Open Access Method Article

Moving Object Detection Algorithm Based on Gaussian Mixture Model and HSV Space

Xuegang Hu, Cheng He

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24249

Aiming at the traditional Gaussian mixture model has poor adaptability to the complex scenes, we proposes an improved moving object detection algorithm based on Gaussian mixture model and HSV space. The motion region is first extracted by the improved three-frame difference method. With the matching results, region segmentation of current frame is realized. Then different regions adopt different update strategy that improves the ability to reflect the illumination and scenes change. Next, utilizing characteristics of HSV color space and image first-order gradient achieve shadow detection. It effectively reduces interference of shadows, especially the pixels of foreground which has similar brightness properties with background. Experimental results show that the algorithm has good robustness and real-time performance.

Open Access Short Research Article

Production-Tabular Knowledge Base Correctness Checking Tools

Robert Karayev, Natella Sadik, Khatira Imamverdiyeva

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22737

Production-tabular knowledge bases are widely used in commercial expert systems. One of the main problems arising from the operation of such knowledge bases is their correctness. The reliability of the inference mechanism and the robustness of the expert system at “paradigm shift” depend largely on successful resolution of this problem. The paper gives a formal definition of “correctness” of extended entry production-tabular knowledge bases and proposes an algorithm to control their correctness. The obtained results create theoretical preconditions to ensure the reliability and robustness of the production-tabular technologies widely used in expert systems of diagnostics, monitoring, management, forecasting, decision-making.

Open Access Policy Article

Quality of Life in Romanian Households

Adina Mihăilescu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23825

Poverty was present in all human communities and all times. The various methods used to measure poverty are consist from the dividing lines between the poorest and the least poor. Individuals or families enjoying a standard of living below this line conventionally called poverty line are considered poor. Poverty is a real phenomenon and its consequences are obvious in the sphere of human development. The indicators used to describe the scale and intensity of poverty is based on income and consumption. Income derived by various types of consumers: Persons, families, households reflect actual purchasing power of goods and services on the market. In the Research Institute for Quality of Life (RIQL) is used as method of determining the poverty - the normative method. It starts from household consumption and rely on rules appreciated by specialists about the development and manifestation of a person and her own family.

The household income in Romania have felt the effects of the international financial crisis, which began in 2010 when total household income decreased compared to previous years. Taking into account the income that can be obtained in a household, as they were reported by interviewees field research diagnosis quality of life: salaries, benefits children, student scholarships and other sources of income from social security funds or other sources of money which were added the equivalent in lei of self-consumption and repairs equivalent in money, goods produced around the house by family members, with whom discussions were held which obviously represents the family budget savings results lead us to drastic conclusions on the positioning of the sample households, scale wealth from poor - denoted by 1 to rich - denoted by 10.

Open Access Minireview Article

A Brief Review of the Growth of Pulsed Laser Deposited Thin Films

Ho Soonmin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22778

In recent years, much attention has been emphasized on research to produce thin films using pulsed laser deposition. Therefore, the main objectives in this review were to address some important points such as the influence of different growth conditions on the properties of films using this method. The advantage of this method was discussed which including it could control the dimensions and display good crystallinity. The obtained experimental results from published articles were discussed and analyzed. So that, readers can know that this method could be used to prepare binary, ternary and quaternary films. Lastly, the power conversion efficiency of fabricated solar cells was reported in order to study these films could be applied in solar cell applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effects of Structured and Guided Inquiry Instructional Techniques on Students’ Academic Achievement in Basic Electricity in Kwara State Technical Colleges

I. Saka-Alikinla, A. S. Owodunni, H. Wahab Babatunde

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23828

The study was designed to determine the effects of Structured and Guided Inquiry Instructional Techniques on Technical College students’ academic achievement in Basic Electricity. Four research questions raised and 3 Null hypotheses guided the study. Quasi-experimental research design involving pre-test, Post-test, non-equivalent control group was used in this study. The population of the study was 233 Electrical/Electronics Vocational Year 2 students from Kwara State technical colleges. This consisted of 134 students as the subjects in the experimental group I and 99 students as the subjects in the experimental group II. The instrument used for data collection was Basic Electricity Academic Achievement Tests (BEAT). The instrument was subjected to face and content validity by two experts (Lecturers) in Industrial and Technology Education and one expert in Science Education, from Federal University of Technology Minna. Using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation technique, a reliability coefficient of .88 was obtained. Mean was used to answer the research questions, while t-test and ANCOVA were employed to test the hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The findings of study among others revealed that: (i) students taught Basic Electricity using the guided inquiry instructional techniques had a higher mean score than students taught using the structured inquiry technique in Basic Electricity achievement test. (ii), the mean score of boys taught Basic Electricity using guided inquiry instructional technique was higher than the mean score of girls taught using the same guided inquiry instructional technique in the academic achievement test. Consequently, it was recommended among others that, (i) technical college teachers should adopt the use of the guided inquiry instructional technique for the teaching of Basic Electricity and (ii) the Ministry of Education and Administrators of technical colleges should always organize seminars, conferences and workshops to sensitize Basic Electricity and other technical teachers on the use of the guided inquiry instructional techniques in the Technical Colleges.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Finger Millet (Eleusine corocona) Production in Lower Eastern, Kenya: Status, Constraints and Opportunities

S. I. Shibairo, Y. M. Madegwa, R. N. Onwonga

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/16075

Due to its drought resistant nature, high nutritional content and ability to produce with few inputs, finger millet is one of the crops that can combat food insecurity in arid and semi-arid lands like eastern Kenya. Against this backdrop, a survey was carried out in Kalama and Katangi divisions of Machakos and Kitui counties, to assess status, constraints and opportunities for finger millet production. Logit model was used to determine effect of education, land size, age and gender on finger millet production. Finger millet production was reported by 93% of respondents in Machakos and 92% in Kitui, to be on the decline in the past 20 years due to; lack of seeds (47%, 50%), pests and diseases (33%, 20.8%), overdependence on maize (97.8%, 95.9%) and climate change (20%, 29.2%) in Machakos and Kitui, respectively. Constraints in production were; blast disease (43.8%, 37.2%), bird predation (39.9%, 39.6%), weed infestation (57.1%, 55.8%), climate change (30%, 39.2%) and lack of seeds (63%, 77.4%) in Machakos and Kitui, correspondingly. Opportunities in production lay in the cereals capacity to withstand climate change (76%, 76%), high nutrient content (74%, 85%), market availability (63%, 74%) and extension services (87%, 88%) in Machakos and Kitui counties, respectively. Education and land size had a positive effect on millet production (0.807, 1.095) while gender had a negative effect (-3.684, -1.170) in Machakos and Kitui counties, respectively. Based on the results, finger millet production in both regions has been on a downward trend but there is a lot of potential for increased production, as evidenced by opportunities identified by farmers. It’s only through addressing constraints in production by relevant stake holders that opportunities can be realized and consequently status of finger millet production improved in eastern Kenya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation into the Effects of an Easy Care Cross-linking Agent on the Properties of the Pulp Reclaimed from Cotton Based Waste Garments

Liberato Venant Haule

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24390

Aims: To investigate the potential pulp reclamation from easy care treated cotton waste garments for potential paper making and regeneration of fibres.

Study Design: This is an experimental laboratory research project.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Materials, University of Manchester, between October 2009 and March 2013.

Methodology: Cotton fabric was treated with Dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU) at 60, 100 and 140 g/L concentration levels. The fabrics were then shredded and pulped on laboratory Valley beater. Part of the resultant pulp was formed into hand sheets using the sheet making apparatus. The remaining pulp was analyzed for the wetness test, fines content and fibre length analysis. Tensile strength and Tear strength of the hand sheets were analyzed using Instron tester and Elmendorf machines, respectively. The Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics was used to assess the hand properties of the hand sheets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique was used for the surface chemical analysis of the hand sheets.

Results: It was observed that as the concentration of DMDHEU reacted to cellulose polymer increased, shorter fibres were produced. The DMDHEU free pulp has a mean fibre length of 2.5±0.04 mm whereas after increasing the DMDHEU concentration equivalent to 1.6% surface nitrogen the mean fibre length dropped to 1.2±0.05 mm. Application of the DMDHEU easy care finish on the cotton fabric reduced the tensile strength of the hand sheets from 2.08 kN/m to 0.1 kN/m whereas the tear strength and tensile index were reduced from 1.4 kN to 0.5 kN and 0.9 KNm/g to 0.4 kNm/g, respectively.

Conclusions: The DMDHEU easy care finish produced pulp with shorter fibres, high fines content but hand sheets with relatively weaker mechanical properties. This implies that in order to recover fibres from the cotton waste garments for either fibre regeneration or paper processing the DMDHEU easy care finish must be removed prior to forming of hand sheets.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Baseline Information on the Metallic Pollution of Sediments of the Lakes of the Ossa Complex, Dizangue, Cameroon

Nziéleu Tchapgnouo Joseph Guy, Zébazé Togouet Serge Hubert, Foto Menbohan Samuel, Njiné Thomas, Bernadette Pinel-Alloul

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24001

The aim of this study was to evaluate the state of metallic pollution of the sediments of the three main Lakes (Mevia, Ossa and Mwembe) of the Ossa lake complex by the analysis of some heavy metals from May to July 2011. Copper, Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Cadmium and Iron were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. According to the standard values of GESAMP (group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution), lead concentrations were low in Lake Mwembe (4.985±0.060 mg.kg-1, dry weight), closer to standard values in Lake Mevia (12.935±0.815 mg.kg-1, dry weight) and very high in Lake Ossa (39.935±2.480 mg.kg-1, dry weight). As for Zinc and Cadmium, the contents were superior to standard values in the three lakes.

The level of sediment contamination was evaluated using the Pollution Index (PI) and Enrichment Factor (EF). Only cadmium had a PI value greater than 3 and the highest EF (491.456 in Lake Mevia, 480.310 in Lake Ossa and 1761.099 in Lake Mwembe). All heavy metals presented EF values superior to 50 exception being observed for lead in Lake Mwembe (EF value less than 30). Generally, gross values of the different heavy metals measured, associated with EF values, indicated an anthropogenic pollution of these waters. This pollution could be linked to the use of chemical fertilizers and biocides around the neighborhood of Ossa lake complex by the African Forestry and Agriculture Company of Cameroon (SAFACam).

Open Access Original Research Article

Arid Climate in the Sirba Basin in Burkina Faso: Causes for Better Decisions in Land Use Planning

Yélézouomin Stéphane Corentin Somé, Lamine Dango, Gado Djibo Abdouramane

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24098

The issue of climate change highlighted the dynamics of the global ecosystem especially in the atmosphere component. The perception of this phenomenon at the local level, in the villages, from serious scientific studies conditioned decisions on land use. Yet, these scientific truths evolve with time and their demonstration is different according to the space extent covered. It follows some decisions whose effectiveness has to be adapted in the light of the functioning of the considered phenomenon. Thus, it arises the issue of data quality in decision making in land planning. In the basin of the Sirba, there is an exacerbation of water-related conflicts, and this could be due to aridification that would be the consequence of a downward trend in precipitation. An explanation that governs the decisions made on water resources management in the basin of Sirba. The sole objective of this study is to check the veracity of aridification of the climate in the Sirba basin and the responsibility of the precipitation in this process. The methodology is based on a statistical analysis of the spatiotemporal evolution of the climate aridity and variables associated with it such as precipitation, temperature, number of rainy days and potential evapotranspiration. The results showed that the current aridification is not the fact of a decrease in precipitation, nor a reduction of the number of rainy days. It rains more and more often in the Sirba basin. However, the temperatures were higher as well as the losses by evapotranspiration. This interpretation different from the aridification phenomenon, draw the attention towards a revision of the solutions envisaged for solving of the problem. The decisions to reduce the evaporation should be preferred for more efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques, in Dashen Area, North Eastern Nigeria

J. M. Ishaku, B. A. Ankidawa, A. J. D. Pwalas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24069

The aim of this research is to assess groundwater quality of Dashen and environs for irrigational and domestic purposes using multivariate techniques. Twelve water samples were collected from boreholes and hand-dug wells. The water samples were analysed for major cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+ and anions: Cl-, HCO3-, SO42- and CO32-. The order of abundance of the cations concentration is in order of* Ca2+> Mg2+> K+> Nawhile those of the anions are HCO3-> Cl->SO42->CO32-. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Hardness (TH), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Magnesium Ratio (MR), Percentage Sodium (%Na), Permeability Index (PI), Kelley Ratio (KR), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC), and Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP) were assessed and compared with standard values. The values of TH (21.4 – 53.3 mg/l), EC (54 – 383 μS/cm), %Na (3.0 – 9.5%), SSP (3.0 – 9.5%), MR (40.1 – 48.9%), KR (0.003 – 0.067 meq/l), RSBC (-1.6 – 1.9 meq/l) and SAR (0.01 – 0.2 meq/l) were found to be within the safe limits and thus suitable for irrigation purposes. Permeability Index (41.5 – 100.7%) and total dissolved solids (80 – 580 mg/l) range from best quality water to water involving hazards. Piper diagram classified water in the study area as Ca2+- Mg2+- HCO3- facies. The multivariate statistical analysis using PCA and HCA identified diffused form of contamination, leaching of bed rock geochemistry, salinity, natural mineralization and anthropgenic contamination, as the major processes controlling the groundwater chemistry. The overall water quality index indicates that water is suitable for human consumption.