Open Access Opinion Article

Solving the Problem of Limited Access to Original CAD Software for Consulting Engineers in Nigeria and other Developing Countries: A Case for Software Renting/Subscription

Chidozie Chukwuemeka Nwobi-Okoye, Stanley Okiy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29812

Finance is a major obstacle to software ownership in Nigeria and indeed most developing countries. This paper advocates the adoption of software rental/subscription as a way of ameliorating the problem of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software ownership among engineers in Nigeria and other developing countries. A survey of 50 engineers in Nigeria found that 100% agreed that software improves their designs, while 96% of them do not have access to all their software needs. 100%  of those who do not have access to all their software needs, identified finance as responsible for their inability to access all their software needs, while 95.74% advocated software subscription/rental as a solution to financial obstacles to software ownership. This study therefore recommends the adoption of software rental/subscription to all CAD software vendors to improve software ownership among engineers in Nigeria and other developing countries. This will be a boost to the design and development of critical infrastructures needed for industrialization, growth and economic development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decomposition Analysis of Technological Change in Rice Production in Ghana

Edward Tsinigo, Kwasi Ohene-Yankyera, Simon Cudjo Fialor, Isaac T. Asante

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29805

The study was conducted in Ejura-Sekyedumase Municipality of the Ashanti Region and the Atebubu-Amantin Municipality in the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana, in May 2013, to investigate the technological change in rice production in the two municipalities in Ghana using the output decomposition analysis approach. The study adopted a descriptive research design, based on a cross-sectional survey strategy. The study involved 216 sampled smallholder rice farmers (107 adopters of the improved variety and 109 non-adopters) using a three-stage stratified random sampling method involving operational areas, communities, and farmers. Data were collected by trained agricultural extension agents and monitored by the researchers. The Cobb-Douglas production and a modified decomposition analyses techniques were used to decompose the sources of productivity differences between the improved rice variety and the unimproved rice variety. Out of 216 rice farmers sampled, 208 completed their questionnaires. The study found that seed, fertiliser, and herbicide had a significant influence on the yield of the improved and unimproved rice varieties. Further, the ratios of the marginal value product to marginal factor costs were equal to unity for all the inputs, except labour; an indication that the resources were underutilised. The decomposition analysis showed that the estimated productivity differences between the improved and unimproved rice varieties were 39.46 percent. Productivity differences between the improved and unimproved rice varieties were mainly due to non-neutral technical change, which accounted for 44.65 percent. The study concludes that technological change in rice production in the two municipalities was mainly of the non-neutral type. Designing appropriate extension strategies and capacity building for the rice farmers could lead to improvement in their productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Size-Related Properties of Area1 of Approximate Entropy to Characterize Time-series Organization

José Eduardo Soubhia Natali, Paulo Nogueira Starzynski, Ingird Machado Cusin Ahmed El-Dash, Thiago Paes de Barros de Luccia, Vivian Machado Cusin Ahmed El-Dash, José Guilherme Chaui-Berlinck

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29596

Aims: There are several entropy estimators to address the organization of time-series. However, the behavior of a given estimator in relation to the size N of the data is not often studied in terms of improving the analysis. Here, we investigate size-related properties of the estimator a1ApEn (area1 of approximate entropy) in order to establish how such properties can improve time-series analysis.

Study Design/Methodology: We established a set of 14 different generating processes, including deterministic maps and limited and unlimited random distributions. Then, we created several vectors of five different sizes (= 100, 200, 400, 500, 1000) for each process, and a set of indicators (maximum, minimum and mean a1ApEn values) was taken. The correlation between a given indicator and log10(N) was classified as greater or lower than zero, or non-significant, creating a pattern of correlations for each process. Next, we perform a similar analysis in a resampling procedure from vectors of 2,000 points for the same generating processes. In addition, we analyzed heart rate dynamics and solar wind cycles with this method in order to show the applicability of the technique.

Results: The main result is that the patterns of the correlations between indicators and log10(N) are able to segregate the different generating process.

Conclusion: The use of a resampling procedure along with the size-related correlations of the nonlinear estimator a1ApEn is an effective method to discern different generating processes underlying empirical time-series. The method allows for the use of data sets of different sizes in comparisons among results

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact Assessment Due to Geochemical Effects on the Quality of Groundwater along the Bay of Bengal of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India

Sowjanya Pasupureddi, B. B. V. Sailaja

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29538

Aims: The present study was aimed at finding the geomorphological impacts on the quality groundwater quality along the Bay of Bengal of Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

Study Design: Groundwater samples were collected and assessed for the identification of various geochemical impacts on the quality of groundwater along the coast.

Place and Duration of Study: Groundwater samples along the coast of Bay of Bengal of Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh were collected during two seasons in April and November of 2015.

Methodology: 24 groundwater samples of bore and open wells along the coast were systematically analyzed for their physiochemical parameters during Pre and Post Monsoon seasons. The results were interpreted for various geochemical assessments with correlative approach in order to evaluate the impacts on the groundwater quality.

Results: The correlated statistical analysis revealed that there are deviations in some parameters from the prescribed WHO and ISI standards of potable water. The concentrations of some of the constituents were found relatively high in the Post Monsoon season than in the Pre Monsoon. The mechanisms controlling the groundwater chemistry were found to be attributed to the rock weathering. The geochemical evolution of the zones indicates that there was much movement in the groundwater under the influence of the local topography and thus at times favoring the development of intrusion zones along the coast. The hydro-geochemical facies with respect to the flow pattern of water indicated that the groundwater did suffer due to the impacts of the elevated as the study area is topographically a low lying area.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the groundwater along the Bay of Bengal coast of Visakhapatnam has been under sever geological and chemical impacts from the local and elevated lands. The recent geomorphological changes that took place along the coast have impacted its quality and the development of intrusion zones is evident from the assessment.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Balanced Scorecard System as a Performance Measurement Tool for Public Sector Organisations: The Case of the Media Information Communications Technology Sector Education Training Authority (MICT-SETA), Republic of South Africa

O. Mopaki, A. Mutono

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29531

This work focuses on enriching the already available theory concerning public sector management. Experiential validation of employing the Balanced Scorecard for the public sector organisations is examined. An interpretive paradigm in combination with an action research strategy was employed in carrying out the study. The data were collected using both focus group discussions and personal interviews. The analysis was through content and interpretation examination. It is assumed that this study, having focused on one authority whose function is to enhance skills development within the information and communications technology sector in South Africa. The results in this work indicate that public organisations should endeavour to put people they serve (clients) at the forefront of their strategic plans. This result confirms the results reported by Kaplan and Norton [9]. Still the study findings indicated that bodies that fund public organisations should as well be taken as stakeholders in the organisational strategic plan, and require to be satisfied in order to ensure continuity of funding. Departmental balanced scorecards should be embraced in contrast to an entire organisational balanced scorecard which seems to be a suggestion from some researchers and scholars. The core advantage with this is that it enhances corporation as opposed to individualism and leads to cohesion rather than divisions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Sustainability and Common Property Resources Management in India: Challenges and Prospects

Nazeerudin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/16055

Natural resources (land, water, biodiversity and genetic resources, biomass Resources, forests, livestock and fisheries) – the very foundation of human survival, Progress and prosperity, have been degrading fast, and the unprecedented pace of their Erosion is one of the root causes of the agrarian crisis that the country is facing. The Demographic and socio-economic pressures notwithstanding, the unmindful agricultural Intensification, over use of marginal lands, imbalanced use of fertilizers, organic matter Depletion and deteriorating soil health, extensive diversion of prime agricultural lands to Non-agricultural uses, misuse and inefficient use of irrigation water, depleting aquifers, Salanisation of fertile lands and water logging, deforestation, biodiversity loss and genetic Erosion and climate change are the main underlying causes Land distribution is highly skewed, more than 80 per cent of the farmers are small, marginal and sub-marginal and together own about 40 per cent of the total cultivated land, and increasing proportions of the holdings are becoming uneconomical.

In the above back drop, this paper made an attempt to critically examine the inter linkages of issues of natural resources particularly land degradation and livelihood sustainability. It also explore the sustainable land management by Using Common Property Resources efficiently, eco friendly Input technology in Agriculture and Converting Wastelands into Cropped Land.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exitation Luminescence of Microparticles SrAl2O4: (Еu2+, Dy3+) in a Liquid at the Phase Transition Liquid – Crystal

A. A. Banishev, A. F. Banishev

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29871

An investigation was conducted of mechanoluminescence of aqueous suspension of SrAl2O4:(Eu2+, Dy3+) phosphor fine-disperse powder in the process of water crystallization (liquid-crystal phase transition) under fast cooling in liquid nitrogen. At the instant of water crystallization, the suspension revealed a glow which was associated with excitation of mechanoluminescence of the phosphor microparticles under mechanical stresses caused by crystallization of water. The phosphorescence and mechanoluminescence of SrAl2O4:(Eu2+, Dy3+) phosphor microparticles were studied in the photopolymer matrix with temperature variation from the room to liquid nitrogen temperature. The phosphor mechanoluminescence was shown to weakly change on temperature lowering, while the photoluminescence decayed fast.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Feeding Marula [Sclerocarya birrea (L.)] Seed Cake on Milk Yield and Composition for Lactating Dairy Cows

M. P. Mdziniso, A. M. Dlamini, G. Z. Khumalo, J. F. Mupangwa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29682

Aim: To investigate the effect on milk yield and composition of feeding Marula (Sclerocarya birrea) seed cake as a protein source to lactating dairy cows.

Study Design: Nine multiparous Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to a 3 x 3 Latin square design (three replicate).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, University of Swaziland, between September 2014 and December 2014 (90 days).

Methodology: The treatments were as follows: Control diet (CD) - containing 100% CP from SBM; Marula seed meal (MSM) - diet containing 100% crude protein (CP) from Marula seed cake (MSC); and soya bean meal (SBM) + Marula seed cake (SBM+MSC) - diet containing 50% CP from MSC and 50% from SBM, and. Milking was done twice daily and the milk yield was recorded. Milk samples were stored at -18°C pending chemical analysis.

Results: The results of substituting SBM with MSC indicated no significant (P = .05) differences in dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and composition among the diets. Milk yield was 19.5 litres per day across the diets. Milk protein ranged from 3.16% (CD) to 3.29% (SBM+MSC) while milk fat ranged from 3.23% (CD) to 3.73% (MSM).

Conclusion: The study shows that dairy cattle diets can be formulated using MSC as a protein source while maintaining or increasing dry matter intake, milk yield and composition of dairy cows. It indicates that MSC, which is a by-product in oil extraction companies, is a valuable protein feed resource that holds profitable potential in animal production.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Glycosylation on Therapeutic Glycoproteins

Mohaddesseh Mousavi, Moein Dehbashi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29679

Therapeutic glycoproteins, which are produced in different expression systems are effective as biopharmaceuticals in medical applications and glycan engineering technology can open a new world to facilitate production of these proteins to overcome some pharmacological problems by humanizing the biopharmaceuticals. Also, the recognition of the role of glycosylation upon proteomics inconstancies of therapeutic proteins under manufacturing is critical for safety and non-immunogenic production. In this review, we tried to describe some important therapeutic glycoproteins and focused on some proteomics challenges of these proteins, which are improved by glycosylation.

Open Access Review Article

A Study on the Association Rule Mining and GIS to Seniors Living Alone in Taiwan Population Census

Chin-Jui Chang, Chi-Hsin Chin, Chien-Hui Liu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26707

The elderly have been considered disadvantaged social classes, and their widening problems will have a tremendous impact and influence on society. This study aims to apply data mining techniques to investigate the demographic features of socially disadvantaged groups in Taipei and Kaohsiung by using population data collected in the 2000 census to provide reference for social welfare decision makers in understanding these groups and forming policy. The demographic features, marital features and educational attainment of the elderly lives were investigated. The marital features, educational attainment, care and life patterns of the elderly were studied. This article offers two results of creative research about seniors living alone in Taiwan. (1) Suggestions on a research structure for data mining visualization with GIS. (2) A search for the distribution of the elderly population groups in society using the census 2000 as research background.