Open Access Systematic Review Article

Prevalence and Correlates of Major Depressive Disorder among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Adults in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Ahmad M. Yakasai, Aliyu Ibrahim, Mustafa I. Gudaji, Hamza Muhammad, Aisha M. Nalado, Auwalu S. Salihu, Lukman F. Owolabi, Musa Baba Maiyaki, Muzammil M. Yakasai, Muhammad Nazeere, Shehu Sale, Zahraddeen G. Habib, Abdulrazaq G. Habib

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22594

Introduction: Although major depressive disorder (MDD) is the commonest psychiatric complication of HIV infection, its prevalence and correlates are not fully evaluated in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Methods: PsychInfo, Medline and Google scholar were among the data bases searched for relevant publications up to December 2013. Assessments of study quality, heterogeneity test (I2 statistics) and sensitivity analysis were performed. We used random-effects model (REM) meta-analysis to derive pooled estimates of MDD in SSA. Statistically significant p-value in both Egger’s and Begg’s tests denote publication bias.

Results: The prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of MDD among HIV infected subjects was 17.3% (11.65-22.97). Symptomatic patients with Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) had significantly higher prevalence than asymptomatic patients (17.5% and 8.3% respectively, P = .036). Odds Ratio [OR] (95% CI) of correlates of MDD were: HIV infection = 3.1 (1.97-4.17), female gender = 1.71 (1.09-2.32), Tuberculosis (TB) = 2.34 (1.0-5.63), food insecurity = 2.89 (1.40-5.89), higher income = 0.68 (0.45-1.0) and high social support = 0.75 (0.60-0.90).

Conclusion: HIV infection is associated with development of MDD and AIDS patients are mostly afflicted. Preventing disease progression and improving the social welfare of patients are interventions needed to reduce the burden of MDD among HIV-infected subjects in SSA.

Open Access Short Research Article

A Genetic Algorithm with Neighborhood Search to Solve Integer and Linear Programming Problems

Francisco Javier Lopez-Jaquez

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22267

In this paper, a metaheuristic algorithm that combines genetic and neighbor search algorithms is proposed to solve integer linear programming problems. The individuals of the population are binary coded into a sequence of chromosomes (variables). Initially, chromosome length is five bits (genes) but if required they grow, up to 21 genes per chromosome, when looking for optima. The algorithm includes a test based on systematic neighborhood search to decide if it continues or stops. The algorithm is able to solve maximal or minimal integer linear programming problems in standard or non-standard form and linear programming problems with a simple adaptation. A comparative study was conducted with three algorithms; LINGO, Simplex LP and Evolutionary. These last two algorithms are from commercial solver in Excel spreadsheet software. The results show that the algorithm was able to find similar solution with LINGO and Simplex LP but better than the Evolutionary. A time study using problems from literature with two, three, four, eight and twelve variables is included.

 

Open Access Short Research Article

Application of Flexible Industrial Park in the Scientific Technology Park of Sumgait State University of Azerbaijan

Elchan Ghuseynov, Javanshir Mammadov, Gulnara Genjeliyeva

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22131

As a result of analysis of international experience of technology park creation in the developed foreign countries it was proffered the structural scheme of the stages realization by creation of scientific - technology park at the Sumgait State University in Azerbaijan. There were chosen the base profiles of the scientific technology park at the Sumgait State University, proffered the new projects for their application in the park.  

It was proffered the structural scheme of flexible industrial park at the scientific technology park for the new innovative projects output of different setting. For computing control of flexible industrial park of the scientific - technology park at the Sumgait State University,  option of types of industrial robots, their sensor elements and controlling system was executed.

On an example of the loading manipulator and its controlling elements it was proffered the automation scheme of the flexible manufacture module.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Usage of Agrochemicals in a Maize Based Multi Cropping System: A Case Study of Small Holder Farmers in Ifedore Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria

J. O. Okunlola, K. E. Owolabi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/17272

The need to introduce farmers to new technologies in agricultural production cannot be over emphasized. This is because most of the farmers still utilize the traditional agricultural practices which affect their farm output. The study therefore examined the factors affecting the adoption of agrochemicals by maize farmers in Ifedore Local Government, Ondo state. One Hundred (100) maize farmers were randomly selected from the study area. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. The primary data was collected with the use of pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Direct observation techniques and interview of key informants were also used to enrich the data collected. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages and inferential statistics such as Chi Square, Pearson product correlation were used to analyze the primary data. The findings from the study showed that 74 percent were below 50 years, 88 percent of the respondents had formal education while only 12 had no formal education. The study showed that 50 percent of the farmers had been into farming for more than 10 years. Most of the respondents (89 percent) were small-scale farmers cultivating 0.1–2.9 hectares. The farmers practiced multiple cropping systems with maize as the predominant crop. About 94 percent planted maize with other crops while only 5 percent planted maize only. The result revealed that 76 percent of the respondents asserted that they never used fertilizers. The Extension personnel visited 64 percent of the farmers. The study showed a significant relationship between education and the usage of fertilizer but a non significant relationship between marital status, religion, age and family size and usage of fertilizer. It is recommended that farmers should be visited frequently by extension agents with the objective of disseminating information on new technologies to enhance their level of production.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Physico – Chemical Properties of Alkyd Resin Produced from Shea Butter Oil

M. B. Musa, M. K. Yakubu, S. A. Abdulkadir

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/20726

Alkyd resin was prepared from shear butter oil (SBO) using the two step procedures; alcoholysis and polyesterification. The oil and alkyd resin were characterized and evaluated by standard methods, for their physico-chemical properties. The analysis showed that the alkyd resin based on Shea butter oil recorded average acid value of 15.2 (mgNaOH/g), iodine value  (98.0 mg/g), PH value 6.7, density 1.36 g/cm3, formaldehyde value of 0.05 ppm, saponification value 842.0 mgKOH/g, and Drying time 6000 seconds. The FT-IR studies showed that, the ester formation is indicated by C = O band at 1723 cm-1 and C – O band at 1201 cm-1, and the aromatic C = C double bond at 1617 cm-1 band.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of a New Microtensile Testing Device for Dental Research

Gustavo Rivera, Lilian Marly de Paula, Tien Li An, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel Garcia, Paulo Márcio Yamaguti, Andréia de Aquino Marsiglio, Raquel Lanna Passos, Ana Carolina Acevedo, José Alexander Araújo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22167

Aims: This study aimed to compare the performance of a new microtensile bond strength (µTBS) testing device, called the Flextest device.

Study Design: This is an experimental randomised study in which composite resin/dentin stick-shaped specimens were submitted to a microtensile bond strength test in both Flextest device and Bencor Multi-T device.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Brasília (Brasília, Brazil). The duration of this study is 2 years.

Methodology: Fifteen human third molars were submitted to dentin surface exposure, polishing, bonding treatment, and composite blocks that were built up and sectioned to obtain composite resin/dentin stick-shaped specimens with a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.9 mm². One hundred composite resin/dentin specimens were assigned randomly to the Bencor Multi-T device (Danville Engineering, San Ramon, CA, USA) group (n = 50) and the Flextest device group (n = 50). Tensile bond testing was performed by a universal testing machine (MTS, Eden Prairie, MN, USA) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The intragroup and intergroup µTBS comparisons, and the ratios of the types of failure in each group were analysed by factorial analysis of variance, Fisher`s test, and the Chi square test at 5% significance.

Results: Both devices showed significant intragroup differences. However, the differences were not significant between the devices.

Conclusion: The new Flextest device and the Bencor Multi-t device had similar microtensile bond strength test results; however, a lower standard deviation was observed in the Flextest device group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Simulation for a Solar Powered Engine Using Matlab/Simulink

B. O. Akinnuli, S. A. Anjorin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/19508

This research focused on converting Solar energy into electrical and mechanical energy for the development of transmission system of a Solar Powered Vehicle (SPV) with the use of a DC motor, thereby eliminating the use of fuel and air. A computer simulation model was developed and tested to achieve this goal. The research identified the components for solar powered engine configuration, parameters required for the configuration, developed the required mathematics models, developed the flow chart for the simulation and computer software using Graphics User Interface (GUI) and MATLAB/SIMULINK interface model for the implementation of the mathematical model identified and adopted. This makes it easy to carry – out design and it reduces time consumption. The simulation results for Powered Vehicle (PV) model are: photo – current (Iph) 75800A, cells reverse saturation current (Irs) 7.2626e – 40A, reverse saturation current (Is) 5,17577e109, diode saturation current 1 mf voltage – resistor current Iv 5.5875A, model current Im – inf and model power Pm – inf. The Simulink gave the values of combined DC motor and battery as: voltage 0.2929 V, system on chip SOC 0.7624, angular speed (ωm 838.9 rad/s and armature current Ia -3.645 A. Solar MSX60 specifications (1000 W/m2, 25°C was used as case study. As seen from the motion curves of the parts (battery), the model starts to operate very quickly. This is to confirm the behavioural aspect of the system and it shows that the model gives better accuracy in the process of computation of data’s GUI under MATLAB and Simulation process in SIMULINK.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Normalized Independent Component Analysis for Face Recognition

I. Oyedeji Ayo, O. Omidiora Elijah, Oladipo Oluwasegun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21960

Aims: To design a Face Recognition System (FRS) using combination Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Artificial Neural Network - Normalized ICA. In order to improve the performance of a conventional ICA which suffers the drawback of ranking the energies of the generated features.

Study Design: The FRS was simulated using Matlab 2011 version. An algorithm was developed which combines the ability of the conventional ICA with ANN to generate final predictions. The ANN serves as a region finder and generated likely predictions associated with face image classes. Hence, reduced search space during testing.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, between June 2014 and July 2015.

Methodology: 40 individuals face images were captured in an uncontrolled environment. The face database comprises of 10 images for each subject taken at different times. The images were pre processed by cropping to different sizes (92*92; 92*100; 92*112 pixels respectively) and removing unwanted background. During testing Euclidean distance was used as similarity measure and faces were classified as “known” if less or equal to the threshold value set else “unknown”.

Results: The recognition accuracies at dimension 92*92 are 86.00% and 95.00% for ICA and NICA-based system using 30 principal components, 86.50% and 96.00% using 60 principal components at the same dimension respectively. At dimension 92*112 a recognition accuracy of 90.00% and 98.00% was obtain for ICA and NICA-based system, 91.00% and 98.00% using 60 principal components at the same dimension respectively. At cropped dimension 92*92 it took an average of 0.0096s and 0.0095s using 30 principal components to recognize a test image in ICA-and NICA-based, 0.0086s and 0.0085s using 60 principal components at the same dimension respectively and at cropped dimension of 92*112 it took an average of 0.0102s and 0.0098s using 30 principal components, 0.0106s and 0.0099s using 60 principal components at the same dimension respectively

Conclusion: The developed NICA-based system has better recognition accuracy than a conventional ICA-based system and also recognizes face images faster.

Open Access Review Article

The Application of Informatics Systems in Restaurants

Marcin Kurek

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22564

Informatics systems help in the running of organizations such as restaurants. There are several informatics systems that business organizations can use to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their operations. The informatics system include transaction processing systems, management information systems, decision support systems, executive support systems, and customer relationship management systems. These systems play different roles in restaurants; however, they all help to ensure that the decisions adopted by the management are those that benefit the business. In addition, they help to ensure that the customers of a business are given a high quality of service, to ensure they keep coming back. There are some of the functions that these systems play in restaurant businesses. The article is a review of currently used informatics systems in restaurant. The content of this paper will help to systemize the contemporary knowledge about these systems.

 

Open Access Review Article

Land Cover Classification Schemes Using Remote Sensing Images: A Recent Survey

S. Natya, V. J. Rehna

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22037

Economic development and growth in population have prompted rapid changes to earth’s land cover over the last few decades, and there is every indication that the pace of these changes will accelerate in the future. Therefore, systematic evaluations of Earth’s land cover must be repeated at a frequency that allows monitoring of both long term trends as well as inter-annual variability, and at a level of spatial detail to allow study of land use patterns. Land cover analysis can be done most effectively through remote sensing images of various spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions to improve the selection of areas designed for agricultural, urban and/or industrial areas of a region. Astute efforts have been made in developing advanced classification algorithms and techniques for improving the accuracy of land cover classification. Recent image classification approaches for land cover pattern analysis have been brought together with their pros and cones by reviewing literatures, books, manuals and other related documents. Suitable classification algorithms may be chosen based on their performance, type of image and application area. Through this survey, various aspects regarding, preprocessing, classification and accuracy assessment, new and unique land cover products may be generated which could not be produced by earlier techniques.