part of the reactor which represents a pyrolytic zone. Tar is composed of C, H, N and O by 70.62%, 10.62%, 0.57% and 18.20%, correspondingly and its HHV is around 35.27 MJkg-1. ToF-MS analysis for ion mass-to-charge ratio (mz-1) indicates high intensities from 280 mz-1 to around 380 mz-1. In comparison with tar taken from the trap, tar samples captured along the bed heights have relatively low peaks at 500 mz-1, 555 mz-1and 615 mz-1. Devolatilization of tar up to 700 K follows a similar trend regardless of presence or absence of oxidizing agent. Tar has about 22.17% fixed carbon content whose combustion and gasification at heating rate of 20 Kmin-1 occurred above 700 K. Average devolatilization for volatile matter in tar during non-isothermal pyrolysis, combustion and gasification was about 2.29%min-1. Average degradation of fixed carbon during non-isothermal combustion and non-isothermal gasification was found to be 3.45%min-1 and 0.54%min-1, respectively. For isothermal combustion and gasification at 1,273 K, degradation of fixed carbon was about 3.73%min-1 and 0.95%min-1, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

General and Specific Combining Ability for Nine Morphologic Characters in Round Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

Ravi Kumar, Randhir Kumar, Amit Kumar, Saksham Kumar Sinha, Preeti Kumari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33727

A study was undertaken to estimate general and specific combining in brinjal through diallel analysis involving 6 parents. The combining ability analysis revealed highly significant differences among the treatments for all the parameters studied except days to 50% flowering and number of primary branches per plant. The genotype SBRB-6/12 was found best general combiner for number of fruit per plant and yield per plant. The top three crosses (SBRB-3/12 x SBRB-2/12, SBRB-6/12 x SBRB-3/12 and KS-224 x Swarna Mani) with high per se performance have exhibited high sca effects for yield. Both additive and non-additive gene actions were operating for all the characters except days to 50% flowering, fruit diameter and number of primary branches/plant. Therefore, the general combiner can be exploited for the creation of varieties lines, and the presence of specific combining in the hybrids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Depotted Faecal Sludge into the Environment and Design of a Suitable Treatment System: Case of Nomayos Area in Yaounde City

André Talla, Raymond Sezawo, Paul-Salomon Ngohe-Ekam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32755

Aims: The aim of this study is to contribute to the establishment of a sustainable system of treating faecal sludge derived from autonomous sanitation system; this through co-composting with sawdust, using an analytical formula to obtain the appropriate ratio of mixing sludge and sawdust.
Study Design: In other to meet that objective, we have spent eight weeks in the site of Nomayos, area in Yaounde city, support of the present study. For this period, we followed the movement of the depotted trucks of faecal sludge then recorded the quantities these waste and taken samples for the analysis laboratory.

Place and Duration of Study: Physics and chemistry laboratory, University of Yaounde I and Research Center, National Advanced School of Public Work, between August 2016 and October 2016.

Methodology: Data were collected and we counted 467 trucks emptying during this period. The analysis of these data collected from the field shows that the waste disposal site of Nomayos swallows up more than 140 m3 per day of faecal sludge which correspond to 10 emptying per day. We also noticed that, 85.87% of the faecal sludge came from septic tanks where they had spent several years.

Results: The samples analysis showed that the faecal sludge dumps in this area had the organics fraction (TVS/TS) of 3.25% and the mineralization rates of 96.75%. This proves that, the waste had low organics fraction and had spent many years in the septic tanks before collection. The biodegradability index (COD/BOD5) of this waste was 21, greater than one showed that the waste was not totally biodegradable. We have proposed as recommended treatment system for this type of faecal sludge, considering ecological sanitation system for a sustainable development, the unplanted drying bed after which we performed co-composting with sawdust to stabilize the substrate and lagoon system for leachate treatment. This system presents a potential production of 21.0 tons per day of desiccated faecal sludge; 18.9 tons per day of compost and 120 m3 per day of leachate treatment.

Conclusion: The realization of our proposed treatment system, will make it possible to solve this problem of pollution on a large scale.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Residential Household Energy Consumption in Ekiti State-Nigeria

A. O. Akinola, O. T. Oginni, O. L. Rominiyi, J. F. Eiche

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32374

Aims: The paper compares the residential household energy consumption pattern between the densely and sparsely populated dwellers on the basis of income level classification with a view to ensuring functional distribution of energy. This study identified, determined and evaluated the various households’ energy choices, quantities and costs of domestic energy consumption and provided a database for documentation.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between December 2014 and March 2015.

Methodology: Primary data were collected through a well structured questionnaires administered on households. Direct and personal observations were used to corroborate same information obtained from the questionnaires used to present more accurate information in the paper. Data obtained were analyzed using both independent and paired t-tests conducted at 5 and 10% levels of significance in the annual energy consumption between the low and high income earners in the visited areas respectively.

Results: The result revealed that, the densely populated area remains the larger consumer of energy content of 827,411.20 MJ (63%) against the sparsely populated areas with 486,267.60 MJ (37%), while on the basis of households’ income level; the energy consumed by the low income earners (790,719.30 MJ) is significantly higher than the high income earners (522,959.49 MJ).

Conclusion: The study established that, fuel wood was the poor man’s energy source (6.5%) as well as charcoal (11.2%) majorly used in sparsely populated areas with high demand. Kerosene consumption (29.6%) was positively and significantly influenced by income and population in both locations while, LPG (44.9%) and electricity (7.8%) were used mainly in the densely populated areas. However, the results implied that, there was a positive link between income and choice of energy consumption by households that showed the low income earners consumed more energy than the high income earners due to their cooking frequency and unit energy purchase index.

Open Access Review Article

Climate Change and Its Impact on Nutritional Status and Health of Children

Iffat Ghani, Mohd Zubair, Ruhul Nissa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33276

Climate change has been one of the most sought out and debated topic of this decade and is evident to have profound effect on human health, climatic conditions and biodiversity. Though changes in climatic conditions has been referred as natural process but scientific investigation has shown that the recent climatic variation has gone beyond the natural level suggesting the evolution of a process i.e. “global climate change”. The disease burden of a population, and how that burden is distributed across different subpopulations (e.g. infants, women), are important pieces of information for defining strategies to improve population health. Disease burden estimates provide an indication of the health gains that could be achieved by targeted action against specific risk factors. The measures also allow us to prioritize actions and direct them to the population groups at highest risk. It has been noticed that one in three developing-country children under the age of five – 178 million children suffers stunting due to chronic under nutrition and poor quality diets. Chronic malnutrition during the first two years of life usually results in irreversible harm. Keeping in view the above conditions this review paper was prepared to pledge the proficiency and admonish the people i.e., our children from ill effects of climate change by making people aware how they can save their children with suggestions to overcome the severe and grievous effects of looming climate change, and most of all through various suitable government policies at national and international level.