##### Removal of Congo Red from Aqueous Solutions Using Fly Ash Modified with Hydrochloric Acid

Ebelegi Newton Augustus, Angaye Seimokumo Samuel, Ayawei Nimibofa, Wankasi Donbebe

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/29880

The adsorption of Congo Red dye onto fly ash modified with various concentrations of Hydrochloric acid (HCFA-4,HCFA-3,HCFA-2 and HCFA-1)was studied. The effect of contact time and concentration were investigated using a batch adsorption technique. The experimental data fits well with the Freundlich isotherm due to high correlation coefficients and this may be attributed to heterogeneous distribution of active sites and multilayer adsorption, while the dynamic data is best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model which suggests that Congo Red adsorption onto fly ash modified with Hydrochloric acid appeared to be controlled by a chemisorption process. Fly ash modified with 2 M Hydrochloric acid HCFA-2 exhibited the highest adsorption capacity (KF=7.82) followed by HCFA-3 (KF = 0.74), HCFA (KF = 0.069) and HCFA-1 had the least adsorption capacity (KF =0.004). Adsorption of Congo Red dye onto fly ash modified with various concentration of Hydrochloric acid was spontaneous since Gibbs free energy of adsorption was negative in all cases.

##### Effect of Different Casting Techniques on the Castability of Nickel-Chromium Alloy

Vimal K. Munot, Ramesh P. Nayakar, Raghunath Patil

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33261

Statement of Problem: Castability plays an important role in success and failure in the field of restorative and prosthetic dentistry. Recasting of base metal alloys can alter its castability value and some of its physical properties.

Aim: To evaluate the castability of new and recasted Ni-Cr alloy using conventional ring and ringless casting system and compare the results.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Prosthodontics and crown and bridge, KLE V.K. Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, KLE University, between August 2016 and February 2017.

Materials and Methods: Thirty identical mesh - runner bar - sprue patterns were prepared and divided into 2 different groups of 15 each, namely; Group 1 – Metal ring casting system and Group 2 – Ringless casting system. Each group was further divided into 3 sub-groups based on weight percentage of new-recasted Ni-Cr alloy; Group 1A and 2A – 100% new Ni-Cr alloy, Group 1B and 2B – 50% new and 50% recasted Ni-Cr alloy, and Group 1C and 2C – 100% recasted Ni-Cr alloy. Castability of the alloy was tested using modified Whitlock’s method.

Results: The results of this study revealed that the mean castability values ranged from 99.64% – 99.86%, and there is no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the castability of new alloy and recasted alloy using ring and ringless casting techniques.

Conclusions: Ring and ringless casting techniques have comparable accuracy and can produce clinically acceptable castings.

##### Perception and Practice of Organic Farming among Secondary School Teachers in Ahoada East Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

A. G. Iyagba, C. B. Ekpete

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32558

The purpose of this study was to determine the perception and practice of Organic Farming (OF) by secondary school Agricultural Science teachers in Ahoada East Local Government of Rivers State, Nigeria. A descriptive design with a structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Ten out of the seventeen secondary schools in the Local Government Area were randomly selected and eight questionnaires per school were administered to the secondary school Agricultural Science teachers. The results indicated that majority (72.5%) of the teachers have been in the teaching profession for less than 10 years and most of them grew up in the semi urban/ urban setting, 40% aware of OF, 10% and 52.5% of the respondents agreed having high and moderate perception of OF respectively and seldom practice it. A greater percentage (85.9%) of the teachers agreed to practice OF, most planted crop in the schools is cassava (38.8%), majorly practiced intercropping and 31.2% of the respondents unwilling to inform their co-teachers of the benefits of OF. The respondents also accepted the need for elaborate knowledge and in-service training on OF, inadequate Agricultural Science curriculum to teach OF as well as better facilities and teaching methods.

##### An Analysis of the Potential, Constraints and Strategies for Development of Marirangwe Farm (A Project of the Women’s University in Africa)

Washington M. Muzari, Godfrey B. Nyamushamba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/13882

Aims: The aim of the study was to conduct an analysis of the potential, constraints and strategies for development of Marirangwe Farm. Marirangwe Farm is a project of the Women’s University in Africa (WUA) in Mashonaland East Province of Zimbabwe.

Place and Duration of Study: This case study was conducted in July 2014 in Zimbabwe.

Methodology: The methodology involved administering a questionnaire with structured and open-ended questions to key informants who are part of the management team at the farm.

Results: The following constitute formidable constraints to crop production activities: market availability; availability of suitable land for expansion of crop enterprises; high labour requirements for the crops cultivated; high cost of labour; poor soil structure and fertility; and shortage of rain at critical times of crop growth. The major constraints which inhibit the full realization of the potential for improving animal enterprises at Marirangwe Farm include unsuitable climate and physical environment for livestock production; and high insect, parasite and disease risk of the animals. The financial analysis revealed a negative Whole Farm Gross Margin of -$800.00 and a huge negative Whole Farm Profit of -$32,400.00 in the 2013/14 farming season. Partial Budget Analysis revealed that the viability of farm operations and proposed changes in the structure of enterprises depends on the relative prices of dairy milk to other livestock products. An analysis of machinery costs based on depreciation found that the farm manager has to put aside at least \$9,100 towards the replacement of farm machinery.

Conclusion: Several options can be pursued to improve the financial performance of the farm. Several options can be pursued. First of all, the potential and scope for implementing more intensive crop production should be considered. Implementation should include the resuscitation of boreholes and increasing irrigable area, resuscitating greenhouses and use of certified seed/ materials, and conducting research to identify potential market outlets for produce. The lack of enough organic material to improve soil structure and fertility could be redressed by purchasing organic manure from surrounding farms. Alternatively and in addition, animal dung could be harvested from the pens and open veld and applied to the fields. The high cost of herbicides as an impediment to effective weed control could be reduced by pursuing manual or mechanical methods of weed control. There also needs to be a move towards high-value crops such as tobacco and horticultural flowers. The farm should also invest in product market development in order to identify market niches and market segments with relatively inelastic demand where the farm can charge higher prices for its products. Measures to improve machinery efficiency include keeping engines tuned up, using machines at near capacity, performing operations that reduce the number of trips across the field, avoiding driving machinery at excessive speeds, and sticking or adhering to the manufacturers’ maintenance schedule. In addition, adequate amounts of money need to be put aside towards replacement of old machinery. Improvements in the management and operations of farm machinery could be achieved by replacing all machines that are too old and proving uneconomical to maintain in terms of costs, or performing minor modifications on existing machinery to enhance their operational efficiency. Since much of the farmland is rocky and forest, alternative land use practices could be introduced that generate additional income for the farm. These could include game farming and apiculture (bee keeping).

The introduction of additional livestock enterprises such as goats (which are browsers) can turn the rocky shrub-lands into productive farmland. The problem of unsuitable climate and physical environment for the exotic dairy breeds and their high insect, parasite and disease risk could be addressed by cross breeding exotic breeds with indigenous breeds for particular strains such as such as high disease resistance, temperature, drought and heat tolerance, while maintaining the basic traits of high productivity among the cross-bred animals.

##### Geochemical Analysis of the Groundwater Quality along the Vrishabhavathi River Basin

G. N. Manohar, M. Harish Raju, D. Janardhan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32406

Aim: The current study aims at assessing the groundwater quality along the Vrishabhavathi river basin for various water quality variables.

Study Design: Conventional Titrimetric and Spectrophotometric methods were employed to estimate the different water quality variables which are briefly explained in the methodology.

Place and Duration of Study: During the monsoon June 2015 the groundwater along the Vrishabhavathi river basin, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India were sampled for the present investigation.

Methodology: Water quality variables such as Temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity and Total dissolved solids were estimated in the field using portable apparatus. Total Hardness, Cl-, HCO3-, Ca++ and Mg++ were estimated by titremetry. Na+ and K+ were estimated using Flame photometry. SO42- and F- were estimated using Turbidimetry and SPADNS method [Spectrophotometry]. Pb and Cr were estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The standard guidelines of APHA [1998] were used for the entire analysis. Descriptive statistics and Correlation study has been done using SPSS 22 and Minitab 14.

Results: The detailed study of all the water quality variables is discussed in detail in the paper. LSI calculation indicates that majorly 53% of the water samples are classified under the class ‘D’ [Slightly scale forming and corrosive] and 40% of the water samples fall under the group ‘E’ [Scale forming but non-corrosive]. Piper trilinear plot reveals that majorly Ca++ and Mg++ are the dominant cations and HCO3and Cl- are the dominant anions. Statistical measures such as Mean, SD, SE of sample means, coefficients of Skewness and Kurtosis have been computed using the statistical package to assess the characteristics of the selected water quality variables. Further, 95% confidence intervals have been obtained for the true means of these variables and water quality variables crossing the permissible limits of WHO [1993] have been identified using these confidence limits. Correlation study has been done to estimate the significance of the linear relationship between the pairs of variables at a given level of significance and thereby the set of water quality variables which are interlinked have been identified.

Conclusion: The water quality variables which have/have the tendency to cross the permissible limits set by WHO [1993] have been identified using the confidence intervals.

Through the Piper plot and LSI calculation, we can conclude that the groundwater samples are alkaline in nature and are not suitable for consumption.

##### Mollification of WCDMA Interference on Uplink Channels in Cellular Network Using the Power Control Approach

E. Ukhurebor Kingsley, S. Maor Moses, E. Aigbe Efosa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/33048

One of the major problems in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) Radio Access Network (RAN) is interference; which reduces the signal quality of a cellular network system. Most cellular network service providers use either frequency planning or code planning techniques to analyze the interference and assign frequencies and codes based on measurement reports from network statistics.

This research presents a bright analysis of one of the main method for reducing interference in WCDMA technology using some Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of a functional cellular network service provider in Nigeria.

From the analysis and results it was visible that using the Power Control Approach (PCA) the interference on uplink transmission in cellular networks will certainly be reduced. Hence, the signal quality would be improved and optimization of the network services could be actualized. Consequently, a better Quality of Service (QoS) would be guaranteed for the generality of the subscribers.

##### A Review of the Potential Health Hazards of Radio Frequency Radiation from Cellular Base Station

Purno Mohon Ghosh, Liton Chandra Paul, A. F. M. Zainul Abadin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31737

Over the last decade, detrimental effects of human exposure to electromagnetic radiations have received widespread attention. With the increasing number of cellular communication system around the world, the number of base transceiver station is also increasing. This scenario is very common around us. When these base stations are located in a crowd place and even on the top side of the building, it can create some panic to the general public. The electromagnetic radiation from these base stations may cause serious health hazard. This paper takes into account the adverse health effects caused by radiated electromagnetic energy from typical base stations in different countries and the exposure level due to these base stations are compared to international guideline like ICNIRP and FCC.