Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Design of Monorail Network for Anambra State, Nigeria

Ejiogu Ndubuisi Okorowu, Nwigbo Solomon Chuka, Okolie Paul Chukwulozie

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/27510

Over the years rail track have existed in Nigeria without its proper utilization. Having an effective monorail network in the state will improve the transportation sector of the state since it is the trending technology in railway design. Introduction of monorail into the transportation system addresses the problems and defects associated with the old rail lines and also serve as an alternative means of transportation. This project develops a workable monorail network within the state using the flow model, the transportation algorithm and analysis was done using the North West Corner rule and Stepping-Stone method. The longest route is the Onitsha-Igbokwu route (53 km) while the shortest route is the Onitsha-Nnewi route (21 km). The total distance covered by the track is 525.8 km and will take 7.5 hrs to travel round the entire track at the cost of ₦2, 630.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microcomputer Based Multipoint Time Operated Power Switching System (With Overload Protection)

Chukwuedozie N. Ezema, Okechi Onuoha, Nwanyinnaya Nwogu, Albert C. Agulanna, Helen U. Nonyelu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25046

The objective of this research is to design a “Microcomputer Based Multipoint Time Operated Power Switching System” (with overload protection). The system is made up of eight relays that can be controlled independently through the parallel port of a computer using visual basic software. It is a time operate electrical appliance controlling system and is a reliable circuit that takes over the task of switching the electrical devices ON/OFF with respect to time. Once is set and device activated, the device remain on till the set time elapses. With the aid of software devices on/off indicate the set time perimeter (hr. Min: sec) and the corresponding real time clock are displayed at the front of the panel. It can be time event, intervals of time and can definitely control AC appliances, it will trigger a relay when it has timed down. The system makes use of a real time check built around the computer system clock and keeps track of the time. When this time is equals to the programmed off time of a device, then the corresponding relay for the devices is switched off. The switch time can be edited using the peripherals devices like the keyboard and mouse.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Examination of Urban Lighting Properties: A Case Study of Antalya City, Turkey

Candan Kus Sahin, Esin Karamanli

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/27143

A detailed analysis conducted on selected two main streets from two different district of Antalya city, Turkey to find lightning properties and participant’s feelings on these elements. The results were evaluated according to survey obtaining and site observations as well as interviews results with Antalya City Municipal Parks and Gardens Directorate Staffs.

A number of questions were arisen to responders in order to find their feelings (opinions), on properties of lightning elements in the selected areas. It was noted that only 1.0% participant from both area reported as ‘the lack of lighting elements is not important for me’. It was found that participants have expected to proper illumination from lightning elements in these particular areas. However, the lightning elements have found to be some variables and not equally supplied lightning to throughout street landscape object.

Moreover, Republic Street’s lightning’s looks like better than Sakarya Blouvard lightning in regarding participant’s responds but with exception of plant and signages lightning. Hence, only plant and signages lightning’s were found to be better in Sakarya Blouvard than Republic Street’s lightning’s. It is important to note that the lightning design principles and lightning element selection conducted by electric technician. So there was no any landscape architectural design principles established in these streets. But, there is an exception that recently established park (in 2012) called ‘Martyrs Park’ projected by a landscape architecture. Hence, all structures including lightning elements selected and placed by landscape architecture for this park only.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Simulation Model for Estimating Solar Radiation of Nasarawa, Nasarawa State – Nigeria

M. A. Adesina, J. S. Ibrahim, H. A. Iortyer

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24603

A simulation model for forecasting solar radiation in Nasarawa (Latitude of 8° 31' 45" N, Longitude of 7° 43' 27" E) was developed using empirically established Angstrom equation. The parameters measured were solar radiation intensity (W/m2) and hours of bright sunshine from 06.00 H to 18.00 H daily for the months of January to December 2013. The regression constants ‘a’ and ‘b’ were obtained to be 0.01 and 0.75 respectively. The performance of ‘a’ and ‘b’ were tested using Root mean square error (RMSE), Normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (E).The developed empirical model for estimating solar radiation for Nasarawa was Hm = H0 [0.01 + 0.75 (n/N)] with a coefficient of correlation of 0.79. After establishing this model as being accurate for forecasting solar radiation in Nasarawa, a program in Visual basic. NET was written to this effect and a software was compiled using the program. This software titled “NasRadd” can be used with confidence on windows based systems to predict solar radiation in Nasarawa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vegetation Impact on the Morphodynamic Activity of the River Kapuas

M. M. Hossain, A. J. F. Hoitink, J. Clever

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/27242

Aims: To have the clear understanding of the causes behind the spatial variability of the morphodynamic activity of the river Kapuas, West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Study Design: This study was designed to focus on the vegetation impact on the morphodynamic activity of the river Kapuas based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using Landsat images.

Place and Duration of Study: Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management Group of Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands between September 2013 to March 2014.

Methodology: Landsat images from 1991 to 2013 were used to interpret the vegetation impact based on NDVI values. At first land cover of the entire river corridor was classified based on an unsupervised classification system and then NDVI map of the same area was plotted using ENVI4.8. Based on the land cover classifications, NDVI maps and some videos, captured from the study area using handheld GPS, vegetation types and corresponding NDVI values were detected.

Results: High NDVI values usually indicate vegetation of high biomass both above and below the ground. Vegetation reinforces the soil particle and holds the soil particle in position against erosion. This research shows that banks with a little vegetation having NDVI values of 0.45 or less are morphologically more active than the banks with dense vegetation having NDVI values over 0.45.

Conclusion: Vegetation has a positive impact on the morphodynamic activity of the river Kapuas. Vegetation with high NDVI values give comparatively more stable bank against erosion compared to vegetation with lower NDVI values, especially below 0.45.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Thermodynamic Study of Five Couples Used in Solar Cooling with Adsorption by Simulation

A. Konfe, S. Kam, M. Ousmane, D. J. Bathiebo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28554

Aims: The aim of this work was to develop a thermodynamic model that applies to several couples, for determining the  COPth of a cycle of adsorption and to compare these couples of adsorption.

Methodology: Five couples were considered: Silica gel-water, Zeolite-water, Activated Carbon-methanol, Activated Carbon-ethanol, and Activated Carbon-Ammonia.

From a thermodynamic cycle, heats exchanged was determined using Dubinin-Astakhov equation for adsorption and a COP is calculated.

We studied the influence of some physical quantities on the performance of these couples mainly the effect of operating temperatures and the effect of parameter n of Dubinin-Astakhov.

Results: The results showed that the silica gel-water and zeolite-water couples show better performance for evaporation temperature higher than 5°C in the climatic conditions of Burkina Faso.

On the opposite, for evaporation temperatures lower than 5°C the activated carbon-methanol and activated carbon-ethanol couples have the best thermal performance. The results show that for each couple, there is an optimal value of Dubinin Astakhov parameter n:

For silica gel-water n = 1.78, for zeolite-water n = 2.3, for activated carbon-methanol n = 2.15, for activated carbon-ethanol n = 2.25 and for activated carbon-ammoniac n = 1.55.

Finding(s): An interesting and useful finding was that the proposed thermodynamic model allow calculation of the COP of others refrigeration pairs knowing their thermophysicals properties and Dubinin Parameters.

We also found that silica gel-water and zeolite-water pair although not reliable in ice making purpose have higher cold production due to the high latent heat of vaporization of water

Conclusion: Silica gel-water pair is recommendable for refrigeration (food conservation) and activated carbon-methanol for ice making (Vaccine conservation).

The various results which are obtained by simulation need to be validated experimentally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving Poorly Graded Fine Sand with Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation

Firas Jawad, Jun-Jie Zheng

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28338

Because of the rapid growth of cities in the present days, it has become the establishment of infrastructure in the lands previously was considered inappropriate an order cannot be avoided. Therefore, to improve the engineering properties of these lands, various techniques have been applied, such as vibroflotation, dynamic compaction, and composite foundations. Recently, an innovative and sustainable technique called Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) has emerged for soil improvement.  This study aims to explore the effectiveness of the MICP technique for improving the engineering properties of the poor graded fine sandy soil. The influence of factors such as grain size distribution and initial water content of untreated sand on the effectiveness of the MICP technique was investigated.

A set of laboratory tests were conducted, including optical density (OD600), calcium carbonate content, unconfined compressive strength, and soil permeability. The results indicate that MICP is effective for this type of sand. The results also demonstrate that use of MICP is more effective for sand with initial water content of 0 (i.e., dry) with respect to increasing the strength, while the MICP is slightly better for sand with initial water content of 100 (i.e., saturated) for the purpose of decreasing the permeability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Forecasting Methods as a Tool for Information Structuring in Science Research

Olga Popova, Boris Popov, Vladimir Karandey, Marina Evseeva

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26353

Aims: To study forecasting methods so as to identify a general approach to information structuring and to choose the most efficient and approximated to natural intelligence method.

Study Design: logical experiment that reveals the advantages and disadvantages of the forecasting methods.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Information Systems and programming of the Kuban State Technological University.

Methodology: Logical experiment: mental simulation of the forecasting methods, of information structuring, knowledge and initial data representation, and the choice process in the studied methods followed by a written statement; inductive and deductive methods: comparing individual intuition methods and collective expert estimations to natural intelligence (NI), presenting the findings in Tables.

Results: The data collected as a result of logical experiment:

1. The more formalized a method is, the farther it is from NI and the readier for implementation by modern methods and means of computing equipment.

2. Eliminating any shortcomings of a forecasting method requires the approximation of its information structuring and choice making to those of NI.

3. Developing efficient DSSs for method searching requires the knowledge structuring similar to that of NI.

Conclusion: The existing forecasting methods are not suitable for intellectual DSSs. This paper suggests that science research should use new intelligence enhancement methods (IEM) when structuring information and formulating problems to be solved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Leachate Treatment by Fenton Oxidation and Adsorption on Eggshell and Activated Carbon

E. Zamora-Villafranco, I. D. Barceló-Quintal, A. Vega-Paz, H. E. Solís-Correa, R. I. Méndez-Novelo, G. Giacomán-Vallejos

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28051

The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of leachate from landfill through to Fenton advanced oxidation process with subsequent adsorption on the eggshell (ES) and activated carbon (AC). The project was carried out in laboratories of the Area of Chemistry and Physical Chemistry in Environmental of the University Autonomous Metropolitan-Azcapotzalco, between January 2012 and October 2014. The raw leached was chemically characterized by different techniques, some organic compounds by IR and chromatography coupled to mass gases were identified in the crude leached, pH was adjusted and relationship [Fe2+]/[H2O2] was optimized for oxidation treatment; followed by adsorption with eggshell by the technique of batch. ES particle size was selected by adsorption. The adsorbent treatment was completed with activated carbon, therefore the surface area of both adsorbents was measured and leached oxidized was characterized after each adsorption. Finally adsorption kinetics of pseudo- first-order and pseudo-second-order were obtained, where both kinetics were fulfilled. Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were calculated where the latter presented the best fit. With ES as adsorbent there was good COD removal, saving the use of activated carbon in all adsorption processes. Also to use ES as this investigation, contributes to environment as it is a residue. The liquid finally obtained with all complete treatment satisfied the NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996 Mexican Standard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variations of Hydraulic Jump Characteristics Due to Different Sill with Slot Layouts

Mahmoud A. Refaey Eltoukhy, Wail A. Fahmy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/28221

Downstream many hydraulic structures such as dams, barrage sluice gate etc, changing water flow from supercritical to subcritical flow causes formation of hydraulic jump. The formed hydraulic jump dissipates excess energy of flowing water. This paper carried out experimental runs to study the effect of sills with slot on the hydraulic jump characteristics. The considered hydraulic jump characteristics were the jump sequent depth, jump height, jump length, and energy losses through the jump. In these experimental runs, three sill parameters, which are sill relative slot area, relative sill height, and relative sill distance were used to study their effects on the hydraulic jump characteristics. Five relative slot areas with values of 0 (solid sill), 25, 50, 75, and 100% (no sill), four relative sill heights, of 0 (no sill), 0.75, 1.0, and 1.5 and three relative sill distances were used to show the effect of each parameter on the hydraulic jump characteristics. Results showed that the hydraulic jump sequent depth, height, and energy losses have directly proportional relation with relative sill height but inversely proportional relation with sill relative slot area and relative sill distance. Opposite results were obtained for the jump length. The results were translated into group of curves and equations to obtain any jump characteristic for given sill relative slot area, relative sill height, and relative sill distance. Also, empirical computational models were developed using Buckingham’s π-Theorem to calculate any hydraulic jump characteristic for given conditions.