Open Access Original Research Article

Ecological Risk Assessment of Ground Water Quality of Two Industrial Zones of Karachi, Pakistan

Aziz Ur Rahman, Muhammad Imran Sabir

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23064

The purpose of this research study is to determine the quality of groundwater in and around the two industrial zones of Karachi such as SITE (Sindh industrial and trading estate) and KITE (Korangi industrial and trading estate) by using EIRA (Environmental Impact and Risk Assessment) method. The environmental researchers find this method easy enough to use for risk assessment and environmental impact. It has estimated the risk and impact associated with measured concentrations of ecological indicators for environmental components examined as a representative in assessment process. There are several mathematical steps being applied in this method. Out of 32 sampling points (18 each) of groundwater analysis, six ecological indicators examined representative for evaluative purpose were assessed. The results of the study indicated that the groundwater quality of both the industrial zones had high pollutant and contaminated due to industrial activities. Therefore, it is certain to implement the plan for remediation to uplift the quality of groundwater and overcome the pollution.


Open Access Original Research Article

Quick Release Nitrogenous Fertilizer from Human Hair

Md. Mominur Rahman, Kazi Bayzid Kabir, Md. Masudur Rahman, Zannatul Ferdous

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23454

Liquid nitrogenous fertilizer was synthesized using waste human hair as the raw material. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) and Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) were used as the non-recoverable solvents for diffusion controlled reductive cleavage of hair protein. Performance of these solvents was analyzed and compared both individually and for different combinations. Experiments showed that KOH was better for dissolving hair and extraction of nitrogen in the forms of ammonium and nitrate ions compared to TMAH. Thereafter a vegetation pot experiment was established to investigate the performance of the produced liquid fertilizers compared to the commercial Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium, NPK (15-15-15), fertilizer on the growth and yield of a short cycle crop, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L). The study design consisted of four treatments viz. no fertilization (T1), KOH based liquid fertilizer from human hair (T2), TMAH based liquid fertilizer from human hair (T3) and commercial NPK (T4). Each treatment had four replicate pots and was also done in parallel. The different treatments were added to the pot based on the total nitrogen requirement of 50 kg/ha for the spinach following broadcasting method. Plant physiology including plant height, number of the leaves, fresh and dry weight of the edible part of the harvested plant after 28 days suggested that the performance of the synthesized fertilizers as a nitrogen source were better than the commercial NPK fertilizer. These outcomes encourage such novel use of waste human hair.


Open Access Original Research Article

Vibration Diagnosis Approach for Industrial Gas Turbine and Failure Analysis

Sulaiman Khalifa Saif Al Adawi, G. R. Rameshkumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23163

This study is carried out to analyze the problem of high vibration in gas turbine installed in power and desalination plant. This study is carried out in Al Ghubra Power and Desalination plant. Three case studies related to vibration problem were presented to diagnosis the cause of vibration and to find the root cause for failures that occur in the gas turbine.

The vibration data were collected using accelerometer at three directions for the rotational speed of 3000 rev/min at different load conditions. The date was presented in the form of graphs and comparative study was made. It has been observed in all the three cases, the high amplitude of vibration. Data were analyzed for this high vibration and corrective action initiated to rectify the problem to reduce vibration level. In the first case study the high vibration in the generator rotor side and is due to unbalance condition of rotor. The vibration level is reduced after performing balancing of rotor. In the second case study it is to find the reason for high vibration in the gas turbine during the first run up at Full Speed with No Load. It is observed that the high vibration in the generator is due to wear out parts and damage of pinion in the gear box. It is suggested to clean and replace the wear out part, and performed the same test again. It is interesting to note that the vibration level is minimal and it is within the acceptable level. In the third case, the flow back of gas to the machine casing resulting in accumulation of gas and when ignited caused the explosion in the exhaust side. Detailed analysis were made to analyze the problem and rectified.

In all the three case studies the investigation has shown that the high amplitude of vibration is due to many reasons hence it is suggested to implement a proper way of regular maintenance work to allow gas turbine to run smoothly without any problem. Few recommendations are proposed for preventing similar failures in the future. It is also suggested to use online condition monitoring tool to assess the operation condition and to decide the time of maintenance work.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Application of Mathematical Methods for Solving of Scientific Problems

G. Mehdiyeva, V. Ibrahimov, M. Imanova

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22964

As is known, the formation and development of the mathematical methods are largely related with the successful application of these methods to solve problems of the natural sciences. Recently the area of application of the mathematical methods is greatly expanded. It is difficult to find an area where it is not used in solving different problems. As is known, is appeared the necessity to solve the differential, integral and integro-differential equations in solving of scientific problems. Note that one of the basic questions in the modern computational mathematics consists of construction of the numerical methods with the high accuracy. Therefore, here, is proposed the multi-step method with higher accuracy than the known. And is constructed the stable methods with the expanded area of stability for solving the above mentioned equations.


Open Access Original Research Article

A New Approach for Automatic Human Recognition Based on Retinal Blood Vessels Analysis

Saba A. Tuama, Loay E. George

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23442

Retinal biometric is one of the newest biometric technologies that increasingly being used, especially in critical areas that require tight security measures, in order that retinal is one of the most robust and most accurate biometrics methods to recognize a person, the retinal recognition technique is yet another step in biometrics, it deals with very distinct physical property of exceptionally very low false acceptance and false rejection rates, and features that are found in the retina of eye are more reliable and stable features than those found in other biometrics. Retinal biometric is one of the newest biometric technologies that increasingly being used, especially in critical areas that require tight security measures, in order that retinal is one of the most robust and most accurate biometrics methods to recognize a person, the retinal recognition technique is yet another step in biometrics, it deals with very distinct physical property of exceptionally very low false acceptance and false rejection rates, and features that are found in the retina of eye are more reliable and stable features than those found in other biometrics. 

This paper presents a new system for personal recognition based on retinal vascular pattern. This system is insensitive to rotation and robust to noise and brightness variations. The presented system consists of three main stages (i.e., preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching stage). Preprocessing is used for enhancement and segmentation the vascular network (i.e., Region of Interest), as discriminating feature the set of local average of vascular densities have been used in feature extraction stage, finally Euclidean distance measure used in matching stage. The proposed system is evaluated on the two publicly available databases: (i) STARE (Structured Analysis of the Retina) and (ii) DRIVE (Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction). The test results indicated that the attained recognition accuracy of the proposed method is 100% for both datasets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction and Application of Novel Eco-friendly Natural Dye Obtained from Leaves of Sanamicky on Silk Fabric

Ebtsam S. Al-Amoudy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23390

Sanamicky plant as a source of natural dye was used to dye silk fabrics; this plant has not been exploited as natural dye by far. Optimization of natural dye extraction from sanamicky leaves with respect to dye bath concentration to aid exhaustion was done. The effect of changed dye bath concentration on the reflectance spectra was followed using spectrophotometer tool and CIE tristimulus values. The color parameters including L, a, and b values were determined. The data obtained indicated that the color parameters were highly affected by changing dye concentration by this new dye. The color fastness of fabric was very important aspect, as end use of fabrics depends on this property. The silk dyed fabric samples with sanamicky were evaluated for color yield, color difference and color fastness to light, washing, rubbing, light, perspiration and heat. Finding shows that the natural dye extracted from sanamicky leaves have good potential in textiles dyeing and can be exploited further. So, the present work gives the chance to produce different hues from a new traditional natural dye to improve the natural dyeing cultural heritage to meet the environmental future demands technology of high quality fantastic dyed pattern through an economical point of view. It was seen that pH of 3 and temperature of 80°C were the ones that produced the best results in and silk.


Open Access Original Research Article

Sanitation and Hygiene Practices of Nigeria’s Coastal Communities and Associated Socio-economic Characteristics: Study of Two Akwa Ibom Communities

C. N. Okafo, M. O. Nwude

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/20512

Aims: The hygiene and sanitation practices in correspondence with the socio-economic levels and cultural characteristics of two typical coastal/riverine communities in Nigeria, Uta-Ewa (Ikot Abasi LGA) and Ibaka (Mbo LGA) of Akwa Ibom State, were studied to determine how these factors   have affected their sanitation and hygiene behaviours.

Methodology: A sample size of 300 respondents was used for the study. Questionnaires and interviews were used to obtain data for the study from primary sources, key informants and opinion leaders. The data were coded and subjected to analysis with the use of descriptive statistical tools.

Results: In both communities, the average monthly income primarily from fishing and crop farming was between ₦5,000 ($22.7) – ₦20,000 ($90.9). There was a near absence of potable water sources except for a few boreholes provided by the government and private individuals. The communities practice open defecation into the streams and disposed of household wastes into surrounding bushes and nearby dumps. Lack of space and cost were given as the major reasons for non provision of human waste disposal facilities by households. They have poor sense of personal hygiene and seldom wash their hands with soap.

Conclusion: Appropriate hygiene and sanitation technology options must therefore be economically feasible to be acceptable and sustained by the populace. Both communities will need improved and sustained basic and health education to be able to appreciate the need to embrace healthful and sanitary living.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics and Potentials of Retail Marketing of Yam in Delta State, Nigeria: Implications for the Extension Services

D. U. Okoedo-Okojie, G. F. Okwuokenye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/17657

The study was carried out to assess the influence of socio-economic characteristics on retail yam marketing in Delta region of Nigeria and the implicatiosn on the potential market growth of yam extension services. Data were obtained from the marketers with the use of structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics (frequency distribution table, percentages and means) was used to analyze the socio-economic characteristics and constraints of marketers, while multiple regression was used to analyze the hypothesis of the study. Findings of the study show that the retail yam market is completely dominated by females. Most of them (71%) were married and attended primary school (65%). The age of most (35%) of the marketers was between the range of 40 – 49 years. Results also show that all the respondents are into full time retail marketing of yam and most (85%) of them market only yam tubers with an average of 5-9 years experience in the trade. The average total marketing cost, weekly revenue and gross margin of retail yam marketing were $43.09, $63.44 and $20.34 respectively thus indicating that the trade is profitable. Serious constraints faced by the traders are perishability (3.83), inadequate capital (3.71), transport and its related problems (3.70), seasonality (3.64) and absence of locked-up stalls (3.58). Multiple regression analysis reveals that marital status (b= -0.281) and years of marketing experience (b= -0.257) were significant to the marketing cost of yam. Based on findings, the study recommends that efforts should be made by the State Government through Extension Service to organize the retail marketers into cooperatives as this would help them take advantage of economies of scale in engaging in bulk buying and transportation therefore saving money for themselves.


Open Access Original Research Article

Riemannian Curvature Tensor in the Cartesian Coordinate Using the Golden Metric Tensor

D. J. Koffa, J. F. Omonile, O. O. Ogunleye, L. I. Gani, S. X. K. Howusu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23593

The golden metric tensor completes Euclidean geometry. Since geometry is the foundation of theoretical physics, it implies that our discovery of the golden metric paves way for redefining almost everything in theoretical physics. In this paper, we show how to express the Riemannian curvature tensor in terms of the golden metric tensor for all gravitational fields in nature in the cartesian coordinate. These results which are mathematically most elegant, physically most natural and satisfactory are further used to derive the Riemannian curvature scalar and ricci curvature tensor in the cartesian coordinate.


Open Access Review Article

An Outlook on Tool Wear Mechanisms of Selected Cutting Tool Materials

O. M. Oduola, O. O. Awopetu, C. A. Ikutegbe, K. J. Akinluwade, A. R. Adetunji

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22211

This study discusses the viabilities and performances of a variety of cutting tool mechanism under various conditions. It highlights the basic issues relating to tool life, tool wear and cutting forces and emphasizes the importance of proper selection of cutting tools in manufacturing of discrete component parts. Continuous search for improved methods herald the need for significant transformation through optimization in terms of improved quality products, high productivity and comparative cost advantage. Replacement and adjusting of machine tool associated with tool failure increase production cost and decrease productivity. There still lies a great significance for continuous optimization of the manufacturing process and study of tool wear mechanism for various categories of cutting tool materials, as our ability to continue the trend for improved materials will be severely tested in the coming decades. It is the failure issues associated with tool wear mechanism of selected cutting tool materials and their essential properties that this work addresses; hence it reveals salient information and this aspect will continue to receive attention in machining processes.