Open Access Short Research Article

Investigation of Saturation Thickness of Sn Using Backscattering Technique

Renu Sharma, J. K. Sharma, Tejbir Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26514

In this paper, the energy dependence of saturation thickness for Sn target has been investigated at different gamma rays photon energies of 122, 511 and 662 keV using backscattering technique. The back scattered photon spectra for different thicknesses (0.2 – 2.13 cm) of tin (50Sn) has been recorded using scintillator detector GAMMA-RAD5 (dimensions 76 mm × 76 mm; energy resolution of 7% at 662 keV) coupled with multi-channel analyzer (MCA) based on Amptek’s DP5G Digital Pulse Processor. It has been observed that the intensity of backscattered photon increases with increase in target thickness and saturates beyond a particular value called the saturation thickness; which also varies with incident photon energy. In the energy region of 122-662 keV, the saturation thickness for tin decreases with the increase in incident photon energy. This parameter can be further used to assign effective atomic numbers to composite materials (Compounds/mixtures).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation and Comparison of Effect of Different Surface Treatments and Varying Alloy Percentage on the Elemental Composition of Ni Cr Base Metal Alloy

Divya Goel, Ramesh P. Nayakar, Raghunath Patil

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26204

Aim: To evaluate and compare the Effect of Different Surface Treatments and Varying Alloy Percentage on The Elemental Composition of Ni Cr Base Metal Alloy.

Study Design: The elemental composition of Ni Cr alloy with different surface treatments (oxidation, sandblasting, silane coupling agent) with varying alloy percentage (100% new, 50% new and 50% old, 100% old once cast) of all specimens were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, V.K Institute Of Dental Sciences, KLE University, Belgaum, Karnataka, India and Indian Institute Of Technology, Mumbai India.

Methodology: Forty five disc shaped Ni Cr alloy specimens were made and subjected to different surface treatments which include oxidation, sandblasting and silane coupling agent application. Elemental composition was evaluated with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysor System (EDX) and surface topography was analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at 1500 x magnification.

Results: The elemental composition was significantly different in the casting groups and treatment groups (p < 0.05). The highest mean weight percentage Ni value was recorded for Group A with oxidation treatment. Aluminum-oxide sandblasting of the alloy surface reduced the mean weight percentage for Cr.

Conclusion: Recasting metal alloys may adversely affect surface quality of the Ni Cr alloy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualimetric Assessment of Students’ Research Competence within the Context of Education Informatization

Olga Popova, Dmitry Romanov, Marina Evseeva

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26339

Aims: Is building a model for assessing students’ research competence.

Study Design: Experimental testing of the assessment model for students’ research competence.

Place and Duration of Study: Students (n=648, 2009, 2010 и 2011 enrolment years) at technical university – Kuban State Technological University.

Methodology: Used methods: Systemic approach, qualimetric approach, competence approach (targets students at effective use of the obtained knowledge and skills, to settle successfully living, social and professional tasks), metasystemic approach ( a portfolio is viewed as apically implicit system comprising relatively autonomous components), synergetic approach (development of students’ research competence is viewed in integral relation with their professional self-organization and self-development) and student-centered approach (a learner’s priority is manifested in educational process).

Results: Decision rules (AI term) for integrated assessment of research competence are as follows:

1. If cognitive, operational, motivational and behavior components are registered high, and reflexive component is medium and up, in this case, the level is marked as creative.
2. If at least one component (except reflexive) is registered very low, the level is marked as immature.
3. If motivational component is registered low, and cognitive, operational or behavior ones are in between low and medium, the level is marked as situational.
4. If all components are registered medium (reflexive can go low), the level of competence is marked as literate.
5. If two or three components are registered high, the rest are medium and up, the level is marked as scholarly.

Conclusion: The suggested criteria and levels represent an integral component of criteria and assessment framework for psychological and pedagogical monitoring (monitoring of personal and professional development of students) and a basis for forecasting personal and professional growth of students. With informatization of professional education it is possible to assess students’ research competence on the basis of keeping a portfolio.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Arsenic and Lead Soil Contamination by Wooden Electric and Telephone Poles in Two Urban Cities

Lovell Agwaramgbo, Jude Alinnor, Sha’Kayla Nunez, Peter Uhuegbue

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26255

Arsenic and lead have been reported to have toxic effect on human and animal health. Wooden electric and telephone poles have been known to be treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in an effort to preserve them from decay, termites, insects, and rot. Thus, those who work or live on or near lead and arsenic-containing soil or ingest products contaminated by these two heavy metals are at risk of serious health dangers. Thus, the project reported here investigates whether wooden telephone and electric poles contribute to arsenic and lead soil contamination in two urban cities:- New Orleans in Louisiana, USA and Owerri in Imo State, Nigeria. Three wards or neighborhoods were selected in each city for the study and three streets were selected from each ward. Three samples were obtained from each street. Soil samples were collected from Owerri Girls Secondary School (OG) in Owerri and at Dillard University in New Orleans where the utility poles were made of concrete rather than wood. The soil samples were dried, sieved, and analyzed for arsenic and lead. The data suggest that the 4.8 mg/Kg mean arsenic level found in New Orleans soil samples is thirteen times higher than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region VI RECAP level of 0.36 mg/Kg and ten times higher than Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPAN) permissible level (0.5 mg/Kg) in soil while the mean lead level of 156 mg/Kg is below the USEPA RECAP level of 400 mg/Kg but more than 3000 times above FEPAN permissible level of 0.05 mg/Kg. The data for the samples from Owerri, Nigeria had arsenic levels below method detection limit but showed a 2.3 mg/Kg mean lead level which is well below the USEPA 400 mg/Kg recap level but forty six times above FEPAN permissible level of 0.05 mg/Kg. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of in vitro Gas and Methane Production of Diet Fortified with Yeast and Lactobacilli spp.

T. O. Ososanya, U. A. Inyang

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/19166

The effect of dietary fortification of two levels of bakers yeast and yeast plus Lactobacilli against negative control and positive control (antibiotic) was assessed on in vitro gas production (IVGP) kinetics and methane production at 24 hours incubation.

A concentrate diet was formulated and fortified with six levels consisting: control (D1); antibiotic (D2); 2.5 g bakers yeast (D3); 5.0 g bakers yeast (D4); 2.5 g yeast plus Lactobacilli (D5) and 5.0 g yeast plus Lactobacilli (D6) and mixed with Panicum maximum to serve as the substrate in a completely randomized design. The parameters tested were IVGP, organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), short chain fatty acids (SCFA), methane gas, degradability, partitioning factor and microbial biomass. Higher (P<0.05) IVGP volumes, in vitro organic matter degradability, metabolizable energy (ME) and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) were recorded for diets D3 to D6 and D1 over D2, whereas the difference amongst D3 to D6 and D1 was not significant (P>0.05). Highest IVGP was recorded for D6 (16.33 ml) and the lowest (4.33 ml) in D2. Gas production from the soluble  fraction (a), rate of constant of gas production (c) and time (t) were not significantly different (p > 0.05) while the gas production from the insoluble fraction (b), potential extent of gas production (a + b) differed significantly (p < 0.05). For methane gas, D3 recorded the highest (5.00 ml / 200 mg DM) and D2 had the lowest (1.67 ml / 200 mg DM). All other fortifications were higher in methane gas than control. The present study demonstrated the potential of probiotics especially when mixed at 5 g level in improving degradation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Methanol from Methane by an Impulse Discharge on the Water Surface

Masato Mukawa, Takafumi Tanno, Satoru Iizuka

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26682

Production of methanol from methane was investigated by a low pressure impulse discharge on the surface of the water without using catalysis.

Methane was introduced above the water surface and mixed with steam generated by the heat supplied by the discharge. Discharge parameters were changed for optimizing the methanol production. Gaseous hydrocarbons such as ethane, ethylene and acetylene were produced except methanol. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were also observed. The major product was carbon monoxide. Decomposition rate of methane, methanol selectivity, and energy efficiency for methanol production were 51.5%, 22%, and 0.14 L/kWh, respectively. The maximum of energy efficiency was 0.19 L/kWh at the methane flow rate of 10 sccm.

The control of methane dissociation was a key factor for the methane conversion. Water surface discharge system developed here is quite effective for the methanol production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Training for the Future? A Case of Automotive Training in TVET Institutions in Kenya

Kisilu M. Kitainge

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25391

Aims: To evaluate the opinions of the automotive trainers on the extent to which their training programs were futuristic in content and organization. To establish whether the training was in line with changes in technology in industry; the main emphasis of training and suggestions ways of improving the situation.

Study Design: Survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Technical training institutions in Kenya involving Automotive trainers in the year 2015.

Methodology: Data was collected by use of a questionnaire. Sample: The study involved 31 Automotive trainers in Kenya.

Results: The study established that the training programs are not fully aligned to the requirements for the future practice in automotive industry. A greater percentage 67.7% (21) of the trainers agreed that the automotive mechanics course was a sufficient preparation for work in the automotive industry while 29% (9) disagreed. A total of 64.5% (20) of trainers disagreed that the facilities at industry are different from those at the training institution. A large number 96.8% (30) agreed that the automotive mechanics course should be restructured to focus on work in industry. There were 55% (17) respondents agreeing they were able to cope with changes in industry while 42% (13) disagreed. There were 51.6% (16) trainers agreeing that training on the job is better for repair work than institute based training while 45.3% (14) disagreed. Collaboration with industry in program design was found to be inadequate. There were 93.6% (29) trainers who reported the view that the collaboration is missing.

Conclusion: Training at the Technical Training institutes should be designed for flexibility with key stakeholders being involved. Training facilities should be as close as possible to the work place facilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neutron Activation Analysis of Kaolin of the South Eastern States Nigeria

Ali Haruna, Vivan Ann Kasham

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25418

This work investigates the components of Kaolin (nzu) in the five South Eastern states of Nigerian and the possible health benefits by using Neutron Activation analysis. The results of the investigation show the concentration of eighteen elements. These elements are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Na, K, As, U, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Cs, Zn, Rb, Cs, Ba, and Th, that were analysed using NAA in Kaolin (Nzu) collected from five South East states of Nigeria. Among these, the major elements detected include Mg, Al, Ti, Na, K, and Fe. The remaining occurred at minor and trace levels. The results also show that Kaolin (nzu) is highly enriched in Al, Ti, K, and Fe with concentration levels ranging from 132300±794-188400±1507, 2642±682-12200±647, 2029±114-5913±136 and 7809±187-18400±258. The concentrations of most of these elements is far exceeds the daily dietary needs or permissible limits of man, and thus making them toxic unless taken in small dosages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Principal Component Analysis - Based Ethnicity Prediction Using Iris Feature

B. M. Latinwo, A. S. Falohun, E. O. Omidiora

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26131

This paper presents the effectiveness of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique in analyzing iris texture by performing dimensionality reduction and extracting unique feature codes of images for efficient ethnicity classification using iris images from African and two Asian datasets. Three hundred and thirty-six iris images were obtained, preprocessed (enhanced) and segmented for easy identification of unique features using Histogram Equalization and Hough Transform techniques, respectively. Feature dimensionality reduction and extraction of feature codes of the segmented images was carried out using PCA while the result showed the similarities and differences between irises of different ethnicities based on these generated codes. The research established a very close similarity of the Asia1 and Asia2 irises, due to the classification of their features in the same feature code subrange. Also, few images from Asia1 and Asia2 were classified with the Africans which explained the possibility of mixed race of subjects through inter-marriage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Greywater Ingress from Cross-connection into Potable Water Reticulation Networks

Olawale Olanrewaju, Adesola Ilemobade

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24409

This exercise was undertaken in order to simulate the movement of nitrates and phosphorus within a residential potable water network and to investigate the degree of human exposure to varying quantities of these contaminants from a cross-connection. Greywater was collected from 2 bathtubs and 2 showers, sieved, disinfected, stored and used to flush 2 toilets within a 16 unit residence. The transport of the contaminants was modelled using the kinetics of chlorine in greywater and pathogen inactivation model using the EPANET-MSX program. Results show that the risk of contaminant ingestion is directly proportional to the distance from the point of injection and the degree of human exposure to the contaminants was directly dependent on the demand occurring adjacent to the period of ingress. Thus, if a contaminant is injected prior to or during a peak period, the contaminant is certain to reach all the water use fixtures at a shorter space of time i.e. in minutes or seconds depending on the size of the network. The quantity of contaminants measured at each fixture ranged from 0.12 mg/l to 0.33 mg/l for nitrate and 2.16 mg/l to 9.4 mg/l for phosphorus based on the smallest to the largest injections of nitrate (0.18-0.53 mg/l) and phosphorus (5-15 mg/l). These quantities posed an insignificant health risk according to the South African National Standards on potable water. However, standard precautions must be adhered to in the use of the greywater toilets and maintenance of the GWR system.