Open Access Method Article

Minimum Parametric Flow – A Partitioning Approach

Mircea Parpalea, Eleonor Ciurea

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/cjast/2016/v13i67049

The present paper proposes a partitioning type approach for the parametric minimum flow problem which is based on the classical decreasing directed paths method. On each of its iterations, the algorithm finds a decreasing directed path from source node to sink node in a range of parametric residual networks which are consecutively defined for subintervals of the parameter values and, by decreasing the flow along the corresponding paths in the original parametric network, splits the interval of the parameter values in subintervals generated by the breakpoints of the piecewise linear parametric residual capacity function of the decreasing directed path. Further on, the algorithm reiterates for every generated subinterval in increasing order of the parameter values.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Study of Climate Change

J. O. Aribisala Aribisala, O. M. Ogundipe, O. O. Akinkurolere

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22389

This study focuses on establishing whether climate change has been occurring in Nigeria. Four States in the South Western part of the country were considered in the study. Climatic data like the rainfall, raindays, surface air temperature for a period of 32 years were collected and analysed. Also, the yield, the static water level and some other data of the boreholes sunk in the region were collected to examine the effect of climate change on groundwater. The climatic data were collected from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency Lagos, while the hydrogeological data for the boreholes were collected from Rural Water Sanitation Agency (RUWATSAN) in each State. The results show that the percent change in the average cumulative rainfall for Osogbo, Osun State, Ibadan, Oyo State, Ikeja, Lagos State and Abeokuta, Ogun State range from 1.2-4.4, 3.1-15.4, 7-16.3 and (-)14-18, respectively. Also, the percent change in the average surface air temperature for Osogbo, Osun State, Ibadan, Oyo State, Ikeja, Lagos State and Abeokuta, Ogun State range from 0.64-1.61, -0.94-1.27, -1.92-0.97 and -2.74- (-0.27), respectively. The percent change in the rainfall indicates there has been increase in the amount of precipitation over the decades considered. Most of the data for the yield of the boreholes for the period (1980-2012) considered in this study were not available. However, the data available indicates that yield has not changed significantly. The results show there is no conclusive evidence to establish presence of climate change.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Differently Processed Jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) Meals on the Performance of Grower Pigs

H. I. Emenike, A. B. I. Udedibie, O. O. Emenalom

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/18996

The proximate compositions of processed Jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) meals and their effects on the performance on grower pigs was investigated. Whole jackbean seeds were divided into two batches; the first batch was cracked into pieces (2 – 4 parts/seed) while the second batch was soaked in water for 72 hours. The two batches were separately cooked for an hour, sun dried and ground into meal. Samples of the cracked and cooked jackbean (CACJ) and, soaked and cooked jackbean (SACJ) meals were analysed for their proximate compositions. Seven diets were   formulated such that diet 1 (control) contained no jackbean. Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained CACJ at 15, 20, and 25%, respectively while diets 5, 6, and 7 contained 15, 20, and 25% SACJ, respectively. Forty nine grower pigs were divided into seven groups of seven pigs each, and randomly assigned to one of the seven diets. The processed seed meals had lower crude protein, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract but higher crude fibre values than the raw seeds. CACJ and SACJ meal diets significantly (P<.001) depressed feed intake and growth rate of the pigs even at lowest dietary level of 15%. Pigs fed SACJ diets performed slightly better than those fed CACJ diets. Feed conversion ratios were better in pigs fed the processed jackbean diets than the control. The result shows that the two processing methods used could not improve the nutritive value of jackbean for pigs and that the processed meals caused profound appetite and growth depressing effects on pigs at 15, 20 and 25% dietary levels. It is concluded that jackbean so processed should not be used in diets for pig due to their growth depressing effects. Further studies on lower dietary inclusion levels and factor(s) responsible for the rejection of processed jackbean diets by pigs are worthwhile.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Effect of Years of Experience on the Level of Task Performance by Primary Health Care Workers in Enugu State

P. O. Ezenduka, E. C. Ndie, I. Ehiemere

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21379

Aim of Study: The study aimed at assessment of level of task performance as affected by working experiences of the primary healthcare workers (PHCW) in Enugu. Nine Local Governments.

Research Design: Descriptive survey research was used.

Methods of Data Collection: 302 PHCW were randomly selected using a multistage method. Questionnaire was used as the instrumentation validated using test retest with correlation coefficient of 0.85.

Findings: The result showed that those with 10 years and above perform better when compared with those with less than 10 years and those with more than 20 years.

Conclusion: Generally the workers perform low in areas of provision of Health Education, performance of simple laboratory test, community mobilization and identifying environmental health hazards.

Recommendation: It was then recommended that close supervision should be provided to the PHCW and in planning for task shifting in primary health, the years of experiences should be considered.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multi-criteria Comparison of Sustainability in Brazilian, American and European Banks

C. E. D. C. Infante, L. Costa, E. Moura, R. Valle

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23031

This paper compares the sustainable development of fifteen important banks that located, in general, in Brazil, United States, and Europe. The banks were chosen from their market value and analyzed about their investor performances. The bank’s comparison used indicators extracted from their Global Reporting Initiative, which represent their sustainability reports. For the research robustness the decision support multicriteria analysis was used as methodology, which in the application of the method ELECTRE III was possible to verify the ranking of companies according to direct sustainable reports. The results showed a greater commitment of Brazilian banks to sustainable development, while the others, European and American, were shown to have an equivalent performance in many aspects and indicators, specifically about social impacts. The results also demonstrate that in the banking sector, there is still much space for improvements in relation to sustainability. It was concluded that sustainable strategies allied to the Triple Bottom Line are a corporate and operational differential. Thus, it is expected to contribute to the deepening of enterprise policies across all strategic decisions focused on sustainability. Sustainability is the most important aspect for strategy decisions, nowadays, and this application helps for it.


Open Access Original Research Article

Area 1 of Approximate Entropy as a Fast and Robust Tool to Address Temporal Organization

José Eduardo Soubhia Natali, José Guil herme Chaui-Berlinck

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22726

Aims: To evaluate the consistency and robustness of an informational entropy analytical tool derived from Approximate Entropy (ApEn).

Study Design: A set of in machina time-series of known properties were generated to test and compare the proposed tool with the standard ApEn and with peak-ApEn.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Energetics and Theoretical Physiology, Dept. Physiology, Biosciences Institute, University of São Paulo. From April 2014 to May 2015.

Methodology: The proposed tool consists in obtaining a detailed tolerance vector with more than 100 values and, then, to compute ApEn for window m = 1 for each one of these tolerance values. This creates a curve that is numerically integrated using a normalized tolerance vector as the basis, thus obtaining the area under the curve of m = 1 ApEn (a1ApEn). In order to make comparisons, 17 time-series from different generating processes were constructed using Matlab R2013a. Employing the above-cited analytical tools, we approached the following queries: (a) for a given process, how variable is the estimator value? (b) is a1ApEn more consistent than peak-ApEn in classifying different processes? 

Results: The answer for (a) is that, in relation to ApEn, the variance of a1ApEn is significantly lower in 16 cases (all P < .01, F-test for sample variance), and we explain why the one exception occurs. In relation to peak-ApEn, the variance is lower for all 17 series (all P < .01). The answer for (b) is that a1ApEn is able to correct inconsistencies found when using peak-ApEn (all < .01, Student’s t-test).

Conclusion: The proposed tool, the area under the curve for ApEn of window 1 (a1ApEn) is objective and more consistent than both the ApEn and the peak-ApEn estimators.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectrophotometric and Conductometric Study of Methyl Orange - Cetylpyridinium Chloride Ion Pair in Aqueous Solution

Khaled Edbey, K. El Ttaib, A. Benhmid, Fateh Eltaboni, Abdelqader Imragaa, Anas Alferjany

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22949

Binding constant (Kb) was calculated by means of Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Gibbs free energy (∆G°) was calculated at room temperature. The binding constant and the Gibbs free energy results showed that the interaction between the oppositely charged dye and surfactant is very strong.


Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Intelligent Environment Monitoring System Based on CAN Bus

Yang Jie, Li Yuanyuan, Huang He, Wu Han

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22521

This article aims at the college students' innovative project, which realizes the intelligent environment’s monitoring system. It makes the design of hardware platform, which is based on CAN bus and the embedded system. It receives environmental information through sensors, and uses CAN bus to transmit signals to the embedded system for analysis and processing. It can realize the intelligent of the environment’s monitoring system, and improve the accuracy of monitoring in many aspects.


Open Access Review Article

Optimization of Building Energy Performance through Passive Design Strategies

Hossein Omrany, Abdul Kadir Marsono

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/23116

Passive buildings are capable of achieving the lowest energy requirements by optimizing heat losses and gains through the building envelope. Therefore, the thermal comfort in winter and summer can be maintained mostly without requiring the energy inputs and during the peak temperature periods with only minimum amounts of energy inputs. Application of passive strategies in building sector can be a promising measure to enhance the building energy efficiency. This paper is aimed at reviewing studies utilized passive strategies to optimize building energy utilization. The findings demonstrate that, usage of passive strategies in the building sector enhances sustainability measures predominantly through mitigating building’s negative environmental impacts besides optimizing its energy performance.


Open Access Review Article

Technologies in Texture Analysis – A Review

Tuhin Utsab Paul, Pranavesh Banerjee, Anannya Mukherjee, Samir Kr. Bandhyopadhyay

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/19082

Texture analysis is one of the promising field of digital image processing. The main target of texture analysis or recognition is to understand, process and model texture, and ultimately simulate human visual learning process using different computer technologies, which are generally done through different texture analysis methods like spatial method, structural method, statistical method. In this paper, we had analyzed the different problem areas in this field, to highlight the gap or shortcomings in technology and the possible ways to bridge those gaps in technology.