Open Access Original Research Article

Thermal Study of Tunisian Phosphogypsum for Use in Reinforced Plaster

Nabawia Mechi, Mohamed Ammar, Mouna Loungou, Elimame Elaloui

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25728

This work presents a promising way to investigate the valorization of natural residual from Tunisian industrial wastes. In fact, large quantities of phosphogypsum which are obtained from Tunisian Chemical Group "TCG" are accumulated every year in Tunisia. The rational valorization of these available renewable resources fits very well with the recent sustainable approach, established nowadays. This work aims at ascertaining the chemical composition of this inorganic residue and structural characterization for use as a reinforced plaster.

Several thermal treatments from 100°C to 800°C were established to prepare from phosphogypsum various qualities of this material to be characterized by numerous techniques such as the FTIR, XRD, SEM, DSC, DTG and TGA in order to apply in potential application. Calcination temperature that gave the best value for the beginning and the end of setting was 200°C. The experimental tests showed height values of flexural strength for thecalcined PG at 200°C (0.45 MPa).

Open Access Original Research Article

The Potentiality of Processed Mango Kernel in Animal Feed

Ameh Omede, Sunday S. Arogba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25460

Biological quality of processed mango (Mangifera indica) kernel (PMK) in a 50% substituted commercial feed was evaluated as soluble protein equivalent (spe) in a feeding experiment with albino rats. The methodology employed was novel and involved determination of protein retention using whole uncentrifuged blood sample. The rats of the ‘test’ group showed similar protein efficient ratio (PERspe) with those of ‘control’, despite the difference in total crude protein contents of their diets (11 and 16% respectively). However, higher values of BVspe and NPUspe were observed with the test diet, implying that available essential amino acids there-in supported growth and maintenance better than with the control diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinematics Rods of Simulator-Hexapod

Victor Yaglinsky, Aimen Al-Obaydi, Genadi Kozeratsky, Nikolay Moskvichev

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26274

Purpose: To develop mathematical model of the kinematic parameters of motion rods of hexapod at the maneuver of type “pitch”.

Methodology: The motion of hexapod platform was generated based on the pole translational equation of motion and rotational motion via angles of Euler-Krylov. Modelling the platform’s trajectory of type "pitch" was done based on control of coordinate positions. The movement of each rods of hexapod around a motionless axis was presented by two angles of Euler.

Results: Are obtained the mathematically models of kinematic parameters of rods the hexapod, when performing by a platform of any complex maneuver. Angular velocity and angular acceleration is attached as projections on the fixed coordinate system and on the coordinate system is attached to the moving rods. Was presented the algorithm for research of kinematics the rods of a hexapod. Calculations for design of the standard avia-exercise machine of firm “ANTK Antonov” have confirmed a possibility of obtaining kinematic parameters of the rods of hexapod when performing maneuver like "pitch". Has been set the maximum of accelerations load on the crew at the maximum admissible angles of maneuver types "pitch" of the simulator-hexapod.

Conclusion: Was confirmed possibility of modelling a complex maneuver of simulator-hexapod at permissible acceleration load on the crew. The process of obtaining kinematic parameters has been necessary for dynamics problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Campus Sustainability Assessment: The Case of University of Cape Coast, Ghana

Sarah Darkwa, Hannah Edjah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25553

Aims: To assess buildings and their subsequent impact on land and energy use to validate campus sustainability.  

Study Design:  A survey.

Place of Study: Department of Vocational & Technical Education, University of Cape Coast.

Methodology: A questionnaire was administered to conveniently select senior members and senior staff of the university. Questions covered issues on land/energy use versus building types. The Land surveyor, Quantity surveyor, Architect, Estate officer, grounds and maintenance representative and 5 other high ranking officials of the university were purposively interviewed to obtain information on indices that dictated siting of buildings on campus. A total of 60 questionnaires were retrieved and 10 in-depth interviews conducted.          

Results: Findings showed a 25% land encroachment rate. About 33 buildings have been raised on campus since the year 2000 of which 72% are low rise 1-3 storey and 28% 3-4 storey. Building type was determined by financial factors followed by original university laid down designs and nature of land, and its availability. Horizontal land use was attributed to building especially along the periphery to curb encroachment. Respondents (72%) suggested the construction of more residence halls, libraries and laboratories to meet the needs of increased student populations on campus. Others suggested demolishing some existing structures to make room for high rise buildings. Finally, the officials interviewed stressed the need for government support to help the university erect more appropriate buildings and adopt ways of making activities on campus more sustainable.        

Conclusion: Horizontal rather than vertical land use practices and the type of buildings being put up on campus may not be sustainable in the long term. The university needs to take practical steps towards a more sustainable land use policy and planning hopefully with help from government and other stakeholders. Community engagement is highly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Combined Photovoltaic-Thermal Solar System in Hot Climate

A. A. Ghoneim, A. M. Mohammedein

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26151

Hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar system (PVT) which generates electricity and heat simultaneously is well known technology; however they are still need more development and collaboration. The proposed combination can offer economical advantages compared to a combination of separate thermal and photovoltaic panels In the present work, an outdoor test facility is designed and installed to experimentally investigate the thermal and electrical yield of a hybrid PVT in Kuwait climate. Linear regression analysis is adapted to determine the thermal and optical parameters of the PVT system from measurements. A simulation model compatible with TRNSYS is developed to analyze the performance of Hybrid PVT solar system (PVT) with hot water storage tank. The simulation model can provide the transient and long term evaluation to predict the system performance in different weather conditions. The simulation model presented is a steady state model based on solving the heat balance equations for the different layers in the PVT system. The simulation results obtained from present model is found to agree well with the experimental data. The performance measurements indicated that the combined photovoltaic-thermal collector produces a higher yield per unit area than a conventional thermal collector. Compared with individual PV and solar collector of the same aperture area, it was found that PVT system produces a higher yield. Maximum energy generation from the PVT collector corresponds to a collector slope of 25° (latitude -5°) and facing south. In addition, PVT with monocrystalline silicon cells achieves the highest energy production among the three PV cell types studied.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural Investigations on Na2O – CaO-V2O5- SiO2 Bioglass Ceramics

G. El-Damrawi, A. K. Hassan, H. Kamal, M. Aboelez, S. Labeeb

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26683

All as obtained glasses in the system 24.5 Na2O-24.5 CaO-6 P2O5- xV2O5 (45-x) SiO2 (x ranges from 0-15 mole %) are transparent and have an amorphous network structure. Glasses containing up to 6 mol% V2O5 still transparent upon heat treatment at 660°C for 4 hours. On the other hand, heat sintered glasses containing higher V2O5 concentration are transformed to opaque white glass ceramic characterized by their highly crystalline network structure. Crystalline apatite (calcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2), wollastonite (calcium silicate, CaSiO3), and sodium vanadate (Na2VO3) are the main well-formed crystalline species played the major role in material bioactivity. The advantage of V2O5 containing glasses is that it can easily be crystallized, since the high crystallinity is obtained by lowering sintering temperature when compared with that of glasses free from V2O5. Crystalline clusters containing vanadate species and both apatite and wollastonite phases are evidenced to be present. A hydroxyapatite (HA) formation is confirmed by the in vitro test of bioactivity. Processes of degradation and ion exchange between sample and phosphate solution and HA precipitation are evaluated. It is found that V2O5 can speed up the rate of reaction between the tested sample and phosphate solution. Glass ceramics containing V2O5 is highly active than that of vanadium free silicate glasses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glass-Polymer- Concrete Composite and Its Mechanical, Chemical and Thermal Properties

A. M. Badiea, B. G. Mohammed, A. Albadran Firas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25779

In this research, the production of glass-polymer-concrete (GPC) composite and comparing of its mechanical, chemical and thermal properties with the reference concrete have been investigated. The present work deals with study of ternary blended concrete with glass waste and polymer as reinforcement and binder. New product is designed for compressive strength of 52 MPa and other mechanical and thermal properties were improved. As well as the results revealed remarkable improvements in chemical resistance against harsh acidic environment; and decrease the absorption of moisture by 14%. Beside benefits for this research is to disposal amassed glass waste that increasing day after day. Statistical ANOVA and Box Welson techniques are used to lessen the trial and error tests (not shown).

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Air Temperatures within the Enclosure of a Model of Traditional Habitat Bilobate and Rectangular

Issaka Ouedraogo, Priscilla Simonis, Alioune Ouedraogo, Belkacem Zeghmati

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26286

This article shows the experimental and numerical results of thermal comfort of two models of traditional habitats. The traditional habitat is bilobate and rectangular model. In the bilobate model, I obtained the following air temperatures by measurement: 29.6-31.6°C the day and 27.8-29.6°C at night. In the rectangular model the air temperature is among 28.7-30.7°C the day and 26.4-28.3°C at night. The numerical results indicate air temperatures to be between: 30.7-32.9°C the day and 28.8-30.7°C at night, in the bilobate model. In the rectangular model, the air temperature is between 29.6-31.9°C during the day and 27.3-29.7°C at night. This result indicates a thermal inertia in our two traditional habitats models. It has been determined that the air temperature in both two traditional habitat models is greater than the average external air temperatures. This can be explained by the presence of internal heat sources in the two traditional models of habitats. Nevertheless, these habitats models protect their occupants from sudden changes of temperature, which is already a condition of thermal comfort.

Open Access Original Research Article

Model Developed for Competing Accessory, Spare Parts and Miscellaneous Costs for Limited Available Budget under Machine Availability

B. O. Akinnuli, O. O. Ojo, V. A. Balogun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23025

In a developing company or industry where there is availability of machines to keep the industry running effectively, a need always arise to consider the accessories and the spare parts which will enhance the production planning and also affects the economic growth of the company positively. An optimum model is developed to control the limited available budget that will be optimally allotted to accessories, spare parts and miscellaneous costs. This study considered the strategic decisions for budgeting, developed mathematical models for accessories, spare parts and miscellaneous, with considering the machines cost since it is available for the year under consideration. The models were tested and their performance evaluations carried out. A decision maker/project manager optimally allotted the limited resources to the considered strategic decisions to know exactly the amount that will be required to keep the machines functioning efficiently and effectively so that revenue can be generated. In allotting the limited resources for procurement, this study considered three major strategic decisions: accessories, spare parts and miscellaneous costs. Model for each strategic decision was developed. This study made it known that the highest value in any of these strategic decisions will definitely have the highest inventory in company’s stock for production. Information from the past procurement made by OLAM Cocoa Processing Industry (OCPI), Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria was used as case study to test the developed models for decisions making. Fifteen (15) years past record of equipment cost data was collected from this institute. A software was also developed for easy processing of this data using visual basic language because of its versatility and friendliness. Five million, five hundred thousand Naira (₦5,500,000) which is equivalent to more than Twenty – two thousand US dollar (US $22,448.98) was made available for the procurement of accessories, spare parts and miscellaneous costs and the amount allotted are ₦2,190,826.18; ₦2,861,556.10; and ₦447,617.71 respectively. This model is a strong decision tool for allocating available budget especially during the period of financial scarcity where equipment procurement for production needs must be carried out. This model is highly recommended to any manufacturing company, where equipment procurement affects their production in developed and developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-Plane Shear Properties of Nano-Hybridized GFRE Composites with MWCNTs

S. M. Aldousari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26663

Epoxy resin modified with nanofillers cannot be used alone for high performance structural applications due to their low-mechanical properties. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to hybridize composite laminates with different fiber configurations by 1.0 wt% multi–walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The hybridized composite laminates include, quasi-isotropic [0/±45/90]s glass fiber reinforced nanophased-epoxy (QI-GFR/MWCNT/E) and unidirectional [0]8 UD-GFR/MWCNT/E. In parallel, control laminates are fabricated without MWCNTs. Results from Iosipescu shear characterization showed that the in-plane shear (IPS) strength and modulus of MWCNTs-nanocomposite are improved by 40.9% and 21.9% respectively compared to neat epoxy. The IPS strengths of QI-GFR/MWCNT/E and UD-GFR/MWCNT/E laminates are improved by 39.5% and 1.4% respectively. The IPS moduli of the hybridized composite laminates showed about 17% improvement compared to the control laminates. The improvement in the IPS properties of the hybridized composite laminates was due to the good interface bond strength between the constituent materials. The predicted IPS modulus of MWCNT/E using Halpin-Tsai model agrees very well with the experimental results with only 4.2% variation.