Open Access Original Research Article

Simulation of Low Energy Neutron Shielding by GEANT4 and MCNP4C Code

Gh. Forozani, E. Ebrahimi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/19827

In this work neutrons shielding of 252Cf source simulated with GEANT4 program and MCNP4C code. The relative neutron flux rates are calculated for different materials. Among various physics models of GEANT4 for the hadronic interaction of neutron, we have used the High Precision (HP) model, which is based on the ENDF-V1 data and is able to treat elastic scattering, inelastic scattering, fission, fusion and capture. The simulation results of GEANT4 are compared with the results of MCNP4C.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Solar Radiation Tracker for Solar Energy Optimisation

Erwin Normanyo, Akparibo Richard Awingot

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22955

The need to produce readily accessible, pollution free natural energy such as solar energy has been drawing increasing attention globally. This is due to energy demand, global environmental protection, fast growing population and diminishing resources of grid supply. Effective utilisation of solar energy requires tracking of the sun. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid hardware/software embedded PIC16F877A microcontroller-based dynamic dual axis tracking system. It utilises the solar panel itself as a sensor to determine which part of the sky delivers the most power to the load using stepper motors for alignment. Employing control software, the system automatically controls the PV panel to receive maximum solar energy all day. The PIC16F877A microcontroller, two M42SP-7 stepper motors, two ULN2003 stepper motor drivers, two gear drives and a 10 Watt 12 V monocrystalline solar panel were employed in the hardware design. Programming of the hardware was conducted using mikroBasic software. Cost analysis of the design yielded GH ¢ 522.69 (US $ 124.45). The resulting sun tracking system is therefore cost effective and will go a long way to help rural electrification as well as reduce the burden on grid supply.




Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil of Ehretia cymosa Thonn

Akintayo L. Ogundajo, Chiazom O. Nnaemeka, Rukayat O. Olawunmi, Isiaka A. Ogunwande

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24240

The chemical constituents of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of Ehretia cymosa are being reported. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The components of the essential oils were identified by comparison of their mass spectra (MS) data and linear retention indices (LRI) with literature data. The essential oil content was 0.32% (v/w), calculated on a dry weight basis. The leaves oil of E. cymosa comprised mainly of sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds represented mainly by trans-α-bergamotene (15.2%), α-curcumene (14.5%) and β-cedrene (14.0%). The chemical compositions of the essential oil from the leaves of the plant are being reported for the first time.

Aims: The aim of this study was to report the volatile constituents identified from hydrodistilled oil from the leaves of Ehretia cymosa.

Study Design: The study design involves the collection of the leaves sample and hydrodisitillation of essential oil from the plant material as well as subsequent analysis of the oil for its chemical composition.

Place and Duration of Study: Mature leaves of E. cymosa were collected from Amuoloko area, Akanran, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, in May 2015.

Methodology: About 600 g of air-dried plant sample was pulverized and the hydrodistillation was carried out according to the British Pharmacopoeia specifications to obtained colourless oil. The chemical constituents of the hydrodistilled oil were analyzed by using the techniques of gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: The major constituents of the essential oil were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented mainly by trans-α-bergamotene (15.2%), α-curcumene (14.5%) and β-cedrene (14.0%).

Conclusion: The chemical constituents of essential oil of E. cymosa are being reported for the first time. The oil contained large amount of sesquiterpene compounds.




Open Access Original Research Article

Image Steganography Scheme Using Parent Child Relationship in Wavelet Domain

Geeta Kasana, Satvinder Singh Bhatia, Kulbir Singh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23942

In this paper, a steganography scheme for digital images by using Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) is proposed. This scheme is based on the qualified significant wavelet tree (QSWT). In this scheme, the secret data bits are embedded into largest and smallest wavelet child coefficients of a parent wavelet coefficient of a cover image. Embedding of secret data bits are performed in selected wavelet subbands only so that the embedding capacity and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) can be achieved maximum as PSNR value decreases with the increase of embedding capacity. Visual quality of stego images produced by the proposed scheme is acceptable by human visual system as PSNR between cover and stego images is above 40 dB and extracted secret image is exactly the same as original secret image.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Collocation Method for Solving System of Volterra-differential-difference Equations with Terms of Chebyshev Polynomials

Yalçın Öztürk, Mustafa Gülsu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23893

In this study, we present a numerical algorithm for solving systems of Volterra-differential-difference equations with variable coefficients by collocation method. This algorithm based on polynomial approximation, using the first kind Chebyshev polynomial basis with collocation method. This method transforms the system of Volterra-differential-difference equations and the given conditions into matrix equation which corresponds to a system of linear algebraic equation. In addition, convergence analysis of the method is presented. Some cases of the mentioned equations are solved as examples to illustrate the reliability of the method. The results reveal that the method is very effective and accuracy.


Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrogeologic and Geophysical Assessment of Groundwater Prospects and Aquifer Vulnerability in Alade Idanre, Southwestern Nigeria

O. S. Eniola, S. Ologun, F. I. Obiora

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22747

Geophysical survey, involving Schlumberger depth soundings, were conducted at Alade, Ondo State, Nigeria. This was aimed at delineating the water supply areas and assessment of the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants infiltrating from the surface. The area is underlain by the basement complex rocks of Southwestern Nigeria. A total of 56 Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Soundings were carried out along the study area. The VES curves were preliminarily interpreted by partial curve matching. The interpretation results were refined with the WinRESIST software, and used to generate geo-electric sections and maps. The HA curves constitute the highest percentage of curves in the area. The geo-electric sections show three to four geo-electric layers which include topsoil, weathered layer and fresh basement. The topsoil varies between 0.4 and 3.6 m, and the depths to the bedrock are generally less than 7.0 m. The thickness of the vadose zones across the area ranges between 1.4 and 6.0 m. This shows that unconsolidated materials are generally not significantly thick and hence of apparently low groundwater prospect. The topsoil layer has a resistivity mostly within the range of 1 – 100 ohm-m across the area. Resistivity values within the bracket indicate clay sequence; this suggests that aquifers within the unconsolidated overburden at Alade Idanre are mostly capped by semi - pervious materials, geologically protecting the aquifer from near - surface contamination.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of the Congruence 1 mod 24 as a Generator of Prime Numbers Greater or Equal to 5

José William Porras Ferreira, Willian De Jesus Caballero Guardo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24367

It has always been thought that primes numbers within natural numbers do not fulfill well-defined rules that can express themselves through a sequential structure to facilitate checking their properties. The study of congruence 1 mod 24, allows us to find some of the properties of prime numbers and demonstrate how these are directly related to this type of congruence that enable us to find all (though not only) the primes p≥ 5.


Open Access Original Research Article

CO2 Capture Using Amine-impregnated Activated Carbon from Jatropha curcas Shell

Mohammed Alhassan, Manase Auta, Jossey K. Sabo, Musa Umaru, Abdullsalami S. Kovo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/24253

This study is aimed at the synthesis and amine functionalization of Jatropha curcas activated carbon. Waste Jatropha curcas shell was used to produce the Jatropha Activated Carbon (JAC) via chemical activation with Potasium hydroxide (KOH). The JAC was modified with triethanolamine (TEA) to produce (JAC-TEA). The performance of both adsorbents in CO2 capture study was evaluated in a cylindrical glass column equipped with a digital mass balance. The effect of adsorbent dosage (0.5-1.5 g) and temperature (30-60°C) as a function of time was investigated. The results showed that CO2 adsorption capacities of the adsorbents increase on amine loading and adsorbent dosage (bed height), while the adsorption capacity decreases with increase in temperature. Adsorption capacity of JAC and JAC-TEA were 66 and 78 mg/g respectively. Crystallinity, morphological structure and surface functional groups of adsorbents were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transformed Infra red spectrophotometer respectively, while the surface areas and porosity were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. Both adsorbents had good crystallinity with a well-developed pore structures. The mechanism of CO2 adsorption onto JAC and JAC-TEA is physisorption and that the adsorbent (JAC-TEA) can be used upto 7 cycles. The results of this study have revealed that a cost-effective high quality porous activated carbon can be prepared from a cheap carbonaceous material like Jatropha curcas shell and modified to improve its CO2adsorption capacity.

Open Access Original Research Article

C-Semantic: A Novel Framework for Next-generation Robotic Vision via the Semantic Web Technologies

Alaaeddin Alweish, Mohd Sharifuddin Ahmad, Alicia Y. C. Tang, Azhana Ahmad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23619

Currently, research in robotic vision faces numerous challenges, predominantly because of noisy sensor input and the processor hungry practices of object detection. Conventional machine vision algorithms are unable to handle real-time scenarios efficiently because they mostly rely on local storage for objects and a limited training process. In real life, there are endless number of objects which requires a huge storage capacities and a high level of hardware to handle real-time images quickly. In this paper, we address the challenges of current robotic vision and propose a novel framework (C-Semantic) based on cutting-edge semantic web technologies. The framework divides the entire robotic vision process into three functional layers in which each layer performs a set of predefined tasks. The process begins with a vocal command that is further converted into a SPARQL query. We design a C-Semantic ontology that semantically stores the domain information along with objects’ physical and geometrical features. The image-processing module of the framework receives an input image of an object and looks up for the object from the virtual environment by consulting the semantic features. An inference engine aids the image-processing module to rapidly detect and associate the object based upon the semantic relationships. Overall, the semantic powered kernel transforms the proposed framework into a robust, intelligent and interoperable system proficient to handle real-time scenarios. C-Semantic framework is evaluated against some scenarios from the literature. Based on the current experiments, the system displays favorable results. Based on our review, the integration of semantics with robotic vision algorithms is the first attempt of its kind that will pave the way for future research in this domain.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Classification Methods on Facial Emotion Recognition ‎Accuracy

Suhaila N. Mohammed, Loay E. George, Hayder A. Dawood

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23090

The interests toward developing accurate automatic face emotion recognition ‎methodologies are growing vastly, and it is still one of an ever growing research field in the ‎region of computer vision, artificial intelligent and automation. However, there is a ‎challenge to build an automated system which equals human ability to recognize facial ‎emotion because of the lack of an effective facial feature descriptor and the difficulty of ‎choosing proper classification method. In this paper, a geometric based feature vector ‎has been proposed. For the classification purpose, three different types of classification ‎methods are tested: statistical, artificial neural network (NN) and Support Vector ‎Machine (SVM). A modified K-Means clustering algorithm has been developed for ‎clustering purpose. Mainly, the purpose of using modified K-means clustering technique ‎is to group the similar features into (K) templates in order to simulate the differences in ‎the ways that human express each emotion. To evaluate the proposed system, a subset ‎from Cohen-Kanade (CK) dataset have been used, it consists of 870 facial images ‎samples for the seven basic emotions (angry, disgust, fear, happy, normal, sad, and ‎surprise). The conducted test results indicated that SVM classifier can lead to higher ‎performance in comparison with the results of other proposed methods due to its ‎desirable characteristics (such as large-margin separation, good generalization performance, etc.). ‎