Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of Bombax costatum Calyx Hydrogel as a Potential Insulin Delivery System

U. D. Abubakar, J. T. Barminas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32935

Hydrogel are a class of polymer materials that can absorb large amount of water without dissolving. The property of hydrogels to absorb water arises from hydrophilic functional groups attached to the polymeric backbone, while resistance to dissolution is due to physical or chemical crosslinking of the hydrophilic polymer chains. They are capable of responding to physical and chemical stimuli such as temperature pressure, pH, ionic strength, etc. In this study Bombax costatum calyx hydrogel was prepared to explore its potential in drug delivery. The study involves the encapsulation of insulin using swelling equilibrium method. The hydrogel was characterised using FT-IR; SEM techniques to study the structure of the networks. The swelling behaviour was studied in three different mediums (distilled water (pH6.9-7, pH 7.4 and pH 1.2) and at two temperatures (room temperature and 37°C). The hydrogel swell more in distilled water (pH 6.9-7) than in pH 7.4 and pH 1.2. Contrary to the trends observed in the swelling behaviour, the in vitro drug release in pH 7.4 was greater than that released in distilled water and pH 1.2. In conclusion, the smart behaviour exhibited by the hydrogel makes it a promising carrier in the site specific delivery of protein and peptide drugs to the colonic region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial and Temporal Trends of Monthly, Seasonal and Annual Precipitation in Districts of Jharkhand in India

S. S. Mali, Bikash Das, J. S. Choudhary, A. K. Singh, B. P. Bhatt

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33502

Characterization of spatial variability and temporal trends in precipitation in a changing climate is vital to assess climate-induced changes to support adequate agricultural planning and water resources management strategies for the future. In this context, spatial and temporal variability in the precipitation over Jharkhand state in Eastern plateau and hill region is investigated. Spatial distribution of precipitation was mapped using ‘ordinary kriging’ geostatistical interpolation technique. A comprehensive precipitation trend and periodic analysis at the monthly and seasonal scale on a 40 year data series (1975-2014) for 18 locations in Jharkhand are presented using Mann-Kendall and Sen’s slope methods. The seasonal and annual precipitation showed large spatial variability across the Jharkhand. Although, the spatial distribution of monsoon and annual precipitation are roughly similar, annual precipitation varied considerably in space due to the variations induced by pre-monsoon and winter precipitation. The statistical analysis revealed predominantly decreasing trends, both at the annual and seasonal scale. July precipitation showed significantly decreasing trend (-3.17 to -6.21 mm/year) in large number of districts (15), while the trend in May and other ‘monsoon’ months was not significant. Over the reference period, the negative trends in monsoon, winter and annual precipitation were significant for 61, 67 and 50% of the total districts analyzed with rate of decrease for monsoon and annual precipitation in the range of -5.3 to -13.0 and -5.3 to -15.9 mm/year, respectively. In view of the rainfall dependence of the agriculture in the state and decreasing trends of precipitation, the information presented in this paper can supports further climate change risk assessment and vulnerability adaptation planning.


Open Access Original Research Article

Biofilm and Trace Metals Removal from Waste Aqueous Effluent Using Moringa oleifera-Silver Nitrate Microparticles

Ukiwe L. Nnabugwu, Oki R. Remi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33000

The present research investigated the synthesis of a novel adsorbent by combining Moringa oleifera and silver nitrate (AgNO3). The chemical components of the pre-adsorbent and adsorbent composites were characterized using Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The equilibrium adsorption capacity (Qe) for Cu, Mn and Fe in DMSH2O adsorbent was 0.04, 0.04 and 0.04 mg/g, respectively, while that for Cu, Mn and Fe for DMSC2H5OH adsorbent was also 0.04, 0.04 and 0.04 mg/g, respectively. The results indicate that the adsorbent was effective in removing Cu more than Mn and Fe from the aqueous salt mixture. Furthermore, the results observed for the biofilm experiment revealed that the M. oleifera-AgNObiocidal action was effective in deactivating oxidizable components in the wastewater system after 8 days. T-test of difference=0, at df=12, P<.05 for metal adsorption and t-test of difference=0.04, at df=8, P<.05 for COD removal indicate no statistical significant difference in metals adsorbed and COD removed in the waste stream.  The above findings have demonstrated that the synthesized M. oleifera-AgNO3 adsorbent would be effective in cleaning-up waste streams contaminated with microbes and trace metals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Critical Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Ring Size Distribution in Marshy Soils and Sediments in Warri City and Its Environs, Southern Nigeria

I. E. Agbozu, A. V. Bayowa, O. E. Oghama

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32126

This study was carried out to analyze the ring size distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marshy soils and sediment samples in Warri City, Southern Nigeria. The samples were collected during dry and rainy seasons from four locations within Warri and a control location in Agbarho, 20km away. Levels of 16 priority PAHs listed in United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were determined using Gas Chromatography coupled with Flame Ionization detector (GC-FID). This study was carried from January to March and June to August, representing the dry and wet seasons respectively. It was observed that PAHs concentration was generally higher in dry than rainy seasons for soil and sediment samples. Furthermore, ring size analysis revealed that for soils, two to three-ringed as well as four-ringed PAHs were more predominant in Ugboroke location, five-ringed PAHs in Okotie and six-ringed PAHs in Ogunu location. Overall, five-ringed PAHs were more predominant in Okotie location in the dry season. However, for sediments, two to three-ringed as well as four-ringed PAHs were more predominant in Okotie location, five-ringed PAHs in Ogunu and six-ringed PAHs in Ugboroke location. Overall, two to three-ringed PAHs were more predominant in Okotie location in the dry season for sediment samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling Velocity Distribution in 3-D for Nun River, Niger Delta Nigeria

Desmond U. Nwoko, Ify L. Nwaogazie, Charles C. Dike

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33352

In this study, hydrodynamics and sediment concentration equations of partial differential in 3-dimensions were solved using finite difference methods, the Crank Nicolson procedure to predict both sediment concentration and velocity profile of Nun River. The computer software (EKU2.8) which is a modification of the Navier Stoke’s equations was employed for discretization of Nun River stretch of 2,000 m into 2,245 rectangular meshes and simulation of the river’s flow velocity distribution. The code was validated by using the field water current measurements obtained from a selected stretch of the river. Average predicted velocities of 0.85 m/s, 1.542 m/s and 0m/s compared favorably with 0.8m/s, 1.475 m/s and 0.09m/s obtained from field measurement for upstream, midstream and downstream boundaries. The predicted results have approximate correlation coefficients of 0.96 for velocity distribution using Pearson product-moment method. The model proved very useful in predicting the velocity distribution of Nun River; higher versus lower velocities at inner and outer bends, with resultant effect of erosion and sediment deposition accordingly. The result of this study may be considered an important contribution to the improvement of sediment and erosion risk management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Electric Field Induced Resistance Change in PEDOT-PSS Films

S. Bindu, M. S. Suresh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33159

Resistance of PEDOT-PSS films changes considerably with time after application of DC voltage. Since, variation of resistance over time can lead to serious errors when used as a strain gauge or gas sensors or any device, a detailed study of the variation of film resistance with time has been made. It has been observed that AC resistance is stable with time (constant) compared to DC resistance which has been explained in terms of contact diode model. It has also been found that doping with graphite leads to lower variation (better stabilization) in the resistance over time. The results indicate that the variation of resistance is an interfacial phenomenon at the contacts and either an ohmic contact or AC measurement removes this behavior. The change of resistance is attributable to high electric field in the interfacial region of the PEDOT-PSS/metal contact.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing of Farmers’ Opinion towards Floating Agriculture as a Means of Cleaner Production: A Case of Barisal District, Bangladesh

Shaikh Shamim Hasan, Ashek Mohammad, Mithun Kumar Ghosh, Md. Ibrahim Khalil

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33635

Aims: Bangladesh, as a low-lying country, is vulnerable to global climate change and affected by floods and water logging. Hence, the country needs to adopt sufficient adaptation strategies which are based on local people traditional knowledge and locally available materials; hence, floating agriculture is that type of agriculture. Through this article we examine the floating agriculture related farmers opinion towards floating agriculture as a means of cleaner production

Study Design:  A descriptive survey research design is followed for the study and interview schedule is the main data collection instrument of the research.

Place and Duration of Study: The study area was Banaripara and Wazirpur Upazila of Barisal District of Bangladesh. Data was collected from the farmers who were involved with floating agriculture.

Methodology: A total number of 385 farmers of the two Upazilas were the population and out of them 140 farmers were selected as the sample of the study. The interview schedule was developed according to the objective of the research. We used five points Likert scale to judge the opinion towards floating agriculture. We administered multiple regression analysis using SPSS for finding out the influence of farmers’ socio-demographic characteristics on their opinion towards floating agriculture as a means of cleaner production.

Results: The farmers of the study area had moderately to less a favorable opinion (83%) towards floating agriculture as a means of cleaner production. Three of the characteristics of the farmers (eg. their age, family size and training participation on floating agriculture) had an influence on their opinion according to the regression results. Therefore, the higher the listed three characteristics according to the regression result the higher will be the opinion of the farmers towards floating agriculture.    

Conclusion: These findings suggest that it is important to explore knowledge and arrange training for the farmers on floating bed preparation, selecting suitable crops, the intercultural operation of crops and so on. Moreover, future research should be carried out on floating agriculture’s role as a means of women and unemployed employment opportunity, community development, and identify challenges of this technique.