Open Access Original Research Article

Factors of Influence in the Results of 3D Measurements: Software Associated with Coordinate Measuring Machines

Charfadine Nimane Mahamat, Stéphane Raynaud, Youssouf Mandiang

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33017

In three-dimensional metrology, the means of 3D measurements have been widely multiplied in recent years, in metrology laboratories, in production workshops, with the evolution of technology in general, the software associated with these machines are multiplied and allow to obtain the results of measurements with different methods.

In this article we carry virtual measurements on a part, using two different software associated with coordinate measuring machines, but without the CMM. To do this we use the same measurement procedure in these two software, the least-squares method is applied for the evaluation of the geometrical specifications of the part.

The results obtained by the two programs are compared with the nominal values.

The article highlights the hypothesis that the software contributes in the 3D measurement results; this approach allows the CMM measurement controller to know what measurement her software, before doing physical measurements on the CMM. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Recognition of Human Actions Based on Temporal Motion Templates

Samy Bakheet, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, M. A. Mofaddel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/28318

Despite their attractive properties of invariance, robustness and reliability, statistical motion descriptions from temporal templates have not apparently received the amount of attention they might deserve in the human action recognition literature. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for action recognition, where a novel fuzzy representation based on temporal motion templates is developed to model human actions as time series of low-dimensional descriptors. An NB (Naïve Bayes) classifier is trained on these features for action classification. When tested on a realistic action dataset incorporating a large collection of video data, the results demonstrate that the approach is able to achieve a recognition rate of as high as 93.7%, while remaining tractable for real-time operation.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Epidemiology of Road Traffic Crashes and Mortality in Nigeria, 2007-2015

Olusoji J. Daniel, Olusola A. Adejumo, Kolawole S. Oritogun, Gbenayon J. Mautin, Albert A. Salako

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33190

Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA) are an important public health problem with considerable morbidity, mortality and disability especially in low income countries. Spatial analysis tool has been used in the study of RTA in high income countries while very few studies have been carried out in Africa including Nigeria. This study was therefore conducted to explore the epidemiology of road traffic accidents in Nigeria using spatial analytical tools. 

Methods: The study is an ecological study which utilizes secondary data on road traffic accidents and mortality between 2007 and 2015 from the Federal Road Safety Commission in Nigeria. The 36 states and Federal Capital Territory were used as the unit of geographical analysis. The global Moran’s I and Local Moran’s I (LISA) test were used to measure spatial autocorrelation and significant levels were taken at p<0.05.

Results: A total of 83,548 road traffic accidents and 76,822 deaths were reported in Nigeria from 2007-2015.The total road crashes in 2007 was 5.7/100,000 population and this increased gradually to a peak of 8.7/100,000 population in 2009 and then declined to 2.9/100,000 in 2011 and to another peak of 7.8/100,000 in 2011. However, the peak year for deaths as a result of road traffic crashes was in 2010. On the average, Federal Capital Territory had the highest frequency of road crashes while Kano state had the highest frequency of deaths associated with road crashes.Nasarawa state and the Federal Capital Territory were identified as hotspots for road traffic crashes and mortality associated with road traffic crashes in the country.

Conclusion: The study found a decline of RTA over the years under study. There was however significant clustering of RTA occurrence and death in the Federal capital territory and Nasarawa state. The findings provides evidence based information to policy makers to deploy scarce resources to the identified hot spot states in order to mitigate the occurrence and mortality associated with RTA in the country. Further research is required to explore the determinants for the high rates of RTA in the identified clusters.

Open Access Original Research Article

One Hundred Months of Construction Accidents in the Southeast of Mexico

Rómel Gilberto Solís Carcaño

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33275

Construction work is considered to be one of the most dangerous activities, in which the workers are exposed to multiple risks. Due to the complex interdependence of the tasks and the fact that the productive plant changes location constantly, it is more difficult to manage injury prevention and safety in construction sites, with respect to other activities. The present study was conducted in Yucatan, Mexico, where low levels of prevention and compliance with obligatory norms have been reported. The aim was to analyze a sample of over one hundred construction accidents in building works in order to determine the causes and consequences of the lack of prevention. The risks which caused the accidents were analyzed with regard to their incidence and severity; the resulting injuries and the occupations of the workers affected were also analyzed. It was concluded that urgent measures are required in order to prevent four main risks (Concrete and masonry construction, Fall protection, Scaffolds, and Electrical); In addition, no actions were observed providing evidence that the phenomenon of lack of prevention in construction works is a priority for the authorities, companies or the trade unions.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Heat Input on the Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of AISI 304 Electric ARC Weldments

T. E. Abioye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32846

The mechanical and corrosion performances of austenitic stainless steels arc weld joints in service environments have been established to be influenced by the process parameters used in carrying out the welding process. In this work, the mechanical and corrosion resistance of electric arc weld joints of AISI 304 was investigated at varying process parameters. The welding was carried out using ESAB LHF 400 industrial welding machine. The microstructure of the weld joints was examined using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The micro-hardness and tensile strength of the welded samples were determined with the aid of Vickers micro-hardness tester and Instron universal testing machine respectively. The electrochemical corrosion of the samples in 3.5% NaCl solution was investigated using potentiostat. The results revealed that good quality arc weld joints are obtainable at a welding current range of 90-130 A and welding speed of 1.7-4.0 mm/s. The microstructure of the weld joints comprises austenite and delta-ferrite phases. The hardness value of the weld joints (ranging within 234-275 HV0.1) was found to decrease with increase in the heat energy per unit length of weld. The optimal ultimate tensile stress of 550 MPa was obtained at a heat energy input of 9680 J/mm, whereas the value obtained for the as-received AISI 304 is 560 MPa. The corrosion performance of the arc weld joints is close to that of the as-received AISI 304. However, the corrosion performance of the weld joints decreased with increase in the heat energy input.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

What’s the Benefit of Adaptation to Climate Change? Application of Partial Budgeting for the Rice Growers of Eastern Himalaya in India

Dayohimi Rymbai, Sheikh Mohammad Feroze, Ram Singh, Lala I. P. Ray

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33216

The objective of the present study was to estimate the cost of adaptation to climate change incurred by the rice growers in Eastern Himalaya (EH) in India. A sample total of 120 cereal farmers were surveyed in Senapati district of Manipur and East Sikkim district of Sikkim in EH. Two main adaptation strategies i.e., changing the transplanting time of rice (Strategy 1) and changing the transplanting and harvesting time (Strategy 2) of rice were widely adopted by the farmers. The cost and benefit of these adaptation strategies were estimated using partial budgeting technique. The cost of rice cultivation has increased by 8505.63/ha and 6374.29/ha in case of the adopters of Strategy 1 and Strategy 2 and the cost was mainly incurred on farm labour. The net benefit realized by the adopters of both the strategies was 1329.30/ha and 1568.67/ha, only, respectively. The strategies adopted were in response to the change in timing of rainfall. Hence, the study recommended the planned interventions of the State Governments through farm mechanization, construction of water harvesting and minor irrigation facilities are the urgent need in the study area.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Variability of the Historical and Future Temperature in Bangladesh

M. M. Hossain, E. Hasan, M. Alauddin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32632

Aims: To discern how the historical temperature varied over the time period from 1975 to 2014 and what kind of temperature profile Bangladesh may prevail in the future.

Study Design: This study was designed to reveal how the monthly mean of the daily average, monthly mean of daily maximum and monthly mean of the daily minimum temperature of all divisions covering all hydrological units of Bangladesh changed historically. It is also designed to forecast the all type of temperatures up to 2050 using Box Jenkin’s algorithm in IBM SPSS.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted within the time period from December 2015 to December 2016 under the Department of Civil Engineering, Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology, Gazipur, Bangladesh.

Methodology: At first the daily average, daily minimum and daily maximum temperature for the time period 1975 to 2014 of 13 stations, covering all hydrological units of Bangladesh, were converted in to monthly mean and then graphs of individual months were plotted and analyzed afterwards. To infer the historical temperature variations clearly over the entire time period, histogram of the decadal averages of the each type of temperature of the individual months were also plotted. Finally, the monthly records were forecasted up to 2050 by a time series model using Box Jenkin’s algorithm in IBM SPSS.

Results: Based on the historical and projected temperature, this study revealed that winter became colder especially in January and the summer got hotter over the time which may continue in future. By 2050 the maximum temperature may rise by 1.50±0.3℃ in summer, average temperature may rise by 1.0±0.3℃ and minimum temperature may vary by -0.8±0.3℃ in winter.

Conclusion: This study concludes that winter may get colder in the northern part as well as some southern part of Bangladesh and reverse may suit for the summer where January and April would be the coldest and the hottest months respectively in future. By the year 2050, the average temperature may rise by 1.0±0.3℃ and the maximum temperature may lead by 1.50±0.3℃, whereas the minimum temperature may vary by 0±0.2℃. Overall, Bangladesh would experience a comparatively warmer weather in the coming decades.