Open Access Original Research Article

Sverdruv Munk Bretschneider Modification (SMB) for Significant Wave Height Prediction in Java Sea

Aulia Siti Aisjah, Syamsul Arifin, Wimala L. Danistha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/19669

Sverdruv Munk Bretschneider (SMB) methods is a semi-empirical method that has been used for the prediction of the significant wave height – Hs in global watersheds. Indonesian waters are surrounded by thousands of islands and wind movement has different nature with the waters of free movement. Java sea is flanked by the waters of Java and Borneo island. Sea breeze movement in Indonesia as a result of changes in atmospheric pressure in Asia and Australia. SMB methods require modification in the waters of Indonesia, so as to be used as a predictor in accordance with the high degree of accuracy. In this paper, a propose methods of designing the predictor with a modified SMB. The method compared by numerical methods of Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogeneous (NLARX) and expertise method of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Case studies conducted in the Java sea along Surabaya – Banjarmasin cruises. This line is a busiest sea transportation in Indonesia. The data obtained from Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG), the agency of meteorology, climatology and geophysics in Indonesia. The data are the wind speed and significant wave height. The length of data in interval 6 years, since 2006 until 2011. Predictor results shows a Root Mean Square Error - RMSE of modified SMB is 0.05, while NLARX method and ANN respectively are 0.24 and 0.16.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plain Text Encoding/Decoding Technique Using a Combination of Huffman and Run-Length Algorithms

Ahmed Ibrahim

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25712

This work is devoted to study the effect of applying a hybrid encoding/decoding algorithm to textual data. The sole purpose is to analyze the effect on the size as well as the complexity of the output encoded data. The proposed combination is that of Huffman and Run-Length algorithms. This study focuses on the sequence of applying the two algorithms to see if it has an effect on the output data or not, and the impact of input data format on the result. Results show that the data format and the sequence in which the algorithms are applied actually affect the output. Moreover, it is shown why these two algorithms were chosen and each of them contribute to the overall result.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Illustration of Thermodynamic Modeling and Economic Analysis of Inlet Air Chilling System for Gas Turbine Power Augmentation

Hilman Syaeful Alam, John Sasso, Imam Djunaedi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26252

Inlet air chilling system has been widely used in recent years as a method of the gas turbine (GT) power augmentation in power plants. In this paper, thermodynamic modeling of inlet chilling system had been studied in order to improve the performance of the two units of gas turbines (GT1 & GT2) in Pesanggaran power plant, in Bali, Indonesia. The study was focused on power enhancement, specific fuel consumption (SFC), heat rate and thermal efficiency and conducted on three cooling conditions i.e. 17°C, 15°C and 13°C. Moreover, the economic analysis was conducted to determine the capacity cost, operating cost and payback period due to the investment cost of the system. Based on the simulation results, the lower the chilling temperature, the higher the power enhancement and the parasitic load on the system. The maximum power enhancements for GT1 and GT2 were at the lowest chilling temperature 13°C, i.e. 6.57% and 6.61%. Based on the evaluation of the economic aspects, capacity costs should be ideally balanced with a decrease in the production cost after the application of the chilling system, however, the power cost was not economical because it couldn’t compensate the investment cost and it had a very long payback period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Pedal Operated Honey Extractor

B. O. Akinnuli, O. O. Awopetu, P. P. Ikubanni, O. O. Agboola

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23529

Bees are winged insects that produce honey by their activities with the nectar of flowers. The honey produced is sweet and are finding replacement for sugar nowadays. Honey bees live in hives where the honey combs being formed by the bees are being deposited. Various methods had been exploited in extracting this honey from the honey comb both traditionally and by different designs of extractors from the primitive to a modern one. Although the former design which was locally produced in Nigeria was hand driven which functions quite efficiently, however, there is need for new innovation that involved the introduction of pedaled mechanism. An existing honey extractor design was improved upon with the introduction of pedal mechanism as compared to the hand driven one with the aim of extracting the honey in the most hygienic way with the suitable materials required. The efficiency of the machine was estimated to be 85 per cent, which was compared to the former available designed one of 83 per cent efficiency. The cost analysis for the production of the machine was included in the work which was estimated to be #48750 (US$243.75).

Open Access Original Research Article

Bayesian and Frequentist Comparison: An Application to Low Birth Weight Babies in Ghana

Michael Ofori Fosu, Osborne A. Y. Jackson, Stephen B. Twum

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25753

The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between maternal factors and birth weight among babies by using and comparing frequentist and Bayesian methods’ results from an epidemiologist or public health point of view. Low birth weight babies, defined by WHO as babies born at term who weigh less than 2.5 kg is an important indicator of reproductive health and general health status of any Population. The incidence of low birth weight is quite high in the sub region which has a public health concern.

Our study was based on data from 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey conducted by Ghana Statistical Service. A total sample size of 10,963 women within the reproductive age were selected throughout the entire country for the survey.

The results from the frequentist and the Bayesian models show that, the two approaches can yield similar results using same data set. However, there are factors that the Bayesian technique can unfold which might not be the case using the frequentist model. We were able to show with our data set that the Bayesian method may have a lot of benefits than the frequentist method. However, in order to narrow the credible intervals, there is the need to bring in informative priors so as to be able to well formulate the null and the alternative hypotheses. However, one can use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo, when using no priors to predict reliable results.

Comparing the two approaches with respect to our data set, we can infer (from Table 4) that using Bayesian model provides better estimates in predicting low birth weight among babies in Ghana. We note however that to better understand the phenomenon under study the two methods could be used together. Our findings further revealed that low birth weight is not only a public health problem but also a socio-cultural issue.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Nutrient Composition and Retention of Raw and Cooked Imported and Local Rice (Oryza sativa) Varieties

Adepoju Oladejo Thomas, Akinleye Olayinka, Ajayi Kayode

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25875

Background: Cereals and grains constitute major sources of nutrients worldwide. Rice is a major staple in many household in Nigeria. However majority of people prefer imported rice to locally grown rice though it is costlier. Knowledge about nutrient composition of locally-grown rice can promote its acceptability and consumption among Nigerians. This study was carried out to determine the nutrient composition and nutrient retention of raw and cooked imported and local rice varieties. 

Materials and Methods: Imported (Aroso) and local varieties (Ofada and Abakaliki) rice were purchased from Bodija market in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. The three samples were divided into two portions each. One portion each was used as raw samples while the second portion of each sample of rice was cooked for 40 minutes at 100°C. The cooked samples were then homogenised using the warring blender. The resultant six rice samples were analyzed using AOAC (2005) methods.

Results and Discussion: An 100 g portion of raw rice samples contained between 10.97-11.36 g moisture, 6.98-8.28 g protein, 0.84-1.24 g crude fibre, 0.94-1.19 g ash, 77.51-79.46 g carbohydrates, 17.81-19.31 g amylose, 5.57-9.69 mg sodium, 113.07-118.75 mg potassium, 4.54-7.34 mg iron, 221.4-238.75 µg folate, and yielded 366.75 - 371.50 kcalories of energy. Ofada rice was highest in all the macro and micronutrients, followed by Abakaliki rice and imported rice, which was highest in gross energy. Cooking resulted in significant reduction in all the nutrients studied (p<0.05), but the reduction was less pronounced in the two local rice samples.

Conclusion and Recommendation: The local varieties of rice were nutritious and compared favourably well with the imported rice. Cooking caused significant reduction in the level of antinutrients in the samples. Consumption of local rice varieties is recommended as means of promoting dietary diversity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Blanching on Some Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Compositions of Bitter Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum)

Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu, Daniel C. Nzewi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25650

Introduction: Bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) is essentially underutilized probably due to its characteristic bitter taste. The bitter taste may be related to its nutrient and anti-nutrient mix which could be improved by simple processing methods.

Aim: The study evaluated the influence of blanching on some nutritient and anti-nutrient compositions of bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum).

Study Design: Bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour obtained after blanching (at 100°C) for varied time was tested for nutrient and anti-nutrient compositions.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Food Technology, School of Industrial and Applied Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Nigeria.

Methodology: The nutrients and anti-nutrients in the blanched and unblanched samples were determined by standard methods.

Results: The content in the sample blanched for 18 minutes increased respectively by 1.88% and 1.13% for moisture and carbohydrate, but decreased, by 60.00%, 19.61%, 5.80% and 13.65% for fat, crude fibre, ash and protein relative to control (0 minute). Blanching caused a decrease by 67.43% and 62.26% for alkaloid and tannin in the sample blanched for 18 minutes relative to control. The results were time dependent and significant (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Although the significant reduction in tannin and alkaloid may improve taste, the process reduced many important nutrients and may diminish the keeping quality of the resultant flour. Thus, we recommend the processing method when bitter yam flour is required for immediate use and as a low fat-energy source. Since many nutrients and anti-nutrients (medicinal components) could leach into the blanch water, further study on the utilization of the waste water and other processing methods is warranted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Drying Methods and Soaking Media on Lafun Processed from Cassava Chips

K. A. Taiwo, S. O. Gbadamosi, E. O. Izevbekhai, A. A. Famuwagun, R. O. Ajani, C. T. Akanbi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25781

This study investigated the influence of drying temperature and soaking media on lafun processed from dried cassava chips. Fresh cassava tubers were processed into dried chips by sun drying and oven drying (50 and 70°C). The sundried and oven-dried chips were each divided into three portions; the first portions were milled into powder form, the second portions were soaked in water at an initial temperature of 60°C and the third portions were soaked in four-day old liquor (4DOL). Swelling power (SP), bulk density, least gelling concentration, pasting properties and sensory evaluation of the flour samples were conducted. The pH of the soaking medium decreased with increased soaking time from 4.90 to 4.08, gelling concentration ranged between 13-15% and pasting temperature of the samples were between 48.81-49.66°C. Drying temperature did not influence the pH of the lafun samples. However, samples soaked in water had significantly (p<0.05) lower pH values than those soaked in 4DOL. The SP (99.76 to 553.09%) increased with increased temperature.

Sensory evaluation showed that lafun samples from dried chips were preferred more than the commercial sample. Soaking in water at an initial temperature of 60°C gave the better results than soaking in 4DOL. The study concluded that Lafun of good sensory and pasting properties can be processed from dried cassava chips.

Open Access Original Research Article

Upper Critical Field of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride (MgB2)

Habte Dulla Berry

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26148

In this paper the author addresses the nature of upper critical field of magnesium dioxide (MgB2) using  Ginzberg- Landau (GL) approach. Nowadays, Superconducting materials show promising progress for the technological applications. According to this and previous studies, magnesium diboride is one of the superconducting materials which has relatively better critical temperature. The work will focus on determination of critical field and temp. of the material.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Diversity Score and Health Status of Apparently Healthy Civil Servants in Formal Sector in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

Nupo Sunday Sedodo, Oguntona Clara Berstein, Oguntona Babatunde, Akinloye Oluseyi Adeboye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/26195

Aim: Health is wealth and to achieve this goal, good nutrient intake should be vigorously pursued, as, poor nutrition produces indolent work force in a nation. No nation could achieve its cardinal objectives without considering the health of the populace. Yet little or no information is available on dietary diversity score and health status of civil servants in the state. The purpose of this paper is to assess the dietary diversity pattern and health status of apparently healthy civil servants.

Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out among randomly selected civil servants in Abeokuta Ogun state.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out among randomly selected 202 male and 298 female civil servants in Abeokuta Ogun state between January 2012 to February 2013.

Methodology: Information on dietary diversity score (DDS) was obtained using Food and Nutrition Technical Assistant (FANTA) Project Questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements and used to classify subjects’ nutritional status. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) were determined from collected blood samples of selected 44 male and 56 female.

Data collected were analysed using Statistical package for social science version 17.1.

Values were reported in mean and standard deviation; percentages. Multiple regression analysis was employed to determine the relationships of various factors to the nutritional status of the subjects. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the significant differences in food and nutrient intake and nutritional status.

Results: The DDS representing food groups consumed over 24- hour showed that men and women scored 7.99±2.4 and 6.77±2.8 respectively. The BMI showed that 4% were underweight, 54% had normal weight, 26% were overweight and 16% were obese. The mean energy intake of men and women were 3942±38 kcal and 2791±3 kcal respectively. The haematology result revealed that 47% of the subjects had low packed cell volume.

Conclusions: The civil servants had medium dietary diversity score and some were mal nourished. There is need for nutrition education and dietary interventions to assist the malnourished workers.