Open Access Short Research Article

Modelling and Comparison of Above-Ground Tree Biomass of Omo Biosphere Reserve Using Field and Landsat 8 Data

Pius Akindele Adeniyi, Ajayi Ezekiel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32166

Forest ecosystems occupied substantial vacuum in the balance of atmospheric carbon and thereby control global carbon cycle as well as climate change effect. Assessment of forest biomass value determines the role of forest as carbon offset entity. The selection of appropriate biomass assessment method and/or the use of reliable allometry are prime factors to carbon calculation of a forest. This study developed and compared biomass models as well as produced acceptable allometry equation for the study area and forest similar characteristics. It was revealed that forest biomass could be assessed with the use spatial image with spectral bands, and indices calculated. Different spectral indices correlated with one another as well as correlated with biomass observed data. Though, correlation level differs across the various indices considered but Enhance Vegetation Index (EVI) gave the best fit based on the criteria set for this study ( Ln AGTB = 7.981+10.799 (EVI)). Two forms of biomass equation including the observed Above-ground Tree Biomass (AGTB) value were compared and the result shows that there were no significant differences amongst the different estimation methods. Carbon spatial distribution pattern was generated with the chosen spectral index model.

Open Access Original Research Article

Competitive Adsorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from Binary Heavy Metal Solutions by Coffee Waste

Lovell Odili E. Agwaramgbo, Simone Zulpo, Stéfane O. Lira

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31336

Adsorption process has been proven to be one of the best water treatment technologies globally and activated carbon is undoubtedly considered a universal adsorbent for the removal of a variety of pollutants from water. However, widespread use of commercial activated carbon is often times restricted due to its higher costs. Attempts have been made to develop inexpensive adsorbents utilizing numerous agro-industrial and municipal waste materials. Use of waste materials as low-cost adsorbents is attractive due to their contribution in the reduction of costs or waste disposal, therefore, contributing to environmental protection. In this article was investigated the adsorption behavior of coffee waste when exposed to both single and binary metal component solutions under varying initial concentrations (1000, 500, and 250 ppm) and contact time (3 and 24 hrs.) It is evident from the literature that various low-cost adsorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various pollutants. However, there are few issues and drawbacks on the use of low-cost adsorbents in water treatment that have been discussed in this paper. Additionally, more research is needed to find the practical utility of low-cost adsorbents such as waste coffee on a commercial scale. After the exposure times, the residual concentrations of each heavy metal was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), using EPA Method 6010. Results suggest that the percentage of adsorption of Cu and Zn decreases as the initial metal concentration increases. The coffee waste also has a higher affinity for Cu than Zn ion. The percentages for metal ion removal from the single metal solution are 250 ppm(73.47%), 500 ppm (46.45%), 1000 ppm (27.69%) for copper and 250 ppm (55.08%), 500 ppm (32.78%), and 1000 ppm (21.22%) for zinc. For the competitive metal removal from the binary Cu-Zn solutions, the percentages are 125 ppm (85.67%), 250 ppm (68.93%), and 500 ppm (46.62%) for copper and 125 ppm (49.67%), 250 ppm (7.73%), and 500 ppm (4.59%) for zinc, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics Evaluation of Multi-Stage Optical Amplifier EDFA

Mohamed B. El-Mashade, A. Mohamed

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31911

In optical fiber communication systems, the non-perfectly transparent material of the fiber causes the visible-light or infrared beams to be attenuated as they travel through it. This necessitates the use of optical amplifier in order to remedy this signal attenuation. In this regard, the fiber amplifier is a key enabling technology for high speed optical communications. The EDFA is a successful optical amplifier that represents a significant factor in the rapid deployment of optical fiber networks. It uses proven erbium-doped fiber (EDF) technology to allow amplification of an optical signal without the need of costly regenerative repeater stations. Its large gain bandwidth, which allows simultaneous amplification of a numerous number of channels at different wavelengths within the spectrum of nearly constant gain, is very attractive in many practical applications. This property is very useful in WDM which is widely used in optical fiber data links owing to its dominant role that it plays in the next generation of high speed networks. Additionally, it may be positioned as a booster, pre-amp or in-line position to allow the amplification of the signal along any point of the optical network. Moreover, it can efficiently amplify light in the 1.5 μm wavelength region, where telecom fibers have their minimum loss.

This paper is intended to the evaluation of multi-stage EDFA performance for different EDF lengths, the two commonly used pumping wavelengths (980 nm & 1480 nm), and the distinct configurations of pumping mechanism. The gain and noise characteristics of different number of stages are computed and compared through simulation. Our attention is specially paid towards the optimum values of the system parameters that will give highest gain and lowest noise figure as well as minimum bit error rate in order to achieve the longest propagation length without signal degradation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Ergonomic Computer Workstation for Secondary School Children in Owo Metropolis

Tunde Isaac Ogedengbe, Adewole Matthew Adebayo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/30505

This study evaluated existing computer workstations, which includes computer workstation tables and chairs for computer users’, and developed new one for secondary school students in Owo metropolis. Questionnaire was developed and administered to support investigation of existing computer workstation in some selected secondary schools within the metropolis. Also, essential human body measurements (i.e. anthropometric measurement) that are necessary for estimating the design parameters of computer workstation were identified from literatures. Subsequently, the essential anthropometric data were collected by taking the measurements of the relevant body dimensions of boys and girls randomly selected from JSS1-SSS3 classes of the selected secondary schools in Owo metropolis. The measurements were conducted using standard anthropometer and anthropometric tape. A conceptual design of computer workstation to be developed was determined and appropriate design principle (i.e. design for extreme, design for adjustable range or design for average) was employed to determine the values of the design parameters in respect of the anthropometric data collected. The determination of the values of design parameters were done in due consideration of the various features associated with each parameter and appropriate clearance, where necessary. Thereafter, a full scale prototype of the designed workstation was built. Evaluation of the workstation built was conducted by having representatives of small, average and large size users from within the targeted population walk through representative task on the workstation and then assessing their comfortability in doing the task using the developed questionnaire. The responses collected from the questionnaire administered were analyzed using average rating. Also, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to examine the effect of age, sex and height on the comfort of the users using their responses. The evaluation result revealed an average respondents rating of “4.30” and “3.99” for the Table and Chair respectively in comparison with the existing ones whose average rating is“1.79” and “1.38” respectively. This shows that the comfort experienced by the users while using the developed workstation is very high compared to the existing ones. Also, the ANOVA result revealed that age, sex and height have no effect on the comfort users perceived while using the workstation. Hence, the developed workstation would provide comfort for secondary school students in Owo metropolis and south western Nigeria thereby enhancing their performance and productivity.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

On the Riesz Integral Representation of Additives Set-Valued Maps (I)

Lakmon A. Kodjovi, Siggini K. Kenny, Ayassou Emmanuel, Tchari`e Kokou

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/30901

In this paper we generalize the Riesz integral representation for continuous linear maps associated with additive set-valued maps with values in the set of all closed bounded convex non-empty subsets of any Banach space. We deduce the Riesz integral representation results for set-valued maps, for vector-valued maps of Diestel-Uhl and for scalar-valued maps of Dunford-Schwartz.

 

Open Access Review Article

The Use of Electronic Control Systems in Road Traffic

Ayhan Göktepe, Fatih Yiğit

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31516

In Turkey, road traffic has been increasing rapidly in province centers with the increase of the number of vehicles. The number of motor vehicles has shown an increase of 70 % within the last decade in Turkey. Inner-city traffic control is regulated by traffic lights and traffic control units. Electronic control systems have been developed to enable the control of the largest area by using the least human resource throughout all time periods.

Electronic control systems and their areas of use are discussed in this study. The characteristics and advantages of electronic control systems are presented. The present speed warning systems on Ankara-Eskişehir highway and the speed lane system in Konya province are examined. The system was set up at 5 points as 10 speed lanes round in both ways. The ten lanes with lengths ranging from 1000 meters to 3500 meters were selected from areas where accidents intensified due to high speed and where the traffic did not stop considering the last three years. The communication of the lanes was maintained through fiber optic cable network and wireless network infrastructure. The entire road was monitored by using 2 license plate reading cameras for the three lanes. The detection of the number of vehicles that pass through the zones with respect to time, the speeds of all the vehicles, and the detection of the wanted vehicles (stolen, seized, restrained) is possible through the system. The numbers of speed violations before and after the installation of the system was examined. It was seen that speed violations decreased from around 90% to around 1% considering the number of the passing vehicles. The decrease in speed violations was found to be parallel to the decrease in accidents. As the result of the assessment of the traffic regulation information in addition to traffic control enabled the solution of a large number of security-related cases.

Open Access Review Article

Theoretical Model of the Electric Field of Stray Currents in Underground Installations in Urban Environments

S. Bjelić, B. Jovanović, Z. Bogićević, N. Marković, I. Bjelić

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/31690

Aims: Paper presents the graphically observe the impact of parameters on equipotential forces. By adjusting the corresponding parameters their operation in the space can be significantly reduced. Graphics of positive and negative features equalizing line is obtained using Wolphram alpha computer program and application support functions.
Methodology: The intensity of corrosion and destruction of metal pipes is determined by the difference between the potential of soil and pipes (pipe voltage). The structure and various forms of underground pipe installations make it difficult to solve this task analytically, so that it becomes virtually impossible. Therefore, the first step in solving the task is defining a theoretical model fordetermining the value of electrical potential on the elements of underground installations. Further proceedings can determine the order and the minimum number of elements of cathode protection by which the voltage at the isolation layer of pipe is limited to allowed values.
Conclusion: To ensure the potential change along the axis of the tube, the metal surface should be divided into smaller elements of the same length, and to each element of length △the longitudinal resistance and conductivity should be added.