Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of the SAR Reduction Techniques for the Effects of Electromagnetic Waves on Human Head

Nada Alaa, Walid S. El-Deeb, Adel Zaghloul

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32619

Aims: In this paper, a comparison between three different human head models with three different types of antennas is presented to show the effect of shielding technique on the reduction of SAR. The three human head models presented are SAM phantom, six-layer, and two-tissue models. The three different types of antennas that are studied in this research are monopole, dipole, and helix antenna. Studying the parameters that affect the SAR value such as ferrite shield dimensions and position are also taken into consideration in this study to end up with a recommendation for the best model that achieves the optimum SAR reduction value.

Place of Study: Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Zagazig.

Results: The results have been obtained using CST Microwave Studio for the 3D EM simulation of high frequency components.


Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Students' Learning Strategies and their Cognitive Engagement at International Islamic School Gombak

Abubakar Sani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32382

This study investigates the relationship between students' learning strategies and their cognitive engagement in English class at International Islamic School in Gombak, Malaysia. Explicitly, the research intends to fathom the correlation between three learning strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive and social) and students' level of cognitive engagement that include deep and shallow engagement. This research was carried out with 191 students (male and female), who constitute the respondents of the study. Their ages vary from 13 to18 years. Data were collected using a questionnaire, employing a five (5) point Likert’s scale. However, correlations as statistical inference were employed in testing the relationships between learning strategies and cognitive engagement. The findings reveal that significant and positive correlations were found between three types of learning strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive and social) with cognitive engagement. Subsequently, a significant negative correlation was also found between deep and shallow engagement, portraying an inverse relationship. Thus, teachers at International Islamic school Gombak have to dedicate themselves in preparing classroom instructions or activities that exhibit elements of cognitive, meta-cognitive and social strategies. This however, in essence, could help the students to exert mental efforts, pay attention and become active during lessons, which all indicate signs of cognitive engagement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Time Period in Which Radiation Workers Completed the 20 mSv Annual Limit

Sajjad Ahmed Memon, Naeem Ahmed Laghari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/30802

Background: Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy Jamshoro, an institute of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission provides the facilities of diagnosis and treatment to cancer patients of encasement areas of Jamshoro/Hyderabad through its dedicated radiation workers wearing film badges as the personal monitoring devices to monitor their occupational doses. The main rationale of the current study was to analyze the occupational doses received by the radiation workers and to explore the achievement of annual limit as recommended by regularity bodies.

Materials and Methods: For the measurement of workers’ personal occupational radiation doses, each worker handling radioactive sources has been issued with a film badge with unique number provided by Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology Islamabad. The readings of developed films were kept as radiation workers’ occupational dose history. Total 30 radiation workers, 8 (27%) of nuclear medicine section, 4 (13%) of Radiology, 3 (10%) each of Radio-Immune-Assay & Repair Maintenance sections respectively and 12 (40%) of Radiotherapy section were included in this study.

Results: Almost half of the workers received 10% of 20 mSv limit. The average occupational radiation doses for workers ranged from 1.11 mSv to 3.42 mSv. The time period in which radiation workers attained the 20 mSv limit ranged from 6 to 18 years.

Discussion: More than 50% of workers received the dose less than 2 mSv, 10% of the limit. The highest of radiation dose for worker of nuclear medicine section received 4.82 mSv (24% of limit). The workers deputed in hot lab of nuclear medicine section completed the limit in the shortest time period of 6 to 7 years whereas radiology section’s workers achieved the limit in 9 to 10 years. The one of radiotherapy workers have achieved the same limit of 20 mSv in 12 years due to source stuck handling whereas most of the workers attained the limit in more than 15 years.

Conclusion: Our data is not comparable with any of the studies already completed on film badge dosimetry as the gathered data is exceptional in nature, so more studies must be conducted on subject topic for comparison.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Microbial Pathogens in Biofilms of Deteriorating Fish in Ogun State, South-Western Nigeria

O. O. Afolabi, M. O. Adigun, E. Dosumu, C. Okonofua, F. V. Agbaje-Daniels, E. O Lateef

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32281

The experiment was carried out to identify bacteria pathogens that causes fish spoilage and consequently reduces their shelf-life in the environment and invariably found out basis for controlling and preventing their activity.

Thirty fish samples comprising of fifteen Titus (Scomber scombrus) and fifteen Kote (Trachurus trachurus) were collected from five major markets in Ogun state, Nigeria. Samples were cultured and processed using the pour plate and streak plate technique. Samples from the skin scrapings were cultured in five media consisting of four selective media and a basal media; Maconkey agar, Eosin Methylene Blue agar, Mannitol Salt agar, Salmonella Shigella agar and Nutrient agar. Differentiation and isolation of various isolates were based on gram-staining technique and biochemical reactions using OXOID MICROBACTTM identification kits. On examination, in vitro assay showed the presence of six bacteria species in the surface biofilms namely; Staphylococcus aureusKlebsiella pneumoniaeEscherichia coliSalmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus stuartii. Prevalence of the various isolates in the culture were found to be 25.2%, 20.6%,18.7%, 14.9%, 11.2% and  9.3% respectively. The highest colony count (140) was obtained from samples obtained from Ijebu-Ode while the lowest colony count was obtained from Sagamu. The mean bacteria load of the isolates was 7x106 CFU ml-1. The high microbial load in biofilms of the samples obtained from the market especially those of enteric bacteria showed the need for enforcement of high hygiene standards for food handlers and food storage companies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Research on Oxidation of Phenanthrene to Phenanthrenequinone and Its Kinetics

Chang-Yi Jin, Zu-Yu Liu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32508

The oxidation of phenanthrene with TBHP into phenanthrenequinone and its kinetics have been studied. Reaction conditions were investigated by orthogonal test. For the oxidation of phenanthrene to phenanthrenequinone the optimum conditions as follows: molar ratio of TBHP to phenanthrene: 5:1; MoO2(acac)2 (catalyster) content: 0.05 g(per 5 g phenanthrene); reaction time: 4 h. And for its kinetics a laboratory scale completely mixed reactor was used. By using the orthogonal test and mathematic ways, such as Runge-Kutta’s integral and revised simplex for optimization, estimation of kinetic parameters was conducted. The chemical kinetic equations were obtained. These parameters could be utilized for the design, operation and optimization of the reactor in oxidation of phenanthrene to phenanthrenequinone.


Open Access Original Research Article

Peasant Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Coping with Climate Change in Jibia Northwest Katsina, Nigeria

Ibrahim Yusuf El-Ladan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32611

The aim of this study is to identify the adaptation strategies developed by local peasant farmers to reduce negative impacts of climate change in Jibia, Northwest Katsina, Nigeria. Primary data were obtained from field survey through questionnaire administration using stratified random sampling technique where 102 respondents from 3 localities of the local government area. Data collected was then collated, summarized, analyzed and presented using simple descriptive statistics methods. Findings revealed that farmers observed elements of climate change in the area. Increased temperature, incessant rainfall and dry spells during rainy season were some indicators to climate change as perceived by the respondents. Various adaptation measures were being employed, among them, planting of drought tolerant crops, increased use of organic manure and planting varieties of crops. It is recommended that governments, in partnership with international development partners, should build the capacities of peasant farmers to strengthen their indigenous technology knowledge abilities in developing and implementing economically viable user-friendly adaptation plans and strategies that would reduce the impacts of climate change on agricultural activities. Successful adaptation techniques adopted elsewhere that have local relevance may also be replicated.


Open Access Original Research Article