Open Access Short Research Article

Modified Genetic Algorithm Parameters to Improve Online Character Recognition

Oyeranmi Adigun, Elijah Omidiora, Mohammed Rufai

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/31277

Online character recognition is characterized with feature extraction and classification parameters that make recognition accuracy non-trivial task. Failure of existing optimization techniques to yield an acceptable solution to solve poor feature selection and slow convergence time provokes the idea for some stochastic algorithms. In this paper, a feature reduction technique that apply the power of genetic algorithm was modified using fitness function and genetic operators to minimize the aforementioned drawbacks. Two classifiers (C1 and C2) were then formulated from the integration of modified genetic algorithm (MGA) into an existing Modified Optical Backpropagation (MOBP) learning algorithm. The performance of C2 on generation gaps was further evaluated using convergence time and recognition accuracy. The research evaluation showed that C2 assumed average convergence times of 130.30, 211.69, 199.23 and 243.00 milliseconds with generation gaps of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7. This implies that generation gap variation had a positive effect on the network performance. Further evaluation showed that C2 assumed average recognition accuracies at 0.7 is 98.1% and 99.4% at Ggap 0.1 respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Developmnent of Mucuna sloanei and Brachystegia eurycoma Seeds as Sorbent: Effect of Some Physical Properties on Their Swelling Behaviour

S. A. Osemeahon, O. A. Gladstone, I. I. Nkafamiya, A. M. Kolo, A. Aminu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29896

Mucuna sloanei seeds (MSS) and Brachystegia eurycoma seeds (BES) were immobilized by mixing 50 cm3 of viscous layer of MSS/ BES and 50 cm3 of 4% stock solution of sodium alginate, the mixtures were transferred into a beaker containing 60 cm3 of 0.12 M calcium chloride solution allowed to stand for 2 h. The precipitates were filtered and dried for 72 h, giving rise to immobilized Bucuna sloanei seed (IMSS) and Brachystegia eurycoma seed (IBES). The swelling behavior of IMSS and IBES showed that the water uptake increases with increase in concentration, and pH, and decreased with increase in ionic strength and temperature in both IMSS and IBES. The contact time increases from 30 mins to 4 h and decrease gradually to 8 h for IBES and percentage water of IMSS increases as the contact time increases. Their swelling capacities were recorded as 350% for IMSS and 332% for IBES.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Confirmed Validity of the Thermohydrogravi-dynamic Theory Concerning the Strongest Intensifications of the Global Natural Processes of the Earth in 2016 Since 1 September, 2016

Sergey V. Simonenko

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/30049

The article presents the confirmed validity of the established global prediction thermohydrogravidynamic principle (of the developed thermohydrogravidynamic theory containing the cosmic geophysics and the cosmic seismology based on the author’s generalization of the first law of thermodynamics for non-stationary cosmic gravitation) concerning the predicted (in advance) strongest intensifications (in 2016  since 1 September, 2016) of the global seismotectonic, volcanic, climatic and magnetic processes of the Earth determined by the maximal combined integral energy gravitational influence on the internal rigid core of the Earth (and on the Earth as a whole) of the planets (Mercury,  Venus,  Mars and Jupiter) and  the Sun due to the gravitational interactions of the Sun with Jupiter  Saturn,  Uranus and Neptune.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hill’s Equation in the Arm Push of Shot Put

Ahti Rahikainen, Mikko Virmavirta, Matti A. Ranta

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/30766

Aims: The purpose of this paper was to continue the previous study of arm rotation movement where A.V. Hill’s force-velocity relationship was transformed into a constant maximum power model consisting of three different components of power.

Methodology: In the present study a new model of Hill’s equation was applied for accelerated motions. This theoretically derived model of further development of Hill’s force-velocity relationship was tested by fitting it into two arm push measurements of shot put experiments. The results of the further development of Hill’s equation for accelerated motions were compared with the mechanics of the constant power model of the previous study.

Results: The analyses of the present study verified that this theoretically derived equation for accelerated motions was in agreement with the measured data of shot put experiments. The fittings succeeded and they coincided with the velocity curves of the measured shot put experiments and the constant power model of the previous study.

Conclusion: In the present study the progress of movement was concluded to be as follows: 1) the state of low speed, maximal acceleration which applies to the hypothesis of constant force, 2) the state of high speed, maximal power which applies to the hypothesis of constant power, where the constant power model of previous study and the present development of Hill’s equation for accelerated motion were acting. This is a new approach to Hill’s equation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sedimentary Processes and Depositional Environments of Part of the Benin Formation in the Calabar Flank, Southeastern Nigeria

N. U. Essien, E. E. Okon

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/31138

This research work involves the study of the sedimentological processes and depositional environment from two major exposed sections of the Benin Formation in the vicinity of the southern fringes of the Calabar Flank. Stratigraphic logs were produced; 20 samples collected from the sandstone intervals and subjected to sieve analysis. Within the mudstone interval, lenticular beds and skolithos traces were observed. Other sedimentary structures (cross beds, ripple marks) were measured and analysed for paleocurrent patterns. The results from the textural analyses of the sandstones show that the sediments were predominantly medium to coarse grain (ɸ -0.13 – 1.63), moderately to poorly sorted (ɸ 1.02 – 2.03). Skewness and kurtosis values range from strongly coarse - coarse skewed (ɸ -0.66 – 0.13) and leptokurtic to platykurtic (ɸ 0.72 – 2.00) respectively. Bivariate analysis reveal that 100% of the sandstone samples are fluvial in origin with predominant deposition within rolling and saltation sub-population of the C-M plot. The points were restricted to the P-Q section of the C-M plot signifying high energy deposition. Lenticular beds characterized tidal influence in the thick mudflat deposit. Break in sedimentation was identified by the presence of a paleosol and the unimodal and unidirectional pattern of the paleocurrent markers suggest fluvial setting.

Open Access Original Research Article

On the Inverting of a General Heptadiagonal Matrix

A. A. Karawia

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/31213

In this paper, the author presents a new algorithm computing the inverse of any nonsingular heptadiagonal matrix. The computational cost of our algorithms is O(n2) operations in . The algorithms are suitable for implementation using computer algebra system such as MAPLE, MATLAB and MATHEMATICA. Examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hourly Real-Time Rainfall Estimation for Improved Smart Irrigation System Using Nearby Automated Weather Station

N. Hema, Krishna Kant

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/30934

Smart irrigation is done by extracting climatic data such as historical data, off-site data, weather station, moisture sensor, wireless sensor network and web-based forecast. In existing sensor-based smart irrigation schedule, the decision-making of current irrigation depends on the current climatic data.  Irrigation control decision making systems can be improved by using neighborhood real-time rainfall for approximate local rainfall estimation. This method can result in better water saving techniques. This paper shows the development of low-cost smart irrigation system which consists of Automatic Weather Station (AWS), Central Irrigation Control Server, wireless modules, soil moisture sensors and solenoid values. For improved decision making an artificial neural network with back-propagation algorithm is implemented to estimate real-time hourly rainfall by using nearby AWS. Depending on the estimated rainfall input, the irrigation decision can be immediate irrigation if no rainfall or reschedule of irrigation for next cycle if expecting sufficient amount of rainfall or may be partial irrigation for insufficient rainfall. This method can utilize rainfall for fields and saves ground water resources. This method also avoids flooding and damage to crop due to significant rainfall just after scheduled irrigation. Avoiding of flooding is very curial especially in germination period of any crop. In study area of NCMRWF, National Capital Region (NCR) on particular day of 22nd and 23rd Jan 2015 continuous rainfall of 152 mm of record, shows that for irrigation area of 1000 m2we can save up to 1,52,000 litre of fresh water by using real-time rainfall estimation technique. This technique can save ground/reservoir water resources in arid and semi-arid regions like India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Performance of Coatings for ASTM a106b Low Alloy Steel

Muhammad Mumtaz Mirza, Anjali Desilva, Elansezhian Rasu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/30753

The study investigates the coating performance of oil pipelines. To examine the coating parameters, different type of coatings were developed based on paint group and electroless nickel phosphorous group (Electroless Ni-P) with or without nano additives. The substrate considered was low alloy steel ASTM A106B oil pipeline sample. The comparative performance of coatings was reported and concluded through mechanical, characterization and corrosion resistance evaluation.

The substrates after chemical and mechanical polishing were coated with paint group comprised of organic paint, zinc paint and aluminum oxide paint with or without nano additives like nano Al2O3, nano ZnO and nano CuO. Similarly, Electroless Ni-P group coated samples were also prepared for the same nano additives. To identify the coating performance different concentrations of nano additives i.e 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% were used against paint and Electroless Ni-P group. Based on the concentration performance, 1% nano additive was reported with optimum performance established through surface finish, micro hardness and corrosion resistance values.

The characterization evaluation of the coated samples was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope and Optical Microscope to study surface morphology. To confirm the percentage of elements in coatings, Energy Dispersive X-ray test was also performed. To examine corrosion rate, three different test such as Atmospheric exposure test, Potentio-stat test and wet/dry test were also conducted. To evaluate the mechanical evaluation, hardness test, surface roughness test and coating thickness test were conducted.

After investigation, it was revealed that the overall investigation of Electroless Ni-P group was better than the paint group. The observed results demonstrates the mechanical and characterization evaluation for nano Al2O3 better than the other nano additives. However, coating efficiency was around 24.7% it means rest of nickel was wasted in the electrolyte. To evaluate the corrosion rate, Electroless Ni-P with nano Al2O3 was 0.0353 mmpy followed by Electroless Ni-P with nano ZnO was 0.0412 mmpy and for Electroless Ni-P with nano CuO was 0.0471 mmpy. After adding    Electroless Ni-P with nano Al2O3, corrosion rate was improved by 58.12% as compared to without addition of nano particles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simultaneous Excitations of Both Even and Odd Modes Printed Slot Antenna for bi-Band and/or Broadband Applications

Abdoulaye Chaibo, Mahamoud Y. Khayal, Kharouna Talla, Assane Ngom, Cheikh B. Ndao, Vieux B. Traore, Aboubaker C. Beye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/31385

The study of the excitation of two circular slot antenna modes fed by coupling effect for bi-band or broadband applications is proposed in this paper. The different configurations  of circular to semicircular antenna with rectangular slot having 1 mm to 12 mm length, lead respectively to the central frequencies of 1.83 and 4.3 GHz; 1.83 and 3.48 GHz, 1.83 and 2.49 GHz, for which the device can be used as a bi-band antenna. For broadband applications, a prototype having rectangular slot of 14.5 mm length exhibits a 43% bandwidth measured by the 10 dB return loss, a pic of realized gain equal 3.5 dB and radiation efficiency between 80 and 87% in the 1.72-2.66 GHz adapted band.

Open Access Review Article

Radio Frequency Identification and Internet of Things: A Fruitful Synergy

O. T. Arulogun, A. S. Falohun, N. O. Akande

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/30737

The interconnection of devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people with the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction known as Internet of Things (IoT) can only be successfully achieved with the incorporation of some existing wireless technologies especially Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). RFID leverages on its ability to establish a wireless communication between its transponders or tags attached to objects; when these tags are interrogated by RFID transceivers or readers, identification indicators that could further provide needed information are deduced. This paper presents an overview of the possible synergy between RFID and IoT as it promises to expand the Internet and networks to places such as home, manufacturing floors, energy grids, healthcare facilities, agricultural farms and plantations, transportation, etc. Besides a brief introduction to the operating principles behind the technology, a detail review of the application of RFID technology across current and envisaged fields were carried out. The projection of a promising synergy between IoT and RFID technologies was also established. Though, some limitations of both IoT and RFID were uncovered, suggestions on likely improvements were proffered.