Open Access Case Study

Successful Use of Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound in the Rescue of Failed Vascularised Fibular Graft for Radial Non-union

Sebastian Povlsen, Bo Povlsen

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26427

We present the case of a 47-year-old man who developed a non-union of the left radius following an open double barrel fracture to the left forearm sustained in a road traffic accident. Whilst initially treated with internal fixation, only the ulna fracture united. The patient then underwent two failed radial non-union revision surgeries with exchange of plate and simple bone grafting. A third attempt to rescue the non-union was made with a vascularised bone graft, using a composite fibula/skin free flap. However, within one week the vascular anastomosis failed, and the whole free flap, except the no longer vascularised fibular graft, was excised. Given the previous surgical failures, adjunctive use of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment was started and led to union 6 months later. We report that as an adjunct to union low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment can succeed where multiple previous bone grafts alone for non-unions failed, including a vascularised bone graft in which its vascular anastomosis was subsequently compromised.

Open Access Short Research Article

Effects of Climate Change on Agroclimatic Suitability of Areas for Selected Cereal Crops Production over Gamo Gofa Zone, Ethiopia

Tefera Ashine Teyso, Agena Anjulo, Ayapilla Satyanarayana Murty

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26572

This study assessed effects of climate change on agroclimatic suitability of areas for Maize, Wheat and Barley production in Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia between September 2014 and February 2015. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to analyze the changes in suitability of areas for cereal production due to climate change. The analysis was conducted using data collected from different sources. Climate change scenarios of average monthly rainfall and temperature for the period 2050s (average of 2040-2069) and 2080s (average of 2070-2099) were downloaded for 16 General Circulation Models (GCMs) in climate wizard tools. Ensemble mean of B1 and A2 scenarios were calculated using their values of the 16 GCMs. The mean changes of rainfall and temperature were added to the baseline datasets of the period 1961-1990 to produce the future climates. Agroclimatic suitability of areas for major selected cereal crops (Maize, Wheat and Barley) were analyzed using the climate requirements of the crops based on four parameters namely average annual rainfall, mean temperature, altitude and slope both for the baseline and future scenarios. For 2050s and 2080s B1 and A2 emission scenarios, the rainfall and temperature of the zone would increase beyond the thresholds of crops climatic requirements with A2 to be worst scenario. Due to climate change, a maximum of 11%, 25% and 7% reduction of suitable area are expected by 2050s for Maize, Wheat and Barley respectively; by 2080s the reduction would be respectively 23%, 34% and 8.35%, all for A2 emission scenario. Future climates would have significant negative influence on the suitability of areas for cereals production and food security particularly for the study area and generally for Ethiopia that suggests adaptation measures need to be implemented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mineral Composition of Ashed and Charred Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Bunch and Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Peel

A. U. Israel, I. A. Akpan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22481

This study was carried out to determine the mineral composition, ash content, percentage volatile content (PVC) as well as the pH, total alkalinity and conductivity of the aqueous solution of the ashes of palm bunch and plantain peels respectively.  The mineral contents of the ash (charred and ashed) of both palm bunch and plantain peels were determined using standard methods of the analyses of AOAC and atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The ash content and percentage volatile content (PVC) were 12.50%, 4.70% and 75.0%, 54.20% for the palm bunch and plantain peel wastes respectively. The pH for the palm bunch and plantain peels waste ash solutions were 11.037±0.002, 11.040±0.013 and 9.905±0.001, 10.898±0.521 for ashed and charred samples respectively, while total alkalinity were 8997±3.830, 128,993±24.211 and 3993.25±8.995, 158,021.50±43.00 for the ashed and charred palm bunch and plantain peels solutions, respectively; indicating that the solutions were completely alkaline. The mineral elements and anions in the ashed sample of palm bunch were in (mg/l), K(932.588±1.107), Na(6249.75±1.708), Ca(31.70±1.010), Mg(39.204±0.387), and the anions in (mg/l): chloride (2556.00±1.630), ammonium (1.468±0.015) nitrate (1.05±0.012), sulphate (48.355±0.104), phosphate (184.070±0.009) and nitrate (1.050±0.012) while in the charred sample (mg/l): K(1200.00±1.633), Na(499.000±2.582), Ca(146.500±1.291), Mg(117.945±0.725) and the anions (mg/l): chloride (241.500±1.291), ammonium (1.52±0.016), nitrate (2.008±0.095), sulphate (48.355±0.i04), phosphate (159.148±0.284). Similarly in the ashed plantain peel (mg/l): K(333.338±0.017), Na(270008.500±10.116), Ca(ND), mg(16,917.250±0.957) while the anions were (mg/l): chloride (9556.000±1.633) ammonium (2.150±0.006), nitrate (1.215±0.006), sulphate (30.475±0.010), phosphate (282.615±0.019). The mineral contents of the charred plantain peels were (mg/l): K(333.648±0.547), Na(3726.000±1.414), Ca(ND), Mg(0.336±0.040) and anions (mg/l): chloride (17047.500±9.574), ammonium (3.155±0.104), nitrate (2.85±0.006), sulphate (36.215±0.019) and phosphate (483.900±0.149) respectively. The conductivity of the solutions of both ashed and charred ashes of palm bunch were (ohms/cm) 40.388±0.104 and 32.723±0.186 while for the plantain peels were 54.783±0.302 and 27.17±0.008 respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Implications of Increased Discharge of Pollutants into Nigeria’s Fresh Water Resources

Samuel Mark Maton, Austine Chukwuma Eziashi, Juliet Dingtsen Dodo, Maga Zachariah Olaku

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26792

The paper has appraised the implications of abuse of water in Nigeria. Through critical review of related works the paper has discovered that Nigeria’s water resources are getting polluted daily as a result of such increased anthropogenic activities like modern agriculture, mining, fishing, livestock farming, manufacturing and household rubbish which release organic and inorganic pollutants into aquatic environment. The paper noted such adverse consequences of water pollution to include increased debilitating water–borne diseases which affect human health, fauna and flora negatively. Human health risk assessment of water quality from different parts of the country has shown that both surface and shallow groundwater are not safe for human consumption hence, some treatments are urgently required before ingestion. The paper therefore, recommended reduction in the discharge of pollutants into water bodies by reutilization and recycling of waste water, removal of pollutants before discharging waste into the environment, creation of public awareness and enforcement of environmental laws in order to safeguard this life-supporting resource from degradation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Self-similar Solutions for a Nonlinear Heat Equation Modelling MEMS

Jian Deng

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26468

This paper deals with the existence and nonexistence of self-similar solutions for a nonlinear heat equation arising from electrostatic MEMS. We show that there exists a critical value A*, such that if the initial data is less than A*, then there is no global forward self-similar radial solution. While if the initial data is greater than A*, then there exists a family of increasing global forward self-similar radial solutions, which goes to ∞ as r → ∞. We also establish the optimal growth rate of these solutions. At last, we give the nonexistence result of backward self-similar solutions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response Surface Optimization of Production Mix of selected Raw Materials for Plastic Production

Okolie Paul Chukwulozie, Oluwadare Benjamin Segun, Chukwuneke Jeremaih Lekwuwa, Nwadike Emmanuel Chinagorom

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22814

Practically, it is not viable to obtain the optimization of production mixture of the raw material for high recital and quality which is subject to numerous performance controls by trial and error through the normal process can be a extremely tricky task and time intense. This leads to the development of statistical experiment design and analysis particularly for the purpose of optimizing mixes, like the plastic products, in which the final product properties does not depend on their absolute quantities but on the virtual proportions of the mechanism. Mixture methods have been of little application in the plastic industry even though they have been used to inflate products like gasoline, metal alloys, foods and detergents in industries. An examination in which a statistical mixture design tool called response surface design optimization tool was explained in this work where it is used to optimize the six mixture components of 32 mm plastic pressure pipe, in order to achieve the best mixture ratio and their corresponding product yield. The results also showed an optimal mixture ratio of stabilizer (0.0001), PVC (14010.43), Carbonate (377.520), Titanium (1.4337), Steric acid (2265.110), and pigment (1.4337) for 32 mm pressure pipe. The optimal yield and composite desirability for the 32 mm pressure pipe are 79960 kg and 0.99951 respectively. The result showed an increase in profitability of the final products by reducing the wastage of raw materials. The proposed model is recommended to the case company for effective utilization of their various raw material mixtures so as to realize their various production yields and optimal solution of their raw material mixture. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Response Strategies by Agro-Pastoral Farmers to Effects of Climate Variability in Laikipia West Sub-County, Kenya

M. R. Maoncha, G. O. Obwoyere, C. W. Recha, L. W. Nakhone

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/27227

Aims: This study assessed the effects of Climate variability on Agro-pastoral farmers’ livelihoods and response strategies.

Study Design: The study employed a social survey research design, to examine household perceptions on climate variability and response strategies by agro-pastoral farmers to climate variability.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Laikipia West region, between August 2015 and March 2016.

Methodology: A questionnaire was administered to 400 agro-pastoral farmers and interviews were held with 20 key informants from relevant institutions. Data was processed and analysed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test.

Results: The study findings revealed that, agro-pastoralists perceived that rainfall had decreased while temperatures had increased. The main response strategies employed by agro-pastoralists were: crop diversification, use of both organic and chemical fertilizers, planting drought tolerant crops and tree planting.

Conclusion: Agro-pastoral farmers in Laikipia West Sub-County are engaging in various response strategies to climate variability. There are fundamental changes in livelihoods such as crop diversification, rainwater harvesting, irrigation, mixed cropping, mixed farming, keeping of browsers and tree planting. However, currently there is promotion of drought tolerant crops, use of greenhouses, fallow cropping amongst others. There is need for integration of scientific and traditional ecological knowledge as well as climate smart agriculture for better adaptation to the effects of climate variability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potentials of Banana Peel, Vegetable Waste (Telfairia occidentalis) and Pig Dung Substrates for Biogas Production

S. O. Idire, B. E. Asikong, D. R. Tiku

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/27454

The research study was aimed at investigating the potentials of Banana Peel, vegetable waste (Telfairia occidentialis) and pig dung substrate for biogas production. Marian market, Watt Market and University of Calabar Pig farm were randomly sampled within Calabar Metropolis for collection samples. The study was completed within a period of six months. Standard microbiological methods using anaerobic digesters were used to screen the waste substrates for biogas production. The amount of biogas produced by the substrates were measured on a daily basis in a gas metric chamber by displacement of paraffin oil, while the methane yield of the substrates was gotten by dividing the amount of flammable gas from the total biogas produced by the substrates. The volume of biogas produced varied significantly (p<0.05) between the substrate treatments and digestion intervals (days). Maximum biogas yield of 380.29 cm3 was obtained over a period of 35 days of digestion from substrate combination (Banana Peel + vegetable + pig dung) as compared to other substrate treatments. However, the percentage methane yield ranged between 25.10% from substrate combination of pig dung and vegetable waste (PD +VW) to 49.16% from substrate combination of Banana Peel, vegetable waste and pig dung could serve as suitable substrates for biogas production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microfacies and Biostratigraphy of the Limestone-Shale Sequences of Gboko Formation, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

O. D. Owonipa, O. A. Okunlola, A. Edema

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/10869

The drive to ascertain the paleodepositional environments of the inland sedimentary basins of Nigeria, necessitates a detailed biostratigraphy studies of limestone-shale sequences of Gboko Formation; Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria.

A total of 26 representative samples were collected and properly packaged from different locations in Tse-kucha, Ukogh and Alonso-biam. Petrographic study, which is a routine carbonate mineralogical observation, textural description, and modal analysis were carried out on the rock slabs and standard thin section of eighteen (18) Limestone samples, under a petrographic microscope.  Biostratigraphic study, which is the study of rock strata using the fossils assemblages contained within them, was carried out on twenty-six (26) samples.

The lithological assemblages show sedimentary sequences of shale and limestone, that represents transgressive-regressive cycle with many short lived environments. Petrographic studies which entails routine carbonate mineralogical observation, textural description and modal analysis under petrographic microscope, shows that the limestone as a whole have both mud-supported and grain supported textures with micrite forming over 75% of the bulk. The microfacies recognized include mudstone, bioclastic packstone, intrapelsparite packstone-grainstone, bioclastic grainstone, bioclastic wackestone-packstone, oncolitic grainstone-packstone, intrabiomicrite wackestone-packstone, stomatolitic boundstone and bioclastic wackestone microfacies. Foraminifera, algae, ostracods, gastropods, pelecypods and skeletal grains, constitute the major bioclasts, while pellets; oncoids and lithoclasts are the major non-bioclastic components of the microfacies. The systematic biostratigraphic analysis, which entails the identification, classification and description of the microfossils using the binocular microscope, yielded few stratigraphically significant planktonic and benthonic species of foraminifera. Some of the foraminifera species recovered from the sediments include Ammobaculites coprolithiforms, Reophax guineana and Gvellinella species. Ostracods, few echinoids remains and gastropods are the other microfuna recorded.

The Integration of interpretations from the lithologic and biostatigraphic data suggests that the sedimentary sequence was deposited in a shallow marine, shelf lagoonal environment.

Open Access Review Article

Superluminal Motion of Free Spin-half Particles in a Fiber Bundle Formalism

Emmanuel D. K. Gazoya, Francis T. Oduro, Edward Prempeh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26498

The hypothesis of the spin of an electron, leading to its angular momentum, is no longer an open question, in science. Experimental evidence like the hydrogen fine structure and the Stern-Gerlach experiment in the 1920s and, recently, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) have for long paved the way to definitely end this debate. Equipped with this mathematical machinery potent enough to handle the theories which are of interest to us, the expectation value of the overall relative linear velocity component of a fermion field was investigated in a previous paper, found quantized, and exceeding the speed of light. In the present article, we aim to review and describe this result in the framework of a fiber bundle theory. Using a method developed in the 1980s by Zimmer for Dynamical-System theory, we explicate the feasibility of the superluminal free electron and neutrino result in bundle language.