Open Access Method Articles

Interface between Hydropower Generation and Other Water Uses in the Piabanha River Basin in Brazil

Diego Vannucci Chiappori, Mônica de Aquino Galeano Massera da Hora, José Paulo Soares de Azevedo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23935

There is an increasing need in the field of water resource management to study ways to harmonise multiple user demands. This study investigates the interface among various users of the Piabanha River basin in the state of Rio de Janeiro, in particular the implications for the electricity sector of increasing upstream consumption by other water users. To estimate future losses of generation capacity as a function of growing use of water resources, we applied a mathematical model called Simulation System for Power Plants with Consumptive Water Uses (SisUCA in the Portuguese abbreviation), considering both the existing power plant cascade and the likely future configuration with the inclusion of new projects under construction and in the planning phase, along with projections for future water demand by other users. There was some difficulty in obtaining data about the basin, but this did not impair validation of the model, which converged to results that provide support for shared management of multiple water uses. Among the results attained, it is possible to state that 75% of the maximum usable water is already being utilised, thus leading to the conclusion that water conflicts are likely in the near future.

Open Access Case Reports / Case Studies

Study and Design of Flare Reduction Initiative in the Region: A Case Study of Gas Flaring Reduction at Oman Liquefied Natural Gas Company

Ahmed Al-Quwaitai, Pradeep Kumar Krishnan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24027

In this paper examines the feasibility of eliminating flaring at Oman LNG Company by capturing the CO2present in the incoming gas during LNG ship gassing up operation. The gas containing CO2 is flared to prevent CO2 ice up and blockage at lower temperature. The project proposes a design and installation of two exchangers to cool the COpresent to de-sublimation temperature of -132°C at which 99% of CO2solidifies on the heat exchanger fins which then direct the free CO2 gas to fuel gas system. A stream of cold LNG product available at -161°C on loading line was utilized as cooling medium to achieve the target temperature. The design takes into consideration energy optimization and efficiency of the system by which a multi-passes stream exchanger is used to pre-cool the incoming gas before it’s further cooled to CO2frosting point in the main exchanger.

A Honeywell UniSim software was used to simulate the process and the outputs were outlined. The results were found to be optimistic and targeted temperatures for 99% removal of CO2 were found to be achievable. The 7% of the total flaring responsible by gassing up operation can be eliminated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Effect of Penstock Configuration on the Performance of a Simplified Pico-hydro System

A. O. Edeoja, J. S. Ibrahim, E. I. Kucha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23996

This paper presents an investigation of the effect of penstock configuration with regards to area reduction on the performance of a simplified Pico-hydro system currently undergoing development. The system explores the utilization of the head developed by pumping water into an overhead reservoir and releasing it through a vertically oriented penstock. The concept in this study was introduced in the system in order to extend the duration in which continuous recycling of the water can be sustained while minimizing head losses and achieving higher power output. Five different configurations were obtained by joining pipes of diameters 76.2 m and 50.8 m with respective lengths in ratios of 5:2, 4:3, 3:4, 2:5 and 1:6 over a total height of 6.8 m with the aid of area reducers. The rotational speed of the alternator shaft, water level in the two reservoirs, output voltage and duration of test were measured and the flow rate, losses and net head were computed. The configuration with the ratio of 5:2 produced the highest rotational speed and voltage of 1810.2 rpm and 223.65 V respectively. This suggests that the use of a penstock configuration with a larger diameter forming the greater part of the total head will favor better power generation while ensuring sustained continuous water recycling which is critical to the operation of this system. The results show good promise for future penstock configuration for this system as a stand-alone, small and clean power generation system.


Open Access Original Research Article

Probiotic Frozen Yoghurt Production Using Camel Milk (Camelus dromedarius) with Improved Functions by Strawberry Guava (Psidium littorale var. cattleianum) Fortification

Nazan Kavas, Gokhan Kavas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23683

In this study, Probiotic Yoghurt (PY) was produced by adding skimmed milk powder (5% w/v) and probiotic culture (7% w/v) (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp.) to heat-treated camels (Camelus dromedarius) milk. Sahlep (Orchis sanctum L.)  (2% w/v) and skimmed milk powder (15% w/v) were added to the camel milk which was then divided into two batches. The 1st batch was fortified with 20% strawberry guava (Psidium littorale var. cattleianum). The 2nd batch was prepared without guava fruit fortification. The mixture was then homogenized with probiotic yoghurt at a 40:60 ratio to yield probiotic guava frozen yoghurt (GPFY) and plain Probiotic Frozen Yoghurt (PFY) samples. Samples were stored for 120 days at -20±1°C. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were conducted on the 1st, 15th, 30th, 60th and 120th days of storage. A significant relationship was found between the sahlep and fruit fortification with the physicochemical properties of the ice creams (P< .05). Vitamin C losses were low in GPFY samples. During storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. counts in PFY samples first decreased and then increased. The decrease in GPFY was lower and the increase higher than in PFY. Streptococcus thermophilus decreased in PFY during storage whereas in GPFY it decreased until the 30th day and increased in the further days of the storage. In all PFY samples, the relationships between fat content, sahlep ratio and fruit fortification with the viability of the microorganisms were significant (P< .05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictions of Cutting Tool Wear of Straight Milled Aspen Wood with Taylor’s Equation

Andis Ābele, Henn Tuherm

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24465

Taylor's equation has proven utility for determination of the lifetime of cutting tool in machining of metal. Whereas, Taylor's equation is not widespread for prediction of wear of wood machining tools due to lack of appropriate coefficients of the equation. Therefore, aim of the study is determination of coefficients of Taylor’s equation. Computer numerical control machine was used for conventional milling of aspen (Populus tremula L.) wood with cutter knives of high-alloy tool steel X150CrMo12 on the cutter head. Changes of the surface roughness characterized the wear phases of cutting tool at two different values of cutting velocity were obtained depending on length of the cutting trajectory. It was concluded that length of cutting trajectory is greater when cutting velocity is increasing from 20 to 40 m s-1 and it was obtained equation to predict length of cutting trajectory till critical wear phase of cutting tool depending on the cutting velocity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Using Radio Frequency Identification to Develop an Algorithm for Tracking Vehicles

Dipo T. Akomolafe

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23915

One of the major problems facing law enforcement agents in developing nations is their inability to apprehend road traffic violators without physically stopping them to demand for relevant particulars. Some of these particulars when presented may either be fake, expired or genuine but there is no way the law enforcement agent can confirm the genuineness of the particulars without delaying the driver. Several methods are being used to track a moving object and access relevant information about the object but each of these methods has their pre requirements for implementation and limitations.

In road transportation, most of the methods and technologies being used are either manually operated or not fast enough to generate accurate and immediate information of vehicles that are being tracked. In this paper, relevant works were clearly reviewed to identify the requirements, shortcomings and limitations of tracking vehicles. The database of road transportation using relational database model is proposed. Examination of the practicability of applying automatic identification technology generally and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in particular to identify vehicles plying the various in road transportation is carried out. The requirements of the system were clearly stated and two algorithms; system and RFID were proposed to enable the computer and the technology communicates effectively and efficiently with each other in order to track any moving vehicle and transfer a unique identification of the vehicle to the computer for further information. The system was tested using sampled data and the result was successful.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis in the Generalized Function Spaces Lα (S αα (R))

Ramadan Sabra

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24198

In this paper we shall define generalized complex numbers in the space of new generalized functions  , which allows us to define and study   ordinary differential equations (ODE) and partial differential equations (PDE) in the space  . We shall also define generalized linear and bilinear operations in the space .

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Awareness, Acceptance, and Willingness of Bahraini Public to Consume Genetically Modified Food

S. M. Zakir Hossain, Nahid Sultana, Elamin Mohammed Ali Elkanzi, Maram M. Ali Habib, Noor Ebrahim Ahmed

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22873

Assessment of the perception and willingness of public to buy genetically modified food are important areas of empirical research in food science and agricultural economics. In this paper, the results of a questionnaire survey conducted to investigate the awareness, acceptance, and willingness of Bahraini public to buy GM food are described. A total of 410 responses were collected and the data were analyzed using statistical software, SPSS. A logit model was also developed to examine the possible determinants that significantly affect the consumption of GM food. The results indicate that a majority of the participants are not aware of GM food and are oblivious to whether they consume them or not. They expect the government/food regulatory agency to ensure appropriate labeling and proper monitoring of GM food. In addition, the consumers are not ready yet to accept GM food due to lack of pertinent information about them.


Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis and Characterization of Selected Clay from South-West Nigeria for Ceramic Filters Application

S. A. Olubayode, T. C. Ezewanfor, O. S. Awokola, E. O. Dare, O. T. Olateju

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23128

This present study is designed to investigate the suitability of selected Nigeria clay deposit for Clay based ceramic water filters (CWFs). Clay from eight (8) randomly selected locations within south-west Nigeria have been investigated with a view to determine their suitability for Clay based ceramic water filters (CWFs). The samples were collected from the following locations; Ijero (IJ) in Ekiti state, Ijapo (IJ), Barrack (BR), and Ondo (ON) in Ondo state, Ibafo (IB) in Lagos state, Ilesha(IL) and Idoka (ID) in Osun state and Ajebo (AJ) in Ogun state. Experimental analysis for Liner shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density, compressive strength X-raw diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were carried out on each of the eight (8) samples. Test results reveals that all the clays contain high contents of alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2) with minor contents of P2O5, Fe2O3, MgO, K2O, MnO and TiO2. The average crystal sizes of the clay were between 8.961nm and 26.875nm, lattice structure indicates that the sample were Monoclinic, Anorthic and orthorhombic. Compressive strength varies from 7.11664 Mpa to 19.6583 Mpa, moisture content varies from 0.66% to 2.59% and linear shrinkage varies from 6.9% to 13.70% while water absorption varies from 15.55% to 35.23%. The research indicated that Idoka, Ijapo and Ilesha Clay with specification of some industrial clays shows that the samples can be recommended for use in Clay based ceramic water filters production.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Storage Temperature on Postharvest Quality, Ripening and Marketability of Marula Fruits (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra)

V. E. Emongor, A. Tautsagae

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23513

A laboratory experiment was undertaken to investigate the effect of storage temperature on storage life and quality of marula fruits. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with three replicates. Marula tree landraces growing around Sebele area of Gaborone were used for the study. The storage temperatures were 0, 4, 8 and 12±1°C (90-95% RH). Some fruits were also left at room temperature (25±3°C) as control. The results of the study showed that storage temperature and duration of storage significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected the incidence and severity of chilling injury in marula fruit. Chilling injury developed in all the fruits stored below 12°C, though the severity of chilling injury significantly (p ≤ 0.01) varied with storage temperature. The marula fruit stored well for 25 days at 12°C without the development of physiological disorders and decay incidence. The fruit underwent normal ripening process with colour (carotenoids and anthocyanins) development (increased from 10.7 to 598 nmoles/cm2 of fruit skin), high total soluble solids (increased from 10.3 to 12.2%) and low titratable acidity (decreased from 30.2 to 17.4 mg/100 ml juice) after removal from storage (12°C) and held for seven days at room temperature to simulate marketing conditions. It was concluded that shelf life extension and marketing of marula fruits could be attained at a temperature of 12°C and 90-95% RH. This is due to the fact that the fruit will not suffer from chilling injury and will undergo normal ripening process.