Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Pole Numbers to Field Weakening Characteristics of Interior Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

Pudji Irasari, Muhammad Kasim, Muhammad Fathul Hikmawan, Puji Widiyanto, Ketut Wirtayasa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29023

High torque and wide field weakening region are two parameters needed for electric vehicle. In order to achieve those requirements, variation of pole numbers of an interior permanent motor utilizing the same stator geometry is performed in this study. Slot harmonics are also compared in connection with the losses produced. All calculation are analytically performed and the motor characteristic is presented in the form of torque versus speed graph.

Open Access Original Research Article

Accelerated Life Testing of a Reused Plastic Bottle Bladderless Pressure Tank

Krishpersad Manohar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28654

Reusing plastic material help mitigate the world wide problem of plastic pollution. In this study a bladderless pressure tank for use with domestic water pumps was designed and built from reused 2 L plastic bottles. Accelerated life testing was conducted to determine the variation of drawdown capacity and recharge time for the plastic bottle pressure tank and comparative tests were conducted with two commercial bladder pressure tanks. The drawdown capacity test for both the 8 L and 18 L bladderless plastic bottle pressure tank showed a linear decrease in drawdown capacity over the accelerated 4 month test period and indicated just over 10% reduction in drawdown capacity after the accelerated 4 month test period. The rate of drawdown capacity decrease per accelerated time test day for the 8 L and 18 L plastic bottle pressure tanks at the 10 L/m and 24 L/m flow rates was 0.7% and 0.55% and 1.43% and 1.30%, respectively. Recharging both the 8 L and 18 L bladderless pressure tanks after the accelerated 4 month test time showed that the drawdown capacity was restored to the original amount. The comparative drawdown capacity test between the commercial pressure tanks and the bladderless reused plastic bottle pressure tank of similar capacity showed similar initial drawdown capacity volume at both the 10 L/m and 24 L/m flow rates.  This indicated that the reused plastic bottle pressure tank was capable of performing comparable to the commercial pressure tanks. To maintain the drawdown capacity of the bladderless pressure tank within 10% of the original value, the system should be recharged approximately every 4 months.

Open Access Original Research Article

Finite Element Modeling of Timoshenko Micro-beam Based MEMS Sensor Behavior against Variation in Poisson’s Ratio

Hossein Salarpour, Mohammad Tahmasebipour

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/27340

Epoxy Micro-beams are used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for sensoring applications in two operating mode of deflection and resonant frequency shift. One of the main questions in micro-beam based MEMS sensors behavior is effect of Poisson’s ratio on the deflection and resonant frequency of the micro-beam. In this study, two epoxy Timoshenko microbeams with different dimensions were modeled based on the finite element method considering the effects of variation in Poisson’s ratio. The results of this analysis indicated that change in the Poisson’s ratio of the microbeams does not significantly affect the deflection and resonant frequency. Therefore, in the design of the microbeam based microelectromechanical systems where Poisson’s ratio is one of the system variables, the FEM analysis ensures that changes in the environmental conditions affecting Poisson’s ratio would not affect the system outputs. There was a good agreement between the results of this study and those obtained based on the strain gradient elasticity theory, classical theory, and the couple stress theory.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Bacteriological, Sensory and Physicochemical Qualities of Peanut Butter

Wellington Torgby-Tetteh, Abraham Adu-Gyamfi, Adjoa Kesewaa Sarfo, Dora Duah-Bisiw, Stanley Akwesi Acquah, Jonathan Nii Okai Armah, John Apatey

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28411

Aims: This study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation on the bacteriological and sensory qualities as well as some physicochemical properties of peanut butter irradiated at different doses.

Methodology: Peanut butter samples were pre-packaged and sealed in plastic jars with each jar containing 500 g of peanut butter. The samples were exposed to 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy absorbed doses of gamma radiation and bacteriological, sensory and physicochemical qualities were evaluated.

Results: The TVC of the irradiated peanut butter ranged between 3.33 and 2.0 cfu/g and Staphylococcus aureus count ranged between 2.63 cfu/g to below detection limit. A dose of 2 kGy resulted in a 0.93 log reduction whilst maximum dose of 5 kGy used resulted in a 1.33 log reduction in the total viable counts of the irradiated samples. E. coli and Salmonella sp were not detected in both the irradiated and unirradiated peanut butter. No significant effect was observed in the sensory properties of the irradiated peanut butter. Peroxide value (PV) and Malonialdehyde (MDA) content were observed to range between 42.00±2.83-44.00±0.00 (meq/kg) and 6.89 x 10-7 ± 2.26x10-8 -1.12x10-6±5.44x10-8(M) respectively.

Conclusion: The MDA concentration increased significantly with increasing dose though no significant differences were observed between the measured values for doses of 2 and 3 kGy as well as 4 and 5 kGy. Gamma irradiation proved effective in reducing microbial load in the peanut butter without significantly affecting the sensory attributes as well as the peroxide value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Sampling Period on Harmonics of Three- Phase Space Vector Modulated Inverter

Jasim A. Ghaeb, Mustafa A. Al-Khawaldeh, Saleh Al-Jazzar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28866

The three- phase inverter is driven by a number of semiconductor switches for obtaining three-phase output of nearly sinusoidal fundamental voltage. The purpose of the Space Vector Modulation (SVM) technique is to produce three-phase load voltages of fewer harmonics. It can be reached by selecting an appropriate sampling period for the desired circular locus. This paper endeavors to present the influence of the sampling period on inverter output voltages and their harmonics. Simulation results are presented to assess the inverter performance for different values of sampling periods. The results conclude that an optimum inverter output voltage is achieved when the given circular locus of space vector is sampled at a period equals the half interval between of the two adjacent space vectors.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Coconut Fibre Ash as a Partial Replacement for Cement

F. A. Anifowoshe, N. E. Nwaiwu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25926

The cost of cement used in the concrete works is on the increase and unaffordable particularly in the rural areas, yet the need for housing and other construction especially sanitation facilities requiring this material keeps growing as population figure keeps increasing. Thus the need to find alternative binding materials that can be used solely or in partial replacement of cement for construction of sanitation facilities. Agricultural waste material, in this case, Coconut Fibre Ash (CFA), which is an environmental pollutant, are collected dried and burnt into ash. Coconut Fibre were obtained locally from Isu village of Anambra State. The fibres were properly dried  and  taken to National Geosciences Research Laboratory, Kaduna State where the fibres was burnt at a temperature range of  600°C - 700°C until the fibres turned into ash.The initial time before firing the ash was 12 noon and the final time was 1:40 pm. The model of the industrial oven is Kohaszati Gyarepito Vallalat Bupapest. The ash was then allowed to be cool and collected and made to pass through 150 micron sieve. Sample of the ash was taken to determine the chemical composition of the coconut fibre ash, which in turn was used as a pozzolana in partial replacement of cement in concrete production. Concrete cubes were produced using various replacement levels of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 percent of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with CFA. A total of 50 cubes were produced and cured by immersing them in water for 7, 14, 28, 42, 63 & 90 days respectively. Properties such as compressive strength, slump test of cubes and flexural strength of beams were determined. The result showed that the compressive strength of cubes of 10 - 30% replacement increased from 9.23 N/mm2 at 7 days curing to 90 days curing at 22.05 N/mm2, meeting the requirement for heavy and light weight concreting. Also 10% replacement of OPC with CFA is recommended for concrete beam production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gracefulness of H-Super Subdivision of Y -Tree

E. Esakkiammal, K. Thirusangu, S. Bala

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29082

In this paper, we introduce a new method of construction called H-super subdivision of graphs and prove that the H-super subdivision of Y -tree Yn+1 (n ≥ 2) is graceful and there by answering the open question posed in 2009 by Arumugam and others [1]. Also we prove that the H-super subdivision of Y -tree is odd and even graceful.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for Multi-Storey Car Parks Location in a Small Area

Asma Th. Ibraheem, Noor S. Atia

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28596

The use of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) precisely the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in planning a suitable location for car parking, planners put into consideration a lot of factors. These different considerations make the planning process complex and as such there might be confusion of interest in the decision making. This paper was assessed the potential suitable areas for selecting of the car parking areas, among three areas (ABC), which are located in Al-Nahrain University, based on some criteria and their factors. The criteria were location, area, space hour, parking accumulation, parking volume, parking load, parking duration and parking turnover. First, a resource inventory and a list of selection of the multi-store car parking areas criteria were developed using the AHP method. At the next stage a computer program was developed by using MATLAB software to find the land suitability map based on criteria and factors with their respective weights. Based from the final suitability map, the areas of fair class can be used for selecting the car parking areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Absorption, Flammability, Hardness and Morphology Tests on Composite Prepared from High Density Polyethylene Films/Doka Wood Dust Particles

Peter Michael Dass, Bifam Mathias, Alheri Andrew, Mikyitsabu Ago Atoshi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28784

High density polyethylene films / Doka wood dust particles composites were prepared by dissolving high density polyethylene (waste and virgin) films in toluene at 135oC with Doka wood particles. Some physical properties of the composites such as water absorption, flammability, hardness and morphology of the composites were studied. It was found that the water absorption increases as Doka wood particles increased but decreases as the high density polyethylene films increased. The composites made from high density polyethylene films waste showed different results as those made of the virgin high density polyethylene films. Gradual reduction in flammability of the composite was observed as the Doka wood particles and high polyethylene films increases. This was attributed to the incombustility of high amount of ligninous materials Significant decrease in hardness of composite was observed as the Doka wood particles was increased but increase in hardness was obtained when the high density polyethylene films increases. This could be due to inability of the matrix to encapsulate the fibre strands but the increase in hardness was due to the strong binding effect of the polymer resin. Scanning electron microscopy images of the surfaces confirmed an interfacial bonding between the Doka wood particles and the high density polyethylene films at high polymer resin but decrease in interface bonding between the Doka wood particles and the high density polyethylene films at high Doka wood particles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics of Spinning Black Holes

Dipo Mahto, Alok Ranjan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28417

Aims: The present paper derives an expression for the frequency or wavelength of Hawking radiation emitted by spinning black holes in terms of the event horizon (λ=16πRs & v =c/16πRs), when the quantum theory of radiation ( E=hv ), energy of Hawking radiation and event horizon of the spinning black holes ( Rs = GM/c2 ) are used. This frequency or wavelength of Hawking radiation  may be regarded as the characteristics of spinning black holes and this work is extended to derive an expression for the change in the frequency of Hawking radiation with respect to radius of event horizon (v / Rs = - c / 16πRs2).

Study Design: The secondary data for the frequencies and wavelengths of Hawking radiation has been calculated from the primary data of rest masses for stellar – mass black holes (M ~ 5 ­ 20 Mʘ) in XRBs and (M ~ 106 – 109.5 Mʘ) in AGN resulting the wavelength( λ = 16πRs) & and frequency (v = c / 16πRs). Our result corresponds to the result of research work entitled: Frequency of Hawking radiation from black holes by Mahto et al. published in International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science (2013).

Place and Duration of Study: This work has been completed in the department of Physics of Marwari College under T.M.B.U. Bhagalpur from Jan 2016 to Aug 2016.

Methodology: This research work is completely theoretical and the total work has been doneusing Laptop at Marwari College Bhagalpur and University Department of Physics, T.M.B.U. Bhagalpur.

Results: The astrophysical objects which emit the radiations of wavelengths (3.707x105 m to 14.828x105m) or frequencies (8.092x102Hz to 2.023x102Hz)in XRBs and wavelengths (7.414 x 1010 m to 37.070 x 1013 m) or frequencies (4.046 x 10-3 Hz to 0.809 x 10-6  Hz) in AGN may be classified as spinning as well as non-spinning black holes.

Conclusion: The frequencies/wavelengths of Hawking radiation either emitted from spinning black holes or non-spinning black holes are the same and only depends on their mass. This may be also regarded as the characteristics of spinning black holes in addition to the mass, spin and charge. The mass of black holes are mainly responsible for their identification and characterization and independent from spinning character.