Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Drying Methods on the Chemical, Pasting and Functional Properties of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Flour

S. O. Arinola, E. M. Ogunbusola, S. F. Adebayo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22936

Aims: The effect of different drying methods on the chemical, pasting and functional properties of unripe plantain flour was evaluated in this study.

Study Design: Research study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Food Chemistry and Food Processing Laboratories of the Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State between October 2013 and April 2014.

Methodology: Equal quantity of unripe plantain pieces of the same dimension was subjected to four different drying methods: hot air oven (70°C), tray dryer (70°C, 1.5 m/s), fluidized bed dryer (70°C, 2.75 m/s) and sun drying until constant weight was obtained. The resulting samples were pulverized and then subjected to chemical, pasting and functional analysis.

Results: Hot air oven was the most effective in drying the unripe plantain to the lowest moisture content of 3.24%, the moisture content of unripe plantain dried with tray dryer was the highest (5.43%). The protein and ash contents of the unripe plantain dried with hot air oven; fluidized bed dryer; tray dryer and sun drying were 3.82% and 3.11%; 3.07% and 3.14%; 3.21% and 3.91%; 3.04% and 3.56% respectively. The pH and energy value of the four samples were in the range of 5.70 – 6.20 and 3.68 – 3.83 Kcal/g respectively. The peak and final viscosities of the unripe plantain dried with hot air oven; fluidized bed dryer; tray dryer and sun drying were 166.25 RVU and 293.33 RVU; 119.67 RVU and 126.50 RVU; 163.17 RVU and 243.58 RVU; 239.83 RVU and 124.33 RVU respectively. The water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and swelling power of samples dried with hot air oven; fluidized bed dryer; tray dryer and sun drying were 160 ml/100 g, 195 ml/100 g and 3.58; 160 ml/100 g, 200 ml/100 g and 3.65; 180 ml/100 g, 165 ml/100 g and 3.22; 130 ml/100 g, 210 ml/100 g and 3.05 respectively.

Conclusion: Oven and fluidized bed drying provided better alternatives to the traditional natural sun drying of unripe plantain especially in terms of final viscosity, peak viscosity, breakthrough viscosity; chemical and functional  properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Policy and Climate Change in Nigeria: Bridging the Gap between Challenges and Reality

Pius Akindele Adeniyi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22874

This study reviews the state of play of on-going Nigeria’s environmental policy and pinpoints key issues for Nigeria in the area of environmental and climate policies. In addition to traditional themes that require urgent actions (biodiversity, forestry, land use, water, agriculture), special attention is paid to emerging cross-cutting issues (circular economy, sustainability, eco-innovation). Nigeria efforts in addressing climate change are reviewed, highlighting specific implementation challenges and their relevance for international climate policy. It is believed that if these policy strategies are followed judiciously, they will facilitate sustainable environment in many places and thus reduce pressure on the natural resources. The natural resources with less human interference coupled with good and sustainable management practices and policy, will therefore regenerate naturally and may attain stability, thus helping to reduce the effect of climate change.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling of Air Pollutants and Ozone Concentration by Using Multivariate Analysis: Case Study of Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria

S. G. Gocheva-Ilieva, A. V. Ivanov, I. P. Iliev

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23910

Air pollution is one of the key problems in urban areas and its investigation is vital both for people's health and for the environment as a whole. In particular, ground ozone is a secondary air pollutant with concentrations dependent mainly on changes in the levels of other pollutants and meteorological conditions within a given region. This paper presents a statistical study based on multivariate analysis of hourly data on 9 air pollutants and 6 meteorological variables in the town of Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria over a period of 7 years and 3 months. Yeo-Johnson power transformation is applied to each air pollutant variable to improve normality of the time series. The dominant patterns in the considered data are examined with the help of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and factor analysis. Furthermore, particular focus is given for determining the concentration levels of ozone in relation to the other air pollutants and/or 6 meteorological time series using principal component regression (PCR). The good fitting of the obtained models with coefficients of determination R2 over 78% is obtained. An example of using the model to forecast the concentrations of ozone for 24 hours ahead is given. The obtained results could be used as an assessment in all analyses of the air quality of the town Dimitrovgrad, including the official reports of the Environmental Agency and also as an independent alternative to the official alerting systems.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Effect of Varying Palm Kernel Particle Sizes on the Calorific Value of Palm Kernel Briquette

P. K. Oke, T. O. Olugbade, G. N. Olaiya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23148

Aims: This work is aimed at analysing the effect of different palm kernel particle sizes on the calorific value of the briquettes produced using this material.

Study Design: The palm kernel shell used was obtained from the local market, after which it was taken to the grinder so as to get it into powdered form of different sizes. The powered palm kernel shell was then sieved so as to get the specific particles sizes using mesh of different sizes.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between August 2014 and February 2015.

Methodology: Three different sizes of mesh were used, 4.756, 2.36, and 0.6 mm labelled A, B and C respectively. The various sizes were then mixed with starch which is the binding material and poured into the briquetting machine operated at a constant pressure of 100 Kg/cm2. The briquette was made and dried. A e2k type combustion calorimeter was used to determine the calorific values of the briquettes.

Results: The results show that the calorific values are 18.415, 18.412 and 17.342 MJ/kg for the particle sizes 4.756, 2.36, and 0.6 mm respectively.

Conclusion: This result shows the calorific value of the palm kernel briquette increases with the increasing particle sizes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Digitalization Maternal and Prenatal Care Reporting Systems by Using Multimodal Telecommunication Devices for Monitoring Systems in the Rural West Bandung County Indonesia

Tono Djuwantono, Ahmad Faried, Agung B. Sutiono, Muhammad Z. Arifin, Firman F. Wirakusumah, Sony A. Yuniarto, Hadi Hariyanto, Yudi T. Jayadi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/20762

Objectives: West Java Province contribute 19.8% mother mortality in Indonesia; is the highest than other provinces. We proposed the Digitalization Maternal and Prenatal care Systems (DigiMAPS) that tries to improve recording and reporting system in order to monitoring, improving health facility and managing prevention program.

Methods: Gunung Halu is located in West Bandung District was chosen due its contour-infrastructures obstacle. Requirement are derived by DigiMAPS and startup customer-problem-solution.

Results: We designed developed device, network, tele-consultation application and multi modality communication systems supporting various user accesses including SMS, web- and mobile application-based entry. It consist several access network including broadband wireline (xDSL), 2G-3G, WiFi and VSAT IP. We identified the following assumptions: (I) The communication networks are focus on public broadband IP network either using wireless/wireline approaches whenever applicable in target area. (II) The communication solutions considers various device requirements including PC, tablet and smartphone; DigiMAPS application has been developed using web- and android-based concepts. (III) The platforms are designed to support software as a service in cloud terminology, rather than client-server approach.

Conclusions: We have developed the DigiMAPS prototype in the rural area of Bandung county Indonesia. DigiMAPS will collect datas in order to monitor the quality of healthcare as well as for tele-consultation and data analysis to make early intervention by midwives, doctors and stakeholders in Bandung county, Indonesia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optoelectronic Properties of Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) Thin Films Deposited Using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) Technique

A. D. A. Buba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23622

Thin films of Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) were deposited on glass substrate at room temperature by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) Technique. The sources of Zn and Se were respectively ZnSOand Na2SeSO3 while NaOH was employed as complexing agent. The deposited sample slides were annealed in an oven at temperatures of 200°C, 300°C and 400°C. The samples were characterized for optical band gap using Spectrophotometer (Janway 6405 UV-VIS Model) by measuring the optical absorption and transmission and Photo conductivity by using the two point probe method in which silver paint was used for attaching two copper wires (as electrodes) on the sample. The estimated band gaps are 2.89eV, 2.95eV, 3.08eV and 3.05eV for the as-deposited and the annealed thin films at temperatures of 200°C, 300°C and 400°C respectively. Annealing increases band gap energy slightly as substrate temperature increases from room temperature to 400°C which indicate blueshifts from the normal bulk value, while the photo and dark currents of the sample annealed at 300° were observed to increase linearly with the applied electric field, but the former being large and the latter is less, which is an indication of positive photoconductivity.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Design Analysis and Fabrication of a Tensile Creep Testing Machine

J. L. Chukwuneke, P. C. Okolie, D. C. Ugwuegbu, J. E. Sinebe

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23803

This work covers the design analysis and fabrication of a tensile creep test machine for determining the creep curve for thermoplastic materials (Teflon) and light metals (aluminum, lead) that creep easily. The apparatus consists of four primary systems which are the load application system, the heat generation and control system, the strain measuring system and then the frame and the Specimen grip. The insulating material for the heating chamber is clay and the maximum temperature the chamber can hold is 300°C. The maximum amount of load that would not topple the machine is 2457N and the dial indicator measures a maximum extension of 10 mm with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Any specimen to be used on the machine must be designed to have a cross sectional end diameter of 16 mm, a gauge length of 65 mm and an overall length of 145 mm. Creep Tests were carried out using Teflon/Polytetrafluoroethylene as the test specimen at a constant load of 0.44MPa and at varying temperatures of 80°C, 100°C and 120°C for a duration of  two hours; the results show that at constant load and varying temperature, the elongation increases with time and also the creep rate decreases with time as temperature increases. Secondly, Creep tests were carried out on Teflon/Polytetrafluoroethylene test specimen at a constant temperature of 100°C and at varying stresses of 1 kg, 2 kg and 3 kg for duration of two hours. The results show that at constant temperature and at varying load, the extension and the creep rate increases with time as the load increases. These Creep curves show excellent agreement with experimentally determined data using stress relaxation.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

On Influence of Aspect Ratio on Jamming Probability for Flows of Elliptical Disks in a Two-dimensional Rotating Hopper

Yung-Jung Lin, Chung Fang, Chin-Wan Chen

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23602

Jamming arches and jamming probability of flowing elliptical disks at the opening of a two-dimensional rotating hopper is studied experimentally. A two-dimensional rotating hopper of Plexiglas with variable opening width and slope is constructed to conduct quasi two-dimensional flows of elliptical disks with different aspect ratios. Results show that the jamming probability and jamming arch structures are significantly influenced by the aspect ratio. There exist an upper and a lower limit of the hopper opening width, in which the jamming probability decreases monotonically as the opening width increases. When the opening is smaller than the lower limit, completely jamming takes place, while above the upper limit no jamming appears. As the aspect ratio increases, the jamming probability increases correspondingly for fixed hopper slope and opening width. For the jamming arch structures, increasing the aspect ratio tends to induce smaller horizontal average span, with a fluctuating tendency of the vertical average span for fixed values of the average arch number. For a fixed horizontal average span, increasing the aspect ratio gives rise to increase the average arch number. These imply that, for less narrow disks, the induced jamming arches are more semi-circular, while relatively flat jamming arches are triggered when disks are more narrow. The study delivers a physical mechanism of jamming phenomena of elliptical disks in a two-dimensional rotating hopper.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Appraisal of the Middle Cretaceous Sediments in Ubiaja-1 well Through the Use of Palynology in Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria

A. O. Ola-Buraimo, N. A. Yelwa, M. Aliyu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/20452

Revelation of the presence of older sediments continues to evolve in the Anambra Basin through the biostratigraphy study of Ubiaja-1 well located in the Anambra Basin, Nigeria. The study is predicated with a view to determining the age of the oldest sediments, evidence of rework sediment and chronostratigraphy of the studied section. The method of analysis includes digestion, sieving, oxidation, floatation of residues and final mounting of them on glass slides for petrographic observation using binocular microscope. The lithostratigraphy of the formations varies from dark grey fissile shale and shaley siltstone at the base through heterolith facies of sand and shale, dark grey fissile shale at the middle section to sandstone and intercalated sand and shale of various proportions at the upper section of the interval. Three palynological zones were erected: Triorites africaensis assemblage zone 1 (2510-3130ft) characterized by co-occurrence of Triorite africaensis and Lycopodiumsporites sp dated Turonian age; belonging to Eze-Aku Formation; Droseridites senonicus assemblage zone 2 varying from interval 2052-2510ft, characterized by the co-occurrence of Droseridites senonicus, Trifossapollenites sp and the dominance of angiosperm pollen, dated Coniacian age and belongs to Awgu Formation. This is overlain by the Milfordia spp. acme zone 3, ranging from interval 1440 to 2050ft, marked by the appearance of Milfordia jardinei, Milfordia sp and paucity of palynomorphs. The interval is dated Campanian age and belongs stratigraphically to Nkporo Shale. The results show that sediments older than Santonian age, devoid of rework sediment and which ranges from Turonian to Campanian age are present in Anambra Basin. The paleoenvironment of deposition is mainly deltaic to marginal marine defined by the occurrence of Andalusiella sp, Senegalinium sp andCriproperidinium sp.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Compound Family of Generalized Inverse Weibull Power Series Distributions

Amal S. Hassan, Salwa M. Assar, Kareem A. Ali

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23215

Compounding a continuous lifetime distribution with a discrete one is a useful technique for constructing flexible distributions to facilitate better modeling of lifetime data. In this paper, a new family of lifetime distributions, called the generalized inverse Weibull power series distribution is introduced. This new family is obtained by compounding the generalized inverse Weibull and truncated power series distributions. This compounding procedure follows the same way that was previously carried out by [1]. This family contains several new distributions such as generalized inverse Weibull Poisson; inverse Weibull Poisson; inverse Rayleigh Poisson; inverse exponential Poisson; generalized inverse Weibull logarithmic; inverse Weibull logarithmic; inverse Rayleigh logarithmic; inverse exponential logarithmic; generalized inverse Weibull geometric; inverse Weibull geometric; inverse Rayleigh geometric  and inverse exponential geometric as special cases.

The hazard rate function of the new family of distributions can be increasing, decreasing and bathtub-shaped. Several properties of the new family including; quantile, entropy, moments and distribution of order statistics are provided. The model parameters of the new family are estimated by the maximum likelihood method. The two new models namely; generalized inverse Weibull Poisson and the generalized inverse Weibull geometric distributions are studied in some details. Finally, applications to two real data sets are analyzed to illustrate the flexibility and potentiality of the new family.