Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges and Prospects of Enforcement of Environmental Laws in Port Harcourt Metropolis Rivers State, Nigeria

E. I. Elenwo, C. S. Urho

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-29
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31447

This study examined the challenges and prospects of enforcement of environmental laws in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State. For the purpose of data collection, the research survey or descriptive method was adopted. Data obtained from the field using a questionnaire instrument constituted the primary source of data. In addition, secondary data were obtained from government organizations and previous studies carried out by eminent scholars in the field of environmental laws. Descriptive statistics such as simple percentages, cross tabulations and charts were used to explain the results of the analyses while inferential statistics such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test hypothesis 1 (no significant difference in perception of Port Harcourt residents on role of environmental laws and regulations) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used in analyzing the hypothesis 2 (no significant variation in effects of the factors influencing non-compliance with environmental laws in Port Harcourt). For hypothesis 1, the null hypothesis is rejected while the alternative hypothesis is accepted e.g; the causes of non-compliance with environmental laws among the selected communities vary. For hypothesis 2, using principal component analysis, four components explain 80.8% of the total variance in the factors causing non-compliance with environmental laws in Port Harcourt Metropolis. Component 1(Governance and Rights) explains 42.2% of the variation, component 2(Implementation and Evaluation) explains 20.5%, and component 3(Attitudes and Laws) explains 11.8% while component 4(Poverty and Understanding of Environmental Rights) explains 6.2%. On the challenges and prospects of enforcement of environmental laws in Port Harcourt city, Rivers State, some challenges were identified such as poor funding of the agencies/ministries, conflicting roles amongst the enforcement agencies, also of importance is the poor/obsolete laws. Some enhancements of enforcement were identified as follows; stiffer penalties for defaulters of the environmental laws, adequate funding and stiffer enforcement measures amongst others. The research recommends the following; the government must review the functions of all its ministries and agencies by either merging or abolishing those with same roles. The national and states assemblies should review all relevant environmental laws, and replace them with local content laws. Funding, institutional strengthening and capacity building of the enforcement agencies/ministries must be given priority. Finally the government must recognise the need to gain the confidence of the general public to achieve all these measures suggested.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Geospatial Analysis of the Terrain of Kachia LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria, for Military Operations

Kehinde Ojeh Isaac, Ikusemoran Mayomi, J. O. Odihi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/29669

The basis of this study is to analyze the terrain of Kachia LGA (the home of military institutions in Nigeria) for military operations. ArcGIS 10.0, in complimentary with Google Earth Pro and Suffer 10 were integrated with remotely sensed data such as SRTM Digital Elevation Models data, satellite imageries in conjunction with secondary data such as topographical and thematic map to analyze the terrain of kachia LGA. Relevant existing data were also acquired and processed to generate DEM, slope, contours, 3D-view and flow accumulations which were used for general reconnaissance and the analysis of the terrain, that is, the topography, landuse and landcover, drainage and some cultural features such as roads and settlements of the LGA. Viewshed analysis, Lines of Sight and 3D view were used to model the best avenue of approach by the military into the LGA. Moreover, the most suitable site for “release point” during military advance which were based on some criteria were also modeled and determined using geospatial techniques. Other military operations such as axis of advance and obstacle crossing were all demonstrated, while the scenario of the real battle ground were modeled and analyzed. The study revealed that only four out of the ten routes into Kachia LGA are suitable for advance, while the best release point was found to be located in the southern part of Kaja settlement with area coverage of 18.09km2. Bonds such as villages like Atara, Akwana, Ungwan Kanrara, Bika and Adage as well as Rivers Katera, Awon and Bika which all lie along the axis of advance between the Release Point and Kachia were also detected geospatially as the Report Lines. Rivers Atara, Akwana and Bika were discovered to be possible obstacles along the axis of advance. Nigeria military should as a matter of priority establish units for geospatial analysis in all the military institutions.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Human Motion Analysis from Depth Video Sequences Using Multi-scale and Multi-directional Features

Md. Saifuddin Tarafder, Md. Shahadat Hossain, Md. Rafiqul Islam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2017/v19i68806

The emerging cost-effective depth sensors have made easier the action recognition task significantly. In this paper, we propose an effective method to analysis human actions from depth video sequences based on multi-scaling and multi-directional transformation which provide additional body shape and motion information for action recognition. In our method, corresponding to the front, side and top projection views, we generate three Depth Motion Maps (DMMs) over the entire video sequences. More specially, the multi-scaling and multi-directional transformations are implemented on the generated DMMs of a depth video sequence. Finally, the concatenation of these features is used as a feature descriptor for the depth video sequence. With this new feature descriptor, the l2-regularized collaborative representation classifier (l2- CRC) is utilized to recognize human actions. The recognition results of Microsoft Research (MSR) Action3D dataset show that our method significantly outperforms than the other existing methods, although our representation is much more compact.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Sand and Wood Fibres in Tertiary Treatment of Effluent Discharged by Lagoons

Yamma Rose, Koné Martine, Yonli Arsène, Ouattara Yacouba, Nébié Roger, Théodore Nana

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31499

In Burkina Faso, as in most developing countries, access to water and sanitation remains a challenge. This justifies the reuse of wastewater to provide additional quantities of water for different uses to reduce water deficits. In this context, the wastewater from the city of Ouagadougou is treated by lagoons for its reuse on gardening plots downstream the station. Since several years these plots have been disaffected and abandoned due to the quality of the discharged water. This work aims at experimenting complementary treatments to improve water quality for agricultural reuse. Indeed, pilots of infiltration-percolation on sand and on wood fibres have been implemented during 3 months in the Institute of Research in Applied Sciences and Technologies. A comparative analysis of the treated waters according to the ISO and AFNOR standards indicated that the various filters gave satisfactory purification efficiencies which are in agreement with the quality objectives imposed by the national standards for parameters such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), nitrogen and faecal coliforms. The respective removals of COD by the sand filter (FS) and the wood fibres filter (FC) were 94% and 91%, while BOD5 was eliminated with efficiencies of 84% and 64% respectively. Regarding nutrients such as ammonium and nitrate, the station gave the effluents contents conform to the discharge standards but the filters have made it possible to improve their quality. FS and FC gave satisfactory efficiencies of 97% and 92% for the faecal coliforms removal. Concerning faecal streptococci and Bacillus cereus, it is noted non-negligible with respective efficiencies of 84 and 93% with the wood fibres while the sand allowed efficiencies of 79 and 88% for the same parameters. In general, the additional treatment by the pilots has made it possible to improve the quality of the water coming from the station.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

University Students’ Conceptions about Global Warming and Climate Change

Kidanemariam Paulos

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32609

The aim of this study is to assess the global warming and climate change preconceptions and misconceptions of students. Descriptive survey method was used for the study.  The participants of this study were 84 university students who were in the first and last year of their study. Results show that in survey-based conception test first-year geography students scored significantly higher than third-year geography students (mean score of 57.42 to 52.00 and standard deviation 7.10 to 8.50 respectively; MD=5.42, t (82) 3.13, P=0.002, α=0.05.). Analyses of gender effect reveals that male students scored slightly higher (M=55.26, SD=8.36) than their female counterparts (M=52.65, SD=8.07) on climate change conceptual knowledge; MD=2.60, t (82) 1.33, P=0.186, α=0.05. Findings further indicate that both education levels grip a lot of cause-related and evidence-related misconceptions about the climate change. The mismatch between educational level and environmental conceptual knowledge calls for among others reevaluation of current harmonized modular curricula that help students to acquire deep knowledge about climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Differential Early Stage Water Relations, Gaseous Exchange and Photosynthetic Responses of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) to Water and Salt Stress

Sagar K. Jadav, Kirti Bardhan, D. P. Patel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32201

Aims: Distinguish the effect of water stress and salt stress on early stage water relations, gaseous exchange and photosynthetic parameters on tomato seedling (Cv.GT-2).

Study Design: The research was conducted with three replicates in a completely randomised experimental design with one tomato genotype.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted under nethouse condition in October-2015 at ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-Gujarat, India.

Methodology: Seeds were germinated in five levels of iso-osmotic concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol. Seeds were sown in -0.2,-0.4,-0.6,-0.8 and -1.0MPa of osmotic concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (PEG-8000). The water stress effects, due to treatments of different iso-osmotic concentrations of NaCl and PEG, were compared with control (distilled water). The photosynthetic parameters viz. photosynthetic rate, quantum efficiency of PS-II, chlorophyll content and gaseous exchange parameters viz. transpiration rate, stomatal conductance were recorded at 14th and 21stdays after sowing (DAS).

Results: Significant reduction was recorded in photosynthetic parameters, gaseous exchange parameters and water potential at -0.2Mpa of NaCl and PEG at 14 and 21 DAS. At -1.0MPa, the lowest values/readings for physiological parameters were observed in both PEG-8000 and NaCl solutions.

Conclusion: On the basis of the results obtained, it was revealed that isosmotic concentration of NaCl had more inhibitory effect on the physiological parameters. Thus at early stage of growth, ion toxicity seems to be more inhibitory than water limitation.

Open Access Review Article

Adlerian Individual Psychology Counselling Theory: Implications for the Nigeria Context

Kingdom Umegbewe Goodluck, Justin M. Odinioha Gabriel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31087

Counseling is a helping relationship involving a client or clients and a professional counselor; while a counseling theory is a postulation put forward to guide the counselor in the process of helping a client with a maladjustment problem. Thus, this paper has x-rayed Alfred Adler’s “Individual psychology” counseling theory; covering issues such as concepts and view of human nature; Adler’s explanation of abnormal behaviours, goal of therapy, therapeutic techniques as well as the criticisms and merits of the Adlerian individual psychology and concluded with the implications and applicability of the theory  to Nigeria life situation.