Open Access Original Research Article

Seismic Reliability of the Shallow Footings against Bearing Failure of the Soil

S. K. Shill, M. M. Hoque

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24396

The paper presents the reliability of Reinforced Concrete (RC) shallow footings designed following the provision of Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) 2006. The principal objective of the study is to evaluate the reliability and corresponding failure probability of shallow footings designed following BNBC 2006. To achieve the objective of the study, three model buildings having different number of stories have been designed following the BNBC 2006. The bearing failure of soil has been used as performance function only. The statistical parameters of the design variables have been selected from available literatures. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method has been used in the study. From the analytical investigation, it is found that the reliability of shallow footings highly depends on the Coefficient of Variation (COV) of bearing capacity of soil. The reliability index varies from 2.29 to 2.46 for COV of soil of 0.40 using a factor of safety of 2.50 under earthquake load. Reliability of footing increases with the decrease of COV of soil. It is also found that the performance of RC shallow footings designed using BNBC 2006 is poor under the earthquake load.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Inclined Magnetic Field on the Peristaltic Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluid with Partial Slip and Couple Stress in a Symmetric Channel

Ghusoon G. Mhammad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23407

This paper focus on the variable inclined magnetic field on the peristaltic flow of non-Newtonian fluid. The angle between the magnetic and velocity fields is variable and all the flow variables are functions of two parameters coordinates and time. The equations which describing the diffusion of inclined magnetic field are derived and solved by using long wavelength approximation. We addressed some of the important physical concepts that have a direct relationship such as the pressure gradient, Pressure rise, velocity field, the stream line and trapping phenomena. This study is done through drawing many graphs by using the MATHEMATICA package.

Open Access Original Research Article

Model Prediction of Pollution Standard Index for Carbon Monoxide: A Tool for Environmental Impact Assessment

Terry Henshaw, Ify L. Nwaogazie, Vincent Weli

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/25226

A model for predicting pollution standard index (PSI) for Carbon monoxide is presented. The model is dependent on 8-hour mean traffic volume, wind speed and solar radiation. Field measurements of CO were carried out at two hour intervals for 5 days. The method adopted for developing the model involved sorting the field observations into 8-hour means and using the Excel (Microsoft office, 2015, regression tool) for development and calibration. Results show that the model yielded a goodness of fit, GF (R2) of 0.939 and when verified the model gave a GFof 0.834. Field observations show good/moderate PSI values for CO concentrations in the afternoon hours when the solar radiation was above 150 W/m2 and wind speed above 2m/s. It also showed unhealthy PSI values for CO concentrations in the evening/night hours when solar radiation falls below 150 W/m2 and wind speed below 2m/s. Design tables were developed from combining the developed model and Pasquil generated table for atmospheric stability. These tables were used to plan Choba junction and results showed that 700 vehicles per hour (8 hour mean) is a safe traffic volume that can operate in Choba junction without negatively impacting the environment. To achieve this we recommend that two bypasses should be created. One bypass should be for the travelers who are leaving town and the other for the UNIPORT staff who operate from Abuja campus. It is strongly recommended that the Federal Ministry of Environment adopts these developed tables as a compulsory tool for planning environmentally safe junctions in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Algorithm of Finding Effective Distribution of Sub-elements in Overlay Model

S. M. Humayun Kabir, Tae-In Yeo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22787

The idea of overlaying sub-elements in the inelastic constitutive models is studied. The main objective of this study is to propose an algorithm to find the effective distribution of sub-elements in Overlay model. In the course of study, experimental cyclic inelastic responses of a ferritic stainless steel are also illustrated in a brief. Proposed algorithm of searching effective distribution of sub-elements is based on an energy method where the percent of error is calculated. Depending on the number of sub-elements and error band, optimal distribution is achieved by adjusting some variables. For validation, numerical simulation is to be done using calculated material parameters. Correlation between experimental and simulated hysteresis loop is to be found successful. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Automated Test Case Generation Using UML Class & Sequence Diagram

Syed Asad Ali Shah, Raja Khaim Shahzad, Syed Shafique Ali Bukhari, Mamoona Humayun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24860

It is identically significant in today's vastly dynamic background with fluctuating requirements to improve test plans at each phase of the Software Development Life Cycle. Testing helps to make sure that the final software product works according to user needs and requirements. Various testing techniques are being used in order to test software according to its nature and complexity. Research demonstrations that the numeral software fails on account of such variations because appropriate testing is not possible on outmoded requirements. Some researchers have tried to figure out the ways to make automatic tools that generates test cases but there is small amount of studies done in achievement of this approach through UML Class diagram. Further, the growing complication of the projects mark manual testing infeasible. It demands for automatic testing of requirements to keep check on the variations. Many of the former approaches use intermediate forms for testing software that makes automation difficult. In this paper, we have highlighted the gaps and flaws in previous work. Based on identified gaps, a simple and optimal approach to generate test cases by extracting class diagram along with sequence diagram is proposed. In this approach, a simple and easily understandable framework is developed that uses UML class and sequence diagrams to generate test cases precisely.

Open Access Original Research Article

Text-To-Speech Synthesizer for English, Hindi and Marathi Spoken Signals

G. D. Ramteke, R. J. Ramteke

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24869

The paper proposes a model of Text-To-Speech (TTS) engine for Marathi, Hindi and English languages. The characters and their representation are analyzed and synthesized with the help of TTS-engine. The engine would be spoken utterances produced from text. A concatenative approach based on linguistic rules has been applied. In order to test the artificial voice generation, an analysis of prosody and MOS testes were performed. Cepstral pitch detection algorithm has been used for extraction of fundamental frequency. Mean and standard deviation were computed on pitch reading of each spoken signals. MOS is a subjective test depends on listeners who are aware of any three of the languages. All scores are provided on the basis of two dissimilar parameters of MOS: 1. The result was achieved between fair and good for listening quality. 2. Naturalness score in between pleasant and slightly-pleasant. Ultimately, the satisfactory results were found for three different languages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ultraviolet-B Solar Radiation System for Measuring, Recording, Displaying and Warning of Dangerous Levels of Radiation at Recreation Grounds

Joseph Appelbaum, Ben Zion Bobrovsky, Itay Peleg

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24334

The article presents a system, including a multi-sensor instrument, for measuring, recording, processing and displaying the level of biologically active UV-B radiation. The multi-sensor instrument comprises of solar erythemal UV detectors distributed on a spherical (faceted) dome-like structure. Some of the detectors face upwards measuring the radiation emanating from the sky, while others face downwards, measuring radiation from reflected surfaces. The system displays UV-B radiation levels on billboards in real-time at recreation grounds, thereby warning of danger in instances of over-exposure to sun light. The displayed information includes the amount of sun exposure, in Minimum Erythema Dose, on different parts of the body in relation to the category of human outdoor activity, such as swimming, bathing, sport activity, and sitting in the sun (light) or in the shade. In addition, the system communicates and constantly updates the maximum recommended exposure time to sun light according to the different categories of outdoor activity, while displaying in colour-code, UV-B intensity and ultraviolet index (UVI).  It was found that during the period between 10:00 to 16:00, a person may absorb 15 times more UV-B than what is recommended. Sitting in the shade for that period of time is equally as dangerous as it is for sports activity. The vertex of the head and the nose receive the highest levels of UV-B radiation. The erythema onset time for skin type II may also be lower than 15 minutes at summer solar noon. The instrument is intended to be operated at recreation grounds, such as beaches, swimming pools, resort areas, etc., and to display dangerous levels of UV-B radiation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetic Studies of Methylene Blue Adsorption on to Activated Carbon Prepared from Plantain Pod (Musa paradisiac)

Rhoda Habor Gumus

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24079

The mechanism of adsorption for methylene blue from aqueous solution using an activated carbon prepared from plantain pod was studied at varying time. The adsorption reached at equilibrium in 90 minutes of contact time. The kinetic data were fitted to the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, and intra- particle diffusion models. The pseudo first and second order rate constants were found to be 0.0152 min-1 and 4.22×10-5 g/mg.min with correlation coefficient of 0.930 and 0.931 using dye concentration of 75 mg/l. Isotherm studies were also conducted by increasing the mass of adsorbent. The experimental data obtained at temperature of 30ºC were fitted in to Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Raduskevich adsorption isotherm models respectively. The correlation coefficient (r2) of Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Raduskevich adsorption isotherm models were found to be 0.993, 0.991, 0.999, and 0.986 respectively. Based on Dubinin-Raduskevich adsorption isotherm model, mean free energy was determined to be 0.03535 J/mol, < 8 the adsorption process can be described as physisorption.

Open Access Review Article

IDS Using Machine Learning - Current State of Art and Future Directions

Yasir Hamid, M. Sugumaran, V. R. Balasaraswathi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23668

The prosperity of technology worldwide has made the concerns of security tend to increase rapidly. The enormous usage of Internetworking has raised the need of protecting systems as well as networks from the unauthorized access or intrusion. An intrusion is an activity of breaking into the system by compromising the security policies, and the process of analyzing the network data for the possible intrusions is Intrusion Detection. For the last two decades automatic intrusion detection system has been an important research topic. Up to the moment, researchers have developed Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) capable of detecting attacks in several available environments. A boundlessness of methods for misuse detection as well as anomaly detection has been applied, most popular of the all is using machine learning techniques. In this work a survey of various research efforts spared towards the development of intrusion detection systems based on machine learning techniques in given. The surveyed works are presented in easy to understand tabular forms and for each work; technique employed, dataset used and the parameters evaluated are mentioned. Current achievements and limitations in developing intrusion detection system by machine learning and future directions for research are also given.

Open Access Review Article

Comparison of Methods for Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Determination: Field, Laboratory and Empirical Measurements (A Pre-view)

M. M. Ibrahim, J. Aliyu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24413

Hydraulic conductivity is the single most important hydraulic parameter for flow and transport-related phenomena in soil, but there is concern arising from the suitability, efficiency and ease of the different measuring methods under different conditions. The various methods of determining saturated hydraulic conductivity; the field methods, laboratory methods and empirical formulae were reviewed so as to ascertain the suitability of the various methods and their acceptability based on literature. This review shows that all the methods have their individual merits and demerits. Most researchers however, prefer the use of empirical data to data from both field and laboratory conditions; and that the direct measurement of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity is very difficult, laborious, and costly under field or laboratory conditions, and even often impractical for many hydrologic analyses. However, it has been agreed that the estimation of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity using empirical formulae depends on the local soil maps and published data which often has limited accuracy and range in many cases. This is the main reason why many soil scientists and engineers have tried to develop models to determine soil saturated hydraulic conductivity with readily obtained soil survey data, with emphasis that all the empirical formulae are to be used strictly within their domains of applicability.