Open Access Original Research Article

Mapping and Geotechnical Characterization of Some Local Construction Materials for the Adamawa Region of Cameroon

Zo'o Zame Philémon, Nzeukou Nzeugang Aubin, Uphie Chinje Melo, Mache Jacques Richard, Ndifor Divine Azigui, Nni Jean

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/27887

In the Adamawa Region of the Republic of Cameroon, there exist many raw materials for building structures. Various methods of investigation were used to map these raw materials, including knowledge of the spatial distribution, inventory and the estimation of resources and the development of a database which is compatible with georeferenced maps. Geotechnical tests were made on some raw materials including granulometric analysis, Atterberg limits, CBR and Micro Deval tests. The results obtained allowed inventory of 1499 natural local materials sites: 338 sites of materials of plant origin, 76 sites of clays, 113 of sands deposits, 754 sites of lateritic soils and 218 sites with rocks. The geotechnical characteristics of lateritic soils (ferruginous gravel and lateritic clay) studied vary with their underneath rock basement, respectively of metamorphic and volcanic origins. Based on their Los Angeles values (LA10<20 to LA10>45), the rocks studied were classified as very poor compared to very good quality materials. Some soils are favorable for building bricks or concrete depending on their geotechnical properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

On the System of Three Order Rational Difference Equation

Guozhuan Hu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/27524

This paper is concerned with the local and global asymptotic behavior of positive solution for a

system of three order rational difference equations


where α; β (0;); and the initial values x-1; x0 (0;); y-1; y0 (0;): Finally, some

numerical examples are provided to illustrate theoretical results obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Environmental Impact Evaluation of Walnut and Soya Bean Oil Based Drilling Fluid

Fadairo Adesina, Adeyemi Gbadegesin, Olafuyi Olalekan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21472

One of the oil and gas hazard that associated with drilling operation is oil based drilling fluid and its associated cutting disposition. It is highly imperative for policy maker to propagate the use of environmental friendly oil based mud for drilling operation. This paper formulated environmentally friendly oil based mud (using walnut and soya bean plant oil) that can carry out the same function as convectional oil based drilling fluid and equally meeting up with the HSE (Health, safety and environment) standard. Mud laboratory tests were carried out at standard condition on plant oil samples so as to ascertain the rheological properties of the drilling fluid formulations. The synthetic oil based was obtained from drilling company in Nigeria and was used as control experiment.

At the end of the experiment, the properties of the walnut and soya beans based mud was compared with industry oil based mud (synthetic oil based mud). All the results were shown to be similar to that of commercial synthetic oil based drilling mud which was gotten from the industry. From the results it can be seen that walnut and soya beans based mud actually gives a less toxic, better rheological properties, requires less waste disposal costs, hence making them more economically and technically viable for oil and gas drilling operation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sodium Chloride Reduction and Wheat Fiber Addition on Chicken Nugget Quality

Patricia Bonato, Flavia Perlo, Romina Fabre, Gustavo Teira, Osvaldo Tisocco, M. Gabriela Dalzotto

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28032

Aims: The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction and wheat fiber (F) addition on chicken nugget quality was analysed. Storage stability of a low sodium formulation was also determined.

Study Design: Thirteen batches of chicken nuggets were produced according to an arrangement based on a Central Composite Design. In the storage stability study, two batches were elaborated. One batch was similar to products currently marketed; the other batch was selected according to the previous results. These nuggets were stored in a freezer for twelve months.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratorio de Industrias Cárnicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Alimentación, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos, Concordia, Argentina, between July 2012 until October 2015.

Methodology: Chicken nuggets with the addition of sodium chloride (0.5 – (to) 1.9%) and wheat fiber (0 – (to) 2%) were prepared. Physico-chemical parameters such as PH, cooking loss, texture, color, fat, protein and moisture were determined. The effect of NaCl and F on these parameters was analyzed using response surface methodology. A sensory test was also conducted by consumers (60) who evaluated overall acceptability. Storage stability of two batches (Batch 1: no F and 1.6% NaCl; Batch 2: 2% F and 0.8% NaCl) was measured by performing TBARS, microbial counts and descriptive sensory test (14 trained judges) for rancid characteristics. Data was analyzed with ANOVA.

Results: The reduction of NaCl significantly affected pH, moisture, cooking loss and whiteness (P=.05) of chicken nuggets. Moreover, F addition significantly affected pH, moisture and hardness (P=.05). No differences between batches (P>.05) were found in overall acceptability. No changes (P>.05) were found in lipid oxidation and microbiological counts between 2% F + 0.8% NaCl sodium and control nuggets during frozen storage.

Conclusion: The reduction of NaCl by 50% and the addition of 2% fiber improved the quality of chicken nuggets. These chicken nuggets had less cooking loss, tenderer characteristics and a slight decrease in whiteness without affecting consumer acceptability or storage behavior.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of the Level of Some Heavy Metals in Fall-out Dusts at Rehoboth Town, Hardap Region, Namibia

S. A. Onjefu, N. Hamatui, J. Abah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28436

Aims: To determine the levels of heavy metals in fall-out dust from Rehoboth town, Hardap region, Namibia.

Study Design: Modified open bucket samplers were used to collect the settleable particulate. Six “ordinary” open buckets were placed at different locations (Blocks A to F). In Rehoboth town. Each bucket’s contents were filtered using a Buchner funnel connected to the diaphragm vacuum pump. The residues collected after the filtering were dried and transferred into clean, pre-labelled polyethylene bags and then transported to Analytical Laboratory Services, Windhoek Namibia, for further processing and analyses.

Place and Duration of Study: Rehoboth town, Hardap region, Namibia, between September 2015 and December 2015.

Methodology: The samples were digested according to EPA method 3050B for Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Ten (10) mL of each digestate was taken and mixed with equal volume of matrix modifier and then analysed using ICP-OES (ICP: Perkin Elmer Optima 7000 DV) for the levels of chromium, cadmium, lead, arsenic, manganese, zinc and nickel.

Results: The levels of heavy metals obtained showed the metals’ enrichment of the dust fall ranging between 0.05 – 1.38 Block A; 0.06-37.44 Block B; 0.05-3.43 Block C; 0.05-4.68 Block D; 0.09-1.73 Block E and 0.09-1.56 Block F respectively. This showed very high enrichment for Block B and deficient to minimal, moderate enrichment for Blocks A, C, D, E and F. The results of contamination factors indicated moderate, considerate and highly contaminated dust fall with the heavy metals; which are related to common and input from anthropogenically induced sources. 

Conclusion: Human activities in the town of Rehoboth, Namibia have obviously increased the levels of heavy metals in dust fall-out. The calculation of pollution load index (PLI) clearly points to deterioration of site quality. This obviously is a grave concern following environmental accumulation and non-biodegradation of heavy metal and hence, the need to have all major roads and inter linking street roads to be paved to mitigate the release of dust into the atmosphere.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thermal Effect Shock on the Enamel-composite Restoration Interface

Hazem Abouelleil, Christophe Jeanin, Brigitte Grosgogeat

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/27343

Aim: To study the effect of thermal shock on the enamel – composite restoration interface as compared to standard thermal cycling protocol.

Methodology: Box shaped cavities were prepared in thirty mandibular third molars, the cavities were restored using two step etch and rinse adhesive: Adper™ Scotchbond™ 1 XT (3M™ ESPE™, St. Paul, USA), and nano-hybride resin composite Filtek™ Z250 (3M™ ESPE™, St. Paul, USA). Specimens were divided in 3 groups. The first group was thermal cycled for 600 cycles, the second group was submitted to 600 thermal shock cycles using Oral B waterjet device, and the third group was a control group. Teeth specimens were evaluated for dye leakage using 2% Basic Fuchsin dye for 24 hours, all bonded teeth were subsequently sectioned perpendicularly into 0.9 ± 0.1 mm2 sticks that were loaded on universal testing machine to obtain the ultimate tensile strength. Values were analyzed with one way ANOVA post hoc Tukey HSD (SPSS version 23) with 95% confidence interval.

Results: Both thermal shock and thermal cycling groups had significantly higher dye leakage values along the interface as compared to the control group. The microtensile bond strength values were significantly lower for the thermal shock group as compared to the control group, no significant difference was found between the thermal cycling and the control group.

Conclusion: Thermal shock was shown to induce more stress on the interface, which may lead to cracks and gap formation overtime.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Temperature and Time of Exploitation of Welded Joints in the Operation of Static and Dynamic Loads

I. Camagic, P. Zivkovic, S. Makragic, M. Radojkovic, A. Radovic

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28339

Shown in this paper is the analysis of the effects of exploitation duration and temperature on the measure of fracture resistance of constituents of a welded joint between new and exploited low-alloyed Cr-Mo steel A-387 Gr. B subjected to static and variable loads. Exploited parent metal is a part of a reactor mantle which was working for over 40 years and is in the damage repair stage, i.e. part of its mantle is being replaced with new material. Tensile curves necessary for stress analysis were determined, along with material strength properties and Wohler’s curves were drawn, in other words permanent dynamic strength was determined as material resistance to crack initiation, on room and working temperature. Based on test results, the analysis of fracture resistance represents the comparison of values obtained for characteristic areas of the welded joint and justifiability of the selected welding technology.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Teaching Geometry by Computer Integrated Method on Self-efficacy, Attitudes toward Geometry, Classroom’s Climate and Achievements among Colleges Trainees

Jarmas Bitar, Raed Zedan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28827

This article represents a quantitative research which dealt with examination of the correlation between the personality parameter - self-efficacy for learning geometry, and the emotional parameters - attitudes toward geometry and classroom’s climate during the geometry lesson as well as the cognitive parameter – geometric efficacy and the academic parameter – studies’ achievements in geometry, among teaching students in Arab collages for qualifying teachers in Israel, as an experimental function of learning surroundings: The first – traditional, and the other - a high-tech learning environment, supported by computing and Telecommunications. Thus, the research tested 224 students who learn in three Arabic collages for teachers’ qualification, the students who are taught by the two methods of instruction (traditional and computer integrated). The research’s variables measurement was used in validated and reliable questionnaires that were used in earlier researches, but were customized to this research’s subject and population, and they were analyzed by a factors’ analysis that produced new factors that built the research’s model. The findings indicate this notion because students who learned geometry in the frontal method reported more on having fun, enjoyment and content with learning geometry than students who learned with the computer integrated method. However, students who were taught by the computer integrated method reported more on clarification and observance of rules and guidelines by the teacher, than students who learned geometry by the frontal method, who also reported more on receiving encouragement and support from the teacher, unlike the computer integrated students who reported more on a discriminative treatment of the teacher - on the ground of gender or achievements. In general, the students who learned in the frontal method reported on a more positive perception of the classroom’s atmosphere than students who studied geometry by integrating computer.

It was also found that students who learned geometry by the integration of computer, were found as having a higher and a more positive self-efficacy of learning in the combination of computer than students in the frontal method’s group. Additionally, the perception of the team learning’s dimension among students who learned with a combination of a computer was higher than those learned by the frontal method, and it was also found that general self-efficacy for learning, among students who learned with a combination of a computer was higher than those who learned with the frontal method after the course. It was also found that the attitude of the frontal method’s students towards geometry was more positive than the attitude of those students who learned with the computer integrated method. As for geometric self-efficacy, it was found that students who learned geometry with the frontal method, are with a higher geometric self-efficacy than those who learned with the computer integrated method. It was also found that the achievements of the frontal method’s students are higher than those who learned by the computer integrated method.

Moreover, it was discovered that, the dimension of perceiving geometry as fun, enjoying and contenting among students taught by the integration of a computer declined when the course ended, though the dimension of the teacher’s guidelines and rules increased, and the teacher’s support and encouragement declined, and the perception of the classroom’s general atmosphere declined as well, and became less positive than in the beginning of the course. The attitude of the computer integration method’s students toward geometry also declined by the end of the course. It was found that the classroom’s atmosphere dimensions and the dimension of general self-efficacy of learning, as well as the dimensions of the attitudes toward geometry, succeed in predicting geometric efficacy. And that a positive position toward geometry, learning efficacy, understanding the solution, and self-confidence, as well as team learning, are strong and significant predictors of geometric efficacy. Another finding is that the classroom’s atmosphere’s dimensions and the dimensions of self-efficacy of learning, as well as the dimensions of the attitudes towards geometry, successfully predict achievements in geometry. The ability of geometric efficacy to predict achievements in geometry, was found as well. In light of this research’s findings, we suggest recommendations that answers the question we, as well as many teachers’ educators, are engaging: In what way students should be trained to use technology in teaching in general and in teaching science and geometry in particular?

We recommend on:

-To enlarge the number of courses that requires integrating computerization and telecommunications. In all fields, and in all apprenticeships, in all departments and in all routes.
-To combine computerization in the training of teaching students, hence, a horizontal and vertical expansion is needed, guidance; perennial courses should be planned for the instruction of different disciplines and not only Literacy and Computer Applications.
-Appropriate software and courseware should be obtained.
-A combination of computerization in the pedagogic training program and in the practical experience, by increasing the demand from the student to apply lessons programs that combine computer and telecommunications.
-A mandatory course should be dedicated to the use of a ‘smart board’ in the class, in the instruction of all subjects.
-The teachers should be trained to use a computer as well.

Open Access Original Research Article

OCR Training and Simulation for Person Follower Robot in an Indoor Environment

D. Sanjay, P. Rajesh Kumar, T. Satya Savithri

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28973

This paper explores the usage of Optical character recognition (OCR) for a person follower behavior. The character on a person's uniform is captured using a network camera, which is interfaced on a Robotic system. In particular, this paper addresses the training of the characters to be used for the person following behaviour of a Robot, to ensure that the tracking is done properly. The graphical design is developed with LabVIEW software of National Instruments. Simulation results are furnished for the proposed training scheme.

Aim: To train and simulate an OCR for person follower behavior.

Study Design: The study of OCR method, exploring its use for person follower behavior is proposed and a LabVIEW based graphic design is developed.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Electronics and Communications engineering, B V Raju Institute of Technology, Narasapur, Medak (Dt), Telangana, India, between July 2014 and July 2016.

Methodology: We included different image samples of each character 'L', 'F' and 'R' at various distances from camera which covered maximum scenarios. OCR module present in LabVIEW was used for training samples.

Results: The screenshots of simulated results of the proposed training scheme are presented.

Conclusion: The training of sample images of the characters is done in various positions and to a maximum field of view of the camera. The test results have been found to be satisfactory.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparison of Banana Fiber Thermal Insulation with Conventional Building Thermal Insulation

Krishpersad Manohar, Anthony Ademola Adeyanju

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/29070

The use of conventional non-biodegradable building thermal insulation has resulted in environmental issues which prompted research to focus on the use of natural fibres in many regions. The thermal insulating properties of banana fibre was investigated and compared with conventional insulating materials to ascertain the use as building thermal insulation. Thermal conductivity measurements were conducted in accordance with ASTM C-518-04 on 38 mm thick slab-like banana fibre specimens. Experiments were conducted for the density range 20 kg/m3 to 120 kg/m3 in increments of 10 kg/m3 and for mean test temperature range 20°C to 40°C in increments of 5°C. Results showed that banana fiber exhibited the characteristic behaviour associated with fibrous thermal insulation of decreasing thermal conductivity with increasing density to a minimum value and then increasing in thermal conductivity with further increase in density. Consistent with loose fill materials, there was a linear increase in thermal conductivity with increase in mean test temperature. An empirical equation developed to calculate the apparent thermal conductivity variation with density and temperature correlated within ±4.42% of the experimental results. At 25°C the experimental results showed a minimum thermal conductivity of 0.04110 W/m.K at 80 kg/m3 and the empirical equation 0.04150 W/m.K at a density of 73.4 kg/m3. The empirical and experimental minimum thermal conductivity was within 0.96%. The comparative thermal conductivity of banana fiber with conventional non-biodegradable insulation show the minimum thermal conductivity was higher than all the conventional insulation. The difference ranged from 8.5% (a λ difference of 0.0035 W/m.K) for glass fiber to 24.0% (a λ difference of 0.0099 W/m.K) for urethane foam. Although the banana fiber showed the highest thermal conductivity among the materials compared, its value was within the 0.02 W/m.K to 0.06 W/m.K range for use as building thermal insulation.