Open Access Short Research Article

Spatial Assessment of Flood Vulnerability in Anambra East Local Government Area, Nigeria Using GIS and Remote Sensing

Okwu-Delunzu Virginia Ugoyibo, Ogbonna Chidi Enyinnaya, Lamidi Souleman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/29378

This study aimed at spatial assessment of flood vulnerability in Anambra East and environs. In carrying out this work, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) were employed. Data from Google image and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) of 2012 was used. ArcGIS 10.1 and other GIS softwares were employed in image processing. The procedure consists of mapping of flood prone area and modeling of digital elevation. Analysis of land use and land cover indicated that agricultural land used or farmland was highest (41.7%), followed by forest 27.26% and built up area 22.75%. Flood vulnerability assessment showed that 71% of the study area was liable to flooding. This calls for immediate interventions and initiatives to discourage inhabitants from occupying the flood prone areas, relocate and avoid liable areas particularly river banks. In this regard land use planning should be followed appropriately and where necessary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adaptive Time Steps Runge-Kutta Methods: Comparative Analysis of Simulation Time in Nonlinear and Harmonically Excited Pendulum and Duffing Oscillators

T. A. O. Salau, O. O. Ajide

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32388

Time management without integrity compromise is an integral part of good engineering practice. The present study investigated for the required computation time in nonlinear and harmonically excited oscillators (Pendulum and Duffing). Adaptive time steps simulation of their governing equations with personal computer were performed by Runge-Kutta methods (RK2, RK3, RK4, RK5, RK5M) and one blend (RKB) comprising unsteady and steady solutions. The respective Pendulum and Duffing Poincare result at damp quality (4, 0.168), excitation amplitude (1.5, 0.21) and excitation frequency (2/3, 1.0) were used to validate the codes developed in FORTRAN environment. Actual simulation time was monitored at three different lengths of excitation periods (40000, 80000 and 120000) using the current time subroutine call command.

Except for RK2, the validation Poincaré results compare well with the counterpart available in the literature for the oscillators. The actual computation time decrease rapidly with increasing order of Runge-Kutta method, but suffered relative increase for the blended method. The difference in computation time required between RK5 and RK5M is negligible for all studied cases. The Pendulum required longer actual computation time (4-115 seconds) than Duffing (3-52 seconds). The respective normalized range of time step for Pendulum and Duffing formed a simple average ratios {(1.0): (7.5): (13.3): (26.0): (24.0): (29.7)} and {(1.0): (3.7): (5.1): (9.1): (8.0): (11.2)} for RK2, RK3, RK4, RK5, RK5M and RKB. It is concluded that substantial time management can be achieved by the Runge-Kutta methods except RK2 that permitted strictly shorter simulation time steps leading to longer actual simulation time and consequently simulated largely an unacceptable Poincare result.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Minerals and Nutrient Variations as Influenced by Harvesting Stages in selected African Leafy Vegetables Grown in Busia, Kenya

Makokha Grace, Okinda Owuor, Ongeri David

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32437

Proper nutrition contributes to declines in under-five mortality rates and improves the productivity of adults. Addressing nutritional problems requires adequate information on the diets of individuals and populations. African leafy vegetables (ALVs) are widely consumed and often harvested at different stages after planting. Four ALVs namely Vigna unguiculata, Amaranthus hybridusCleome gynandra and Solanum scabrum are commonly grown in western Kenya, their potentials have not been evaluated for supply of nutrients. However, nutritional values may vary depending on the species and harvesting stage. The effects of harvesting stages on nutritional value of selected ALVs were evaluated. The trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design in three replicates. Leaves were sampled at different harvesting stages and analyzed for N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mn, Mg, Fe and Zn levels. The levels of nutrients significantly (P≤0.05) varied between species and harvesting stages. The Fe, Mg and Zn levels were above the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Amaranthus hybridus had higher (P≤0.05) levels of P, Ca, Zn, Mn and Na. The N, P, K, Ca and Zn levels significantly (P≤0.05) increased from 4 to 6 weeks after seed emergence (WAE) then decreased from 6 to 10 WAE. The Fe levels increased from 4 to 6 WAE while the increase from 6 to 10 WAE was not significant. Magnesium levels significantly (P≤0.05) increased from 4 to 8 WAE then decreased, while Mn and Na levels did not vary with harvesting stage. Harvesting the ALVs from 4 to 6 WAE for the supply of P, K, Ca and Zn, 4 to 8 WAE for Mg and 4 to 10 WAE for the supply of Na and Mn is recommended.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Reconfigurable Polarization Antenna as an EMI Sensor

Kumari Mamta, Raj Kumar Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31798

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is of great concern in the present time of modern electronic systems. EMI measurement requires using a sensor to receive the radiation from the equipment in a suitable test environment. Antenna Factor decides the performance of the sensor. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) numerical method has been used to predict the performance of antenna used as EMI sensor.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling State Dependency in Agent Based Systems

Azween Abdullah, Ramachandran Ponnan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31759

The present paper reviews the problem of investigating incidents in systems with dependent states. Actions of an agent in such systems may lead to changes in the system, which could be made by an agent not directly, but indirectly through other agents. A method for modelling such systems is presented in this paper. The method allows defining a “manipulated system”, in which other agents can be used to obtain the changes. A method for analysis of such systems by deriving them to the non-manipulated type is also presented.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Biostratigraphy of Ochigbo–1 Well, Offshore Niger Delta; Evidence from Foraminifera, Spores and Pollen

Olubunmi C. Adeigbe, Emmanuel A. Ochigbo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31998

This study involved the palynological and micropalaeontological studies of Ochigbo – 1 well, offshore Niger Delta. A total of Sixty-two (62) ditch cutting samples were composited at intervals of 100 ft covering a total depth of 7,235 ft (3,405-10,640 ft). The samples were subjected to standard procedure for palynological and micropalaeontological studies. The recovered palynomorph and the foraminiferal assemblages were rich over the intervals and were generally good to moderate, both diverse and well preserved. The recovered palynomorphs were used in establishing four palynological zones. These are: Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni/P700 Zone characterized by the quantitative base occurrence of Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni and co-occurrence of Belskipollis elegansCrassoretitriletes vanraadshooveniEchiperiporites estalae, and Verrutricolporites rotundiporus; dated Middle Miocene; Magnastriatites  howardii/P600  Zone  characterized  by  quantitative  base  occurrence  of  Peregrinipollis nigericus and co-occurrence of Praedapollis flexibilisMagnastriatites  howardii  and Monoporites annulatus; dated Early Miocene – Late Oligocene; Retibrevitricolporite obodoensis/protudens/P500 Zone characterized by the co-occurrence of Arecipites exilimuratusRetibrevitricolporite obodoensis/protudensVerrucatosporites usmensis and Gemmamonoporites sp dated Late – Early Oligocene and Racemonocolpites hians/P400 Zone characterized by the base occurrence of Racemonocolpites hians. The recovered foraminferal assemblages revealed the well to have penetrated through the N16-N15 (Uvigerina subperegrina) Zone (Late – Middle Miocene), N15-N14 (Spirosigmolina oligocaenica) Zone; dated Middle Miocene; N13-N11(Uvigerina sparsicostata) Zone; dated Middle Miocene; N5-N4 (Megastomella africana) Zone: dated Early Miocene; N2 (Spiroplectammina wrightii) Zone; dated Late Oligocene;P18-P15 (Hopkinsinna bononiensis) Zone; dated Early Oligocene; P14-P12 (Uvigerina hourqi) Zone; dated Late Eocene; P12 (Uvigerina havanensis) Zone; dated Late – Middle Eocene; P5-P6/P7 (Lenticullina pseudomamillegarus) Zone; dated Early Eocene – Late Palaeocene and ?M18 (Bolivina afra) Zone; dated Maastrichtian – Late Campanian.

The palaeoclimatic investigation from the recovered palynomorph and foraminifera assemblages revealed dominantly wet climatic environment which ranges from brackish to deep marine environments subjected to trangressive – regressive alternating environment covering Inner Neritic to Upper Bathyal settings.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Geological and Physico - Mechanical Characterization of Marble of the Bidzar Quarry North-Cameroon

A. S. L. Wouatong, O. R. M. Kenmoe, F. Ngapgue, V. Katte, V. B. K. x V. B. K. Kamgang

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/30421

This study of the geological and physico-mechanical characteristics of the Bidzar quarry white marble exploited for cement manufacture has given rise to an exploitation model. This model has enabled the reduction in the size of the blast products through site reconnaissance and laboratory testing. The outcrops of white marble, dolomitic marble, quartzite and shales which were revealed on the ground surface and were foliated and fractured. The foliation plans however, showed two main directions of orientation on white marble: [NNE - SSW and NNW - SSE]. Likewise, the two main directions of fractures [NNW - SSE (N160°E) in N - S and NNE - SSW (N10°E)] and two secondary directions [W - E and NNW - SSE (N140°E)] were present on white marble which is  richer in CaO (52.65 to 55.45%) than the dolomitic one (30.15 to 31.78%). It came out that the quartzite was richer in SiO2 (95.43 to 98.86%) than shale (45.67 to 79.12%). The physical and mechanical characteristics of the white marble were: absolute density (2.77g/cm3) and bulk density (2.75 g/cm3). The mechanical fragmentation strength on the 6/10 mm and 10/14 mm fractions was 32% and 31%. The wear resistance on the same fractions was 33% and 25% respectively.