Open Access Original Research Article

Green Policy Development and Its Impact on the Construction Industry in China

Mohammed Shareef M. S. Hasan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28983

China will account for around 50% of the global built up area by 2020. To curb the energy demand and environmental conservation the government launched several programs and policies. Combined, the increase in construction activities and stringent enforcement of the green laws, have created demand for sustainable buildings and economy. Moreover, China adopted two green building rating systems: Three-Star and LEED.

This paper examines the green policies and their effects on the construction industry in China. It reviews past literature on green policy development with focus on origin and other major milestones. Furthermore, it comprehensively explores the, direct and indirect, impacts of the green development China.

The papers primary study done among experts practising sustainable developments points out: the current practices and drivers and challenges of the green development in China. The major drivers include Government enforcement policies, incentives and the developer’s vision. On the other hand, the major challenges were green certification- costly and time-consuming, cost of green projects, and lack of qualified green suppliers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancement of Microbial Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Gamma Radiation

Amira M. Mahfouz, Tamer M. Essam, Magdy A. Amin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28030

Aim: An eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using submerged liquid fermentation of fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was established.

Methodology: Treatment of tetrachloro-auric acid (HAuCl4) solution with the free cell filtrate (FCF) of the fungus led to the reduction of the HAuCl4 ions and the formation of stable GNPs. These nanoparticles were characterized  by  Surface  Plasmon  Resonance  (SPR)  band  at  wavelength  550 nm  for  GNPs. The components of the media needed for the fungal growth were optimized using factorial design.

Results: The maximum SPR in UV-Vis spectra was recorded using a medium containing in (%); glucose (1), yeast (0.5), malt extract (0.5) and KNO3 (0.2) and incubation period 8 days, the temperature and pH were kept at 30°C and 6, respectively. The particles were characterized by UV/Vis spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscope (TEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform and Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Exposure of fungal strain or FCF after mixing with Au+ to Gamma radiation showed 36% increase in the SPR band intensity of the synthesized GNPs compared to un-irradiated strain and FCF irradiated before mixing with Au+. The synthesized GNPs exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, measured by well diffusion assay. Moreover, it also showed good anticancer activity against human Breast carcinoma (T47D) cells, Prostate carcinoma (PC3) cells and hepatocellular (HEPG2) cells using Trypan blue exclusion and Sulfo-Rhodamine B assay.

Conclusion: The combined effect of both ɤ-radiation and proteins offers a highly efficient and inexpensive method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles utilizing an edible mushroom, P. ostreatus for the bio- reduction of HAuCl4.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioethanol Production Potentials of Corn Cob, Waste Office Paper and Leaf of Thaumatococcus daniellii

Esther Isioma Melekwe, Suraju Adekunle Lateef, Godson Rowland Ewa Ekpeyong Ana

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/27101

Aims: Lignocelluloses-based waste materials are prospective and renewable feedstocks for bioethanol production. Despite their widespread availability, little attention has been paid to their utilization as fermentation feedstocks for bioethanol production especially in developing countries like Nigeria. In this study, three lignocelluloses-based wastes: corn cobs, office paper waste, and Thaumatococcus daniellii leaves, commonly generated in Southwestern Nigeria were evaluated as fermentation feedstocks for bioethanol production.

Study Design: The study was a laboratory based experimental study which involved chemical hydrolysis and microbiological fermentation.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, between July 2014 and December 2014.

Methodology: Separate hydrolysis and fermentation method was adopted for the study. Hydrolysis of the feedstocks was carried out at H2SO4 concentration of 6 M, 9 M and 13 M at 100°C for 60 min. Hydrolysates obtained were fermented at 30°C for 72 hours using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Results: Reducing sugar yields in the hydrolysates ranged from 51.5 – 27.3%, with highest yields from all the feedstocks obtained at 9M treatment, suggesting that 9M is the optimal concentration of H2SO4 for hydrolysis of the tested feedstocks. Highest ethanol yields of 20.2, 16.8 and 15.9 g/L were obtained at 48-hour fermentation period from waste office paper, corn cob and leaves of Thaumatococcus daniellii, respectively.

Conclusion: The results thus indicate that 48 hours is the optimal fermentation period for the feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The study has demonstrated that ethanol could be produced from the paper, corncobs and leaves of Thaumatococcus daniellii leaves with maximum yield obtained from office paper waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling Mineral Profile of Extruded Sorghum Bambara Groundnut Breakfast Cereals

David Iordehiin Gbenyi, Iro Nkama, Mamudu Halidu Badau

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28700

Aims: This study was designed to assess the effect of Bambara groundnut flour, feed moisture and barrel temperature on the mineral profile of extruded sorghum-Bambara groundnut blends and the possible mineral contribution of the products to human nutrition.

Study Design: A central composite face-centered design (CCFCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was used. Feed composition, feed moisture and barrel temperature at three levels of -1, 0 and +1 for each variable, was used to model the mineral composition of the sorghum-Bambara groundnut extrudates. A second order polynomial was used to fit the regression equation.

Methodology: Sorghum flour was blended with Bambara groundnut flour in varying proportions. Samples were extruded at 20 to 25% feed moisture and 120 to 160°C barrel temperature. Mineral analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Statistical analysis was done using MINITAB version 14 statistical software.

Results: The calcium, zinc, phosphorus and potassium contents of all extrudates increased as the amount of Bambara groundnut flour in the feed increased. Feed composition had a significantly positive effect on the mineral content of the sorghum-Bambara groundnut extrudates. The coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.92, 0.81, 0.98, 0.96 and 0.97 for calcium, iron, zinc, phosphorus and potassium respectively with high values of adjusted R2 values. Plots of residuals against fitted values indicated adequacy of the empirical models.

Conclusion: The mineral contents of the extrudates generally increased with increases in Bambara groundnut flour in the feed. It was therefore concluded that blends of sorghum and Bambara groundnut flour can be used for production of instant (extruded) breakfast cereals to improve their mineral contents. The second order model was found appropriate for the prediction of the mineral profile of the extrudates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Learners’ Acceptance of Mobile Learning for Post-School Education and Training in South Africa

A. Mutono, P. Dagada

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29192

Mobile learning is no longer a new concept and has been fully embraced by a number of educational systems throughout the world. The aim of this study was to assess the learners’ acceptance for mobile learning, focusing on post school education and training institutions in South Africa. A quantitative research design was used in this study in which a questionnaire with closed ended questions was administered to respondents for data collection. Cochran’s method was employed to compute the sample size, n = 384 participants (learners) attending at a higher education institute in South Africa. Statistical software, STATA was used to analyse the data in which principal component analysis was used to ascertain linear combinations of variables considered in the study. The modified acceptance framework that is based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model was adopted to determine the factors that influence the learners’ intention to use mobile learning. Study findings indicate that mobile learning is not well grounded in the learners’ educational environment in South Africa and yet there is evidence of widespread use of mobile technologies. This was supported by 284 (72.29%) of 384 learners who confessed to having no knowledge of mobile learning much as they used mobile gadgets.

Open Access Original Research Article

State-space Modelling of Replicated Dynamic Genetic Networks

Anani Lotsi, Ernst Wit

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28154

The genomic reality is highly complex and dynamic. Recent developments of high-throughput technologies have enabled researchers to measure the RNA abundance of thousands of genes simultaneously. The challenge is to unravel from such measurements genomic interactions and key biological features of cellular systems. Two common problems are the high-dimensionality of the system and the spurious correlations induced by unmeasured intermediate substrates. Furthermore most currently available models cannot deal with biological replicates. Our goal is to devise a method for inferring large transcriptional or gene regulatory networks from high- throughput data sources such as gene expression microarrays with potentially hidden states, such as unmeasured transcription factors (TFs).

Methodology: We propose a dynamic state space representation to account for the effects of such hidden states. Our inference method is based on a Kalman smoothing algorithm incorporated in the E-step of an EM algorithm. We employ bootstrap confidence intervals for inferring sparse networks, combined with an AIC criterion for determining the size of the latent space. The proposed method is applied to time course microarray data obtained from a well established T-cell experiment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production by Pyrolysis and Analysis of Bio-oil from Mahogany Wood (Swietenia macrophylla)

J. L. Chukwuneke, J. E. Sinebe, D. C. Ugwuegbu, C. C. Agulonu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24551

This work presents the production and the analysis of pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) obtained from a hard wood chips (Mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla). A pyrolysis batch type reactor was designed and constructed to carry out the production process of the pyrolysis oil. The yield of mahogany pyrolysis oil was optimized with reaction temperature to produce high quantity of gaseous outputs. Elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared analysis were carried out. The FTIR analysis revealed the presence of aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the mahogany pyrolysis oil. The physio-chemical properties of mahogany pyrolysis oil were determined. During the production process, the temperatures at which the yields were obtained were recorded. This was done using a temperature regulator and a thermocouple mounted on the body of the furnace. The results showed that the flash point, pour point, gross and net calorific values are 125°C, 4, 21.96 MJ/kg and 20.65 MJ/kg respectively, at the end of pyrolysis. The maximum liquid yield is 60% at 450°C. The combustible organic compounds of pyrolysis oil obtained at these optimum process conditions are analyzed for some of their properties as an alternative fuel. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical Hierarchy Process in Concept Selection of Wastewater Treatment Plant

Ify L. Nwaogazie, Oghenefejiri Bovwe, Levi O. Uba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28978

In most Engineering designs concept selection is a critical stage of the design process. This study focuses on the concept selection for the design of a proposed wastewater treatment facility for a settlement (Forcados-Yokri) located in Burutu Local Government Area (LGA), Nigeria. Three wastewater treatment concepts (Completely Mixed Activated Sludge (CMAS), Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)) were proposed. Also, based on seventeen sub-criteria which were grouped into four major criteria (Environmental Impact, Social Impact, Operability and Economic/schedule), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied for the selection of the best concept. Among the seventeen sub-criteria were ten boundary conditions generated with respect to the study area and the acceptable effluent discharge standards (FEPA, DPR-EGASPIN & WHO).The parameter weight was done with respect to data from literature and project stakeholders (interested parties involved in the selection process). The total relative score with respect to the ten sub-criteria (which also served as boundary condition) for CMAS, SBR and UASB were correspondingly 9.11, 30.40 and 25.63 respectively. This makes SBR the recommended choice of the three proposed wastewater treatment concepts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Augmentation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Fin by Lateral Hexagonal Perforations

Abdullah H. AlEssa, Isam H. E. Qasem

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/12863

In this study the enhancement of heat transfer from a horizontal rectangular fin subjected to natural convection provided with lateral hexagonal perforations is investigated using one dimensional finite element technique. The orientation of these perforations is described as they have two sides parallel to the base and tip of the fin. The perforated fin is compared with its equivalent solid one. The parameters considered are geometrical dimensions and thermal properties of the fin and these of the perforations. This study involves enhanced heat transfer surfaces that provide increased turbulence and a better flow distribution. Also, it considered the gain in fin area and of heat transfer coefficients due to perforations. From this study and for certain values of hexagonal dimension and spaces between perforations, it is found that there is an augmentation in heat transfer dissipation of the perforated fin over than that of the equivalent solid one. Moreover, the heat transfer enhancement of the perforated fin increases as the thickness and thermal conductivity of the fin are increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Classification of News Document in English Based on Ontology

Lailil Muflikhah, Aldi Sunantyo Ali Murdianto

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/27571

Aims: This paper aims to propose ontology method of news document classification. The common method of document classification is based on morphology of term, without considering the meaning. It is impact to the number of term-document and computational time. Furthermore, the performance is decrease, even though the number of training data is increase.

Methodology: The main idea of ontology is to handle the similarity of terms that have different morphological form but the same meaning (synonym). The ontology is built using WordNet database to find similary of meaning among terms-document. The terms that have similar meaning are merged including their term frequency to be constructed in vector space model. After that, the unknown document is classified using cosine similarity measurement of the weight-term. The text document that is used is English news text in general topic, such as interest, money-fx, trade, and crude. The experiment is compared to the conventional method which is document classification without ontology.

Results: Classification of news document can be implemented using cosine similarity method based on ontology. The performance measure of this method including precission, recall and f-measure has increased eventhough the number of terms is reduced.