Open Access Short Research Articles

The Effect of Gravity Loads on Seismic Lateral Displacements of R.C. Frames

A. E. Hassaballa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22074

This paper includes an analytical study for an investigation of the gravity load effect on the seismic lateral displacements of a R.C. building located in Khartoum city (which lies in zone 2, of zone factor, z = 0.1), Sudan. The R.C. building used in this study is a 6-storey residential building with 3-bays in each direction. Two selected frames of the building were analyzed using STAAD-III software, linear static and dynamic analysis software, one in N-S direction and the other in E-W direction. The analysis was performed for two types of restraints: fixed and pinned, for both frames under the same loading. Four cases of damping ratios (0%, 5%, 10% and 20%) were used in the analysis. These ratios were taken as percentages of the critical damping. The software used the Dynamic Response Spectrum method (DRS) to solve the dynamic equilibrium equations of motion. The recorded ground motions of the 1940 El Centro earthquake were selected to be used as input data to calculate the seismic lateral displacements. Regardless of values of damping ratios and types of restraints used, it was found that the gravity load contributed in reducing the lateral displacements by an average amount of 25%. In other words, the lateral displacements caused by the combination of (gravity +seismic) loads are less than those caused by the seismic load only.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Cooperation of Business Games with Intelligent E-learning Systems

M. El-Alami, F. De Arriaga

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22321

The desirability of increasing the capability of business games in the direction of pedagogy raises the possibility of cooperation with existing intelligent tutors or intelligent e-learning systems. This is an issue not yet studied until now because the lack of detailed standards make that collaboration very difficult and laboured.

The article analyses the possibility of such cooperation and the characteristics of business games and intelligent tutors or intelligent e-leaning systems that would make possible and favour such cooperation. The tutorial aids provided by such a cooperation can be in conflict with the competitiveness among the companies involved in the game. This problem has been considered when discussing such cooperation. A particular experience of the collaboration of a known business game with an existing intelligent e-learning system is described as well as the changes that have been necessary introduce in both for such cooperation. Several tests have been carried out and their results and the analysis of students’ opinion show the effectiveness of this cooperation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fluid-Structure Interaction and Aeroelastic Balance on the Analysis of a Tall Building with Irregular Geometry

J. M. Horta-Rangel, J. P. Lara-López, J. G. Valdés-Vázquez, I. Arreola-Sifuentes

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22578

Aims: In this work the effect of wind on a building with irregular geometry is analyzed. Today, many cases of computational fluid-structure phenomena are validated with Benchmark models; nevertheless, the structure analyzed in this work does not have an associated benchmark model. Numerical algorithms applied in this work are also validated with a physical scale model under wind loads on a subsonic wind tunnel.

Study Design: Developed procedure involves two coupled field models corresponding to fluid and mechanical phenomenology, each one governed by different methodology: Fluid field associates an Eulerian Configuration, meanwhile solid model is described on Lagrangean configuration. These two models require a third model named ALE to interact each other; this last model is built on the interfaces between them. This work develops the numerical procedure as well experimental ones for solving these complex structures.

Place and Duration of Study: Graduate Engineering Lab. Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Mex., Civil Engineering Department. Universidad de Guanajuato, Mex., Design Lab. Construction, Torreon Cohauila, Mex., between September 2012 and July 2014.

Methodology: The numerical model was analyzed through the software ANSYS and also DINES + GiD while the experimental test was performed in a subsonic wind tunnel. The prototype consists of structural steel sections while walls are made of glass panels; physical model belongs to an elastic model where the effect of twisting is not included.

Results: Main results obtained in this work are the bending moment at the basement of the building, the displacement at the top of the structure and the non-uniform pressure distribution on the structural walls.

Conclusion: Dynamic fluid-structure interaction (IDFE) problems have attracted the attention of a large number of researchers. IDFE plays an important role in the structural engineering: on the analysis of high-rise buildings, large bridges, industrial plants, chimneys, transmission towers, etc., all these structures may collapse due to the aeroelastic instability caused by wind effect. The goal of this work is provide a methodology for real structures of complex geometry.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Classification of Criticality for Spare Parts by Applying the Ratio of Production Lost Cost to Spare Parts Inventory Cost

Sakon Wongmongkolrit, Bordin Rassameethes, Kulnatee Laohakul

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22097

This study is mainly focused on finding the ratio between opportunity cost and spare parts inventory cost. Implicitly, the opportunity cost is represented by cost of production lost or loss in opportunity to make profits from reducing in production capacity when machine is in maintenance, while inventory cost is the cost of having some parts as spares in inventory system for ensuring these parts will not be shortage. The main aim is to generate the ratio of production lost cost comparing against inventory cost. This ratio is the boundary or demarcation line between the criticality (or not) of spare part, or can be significantly represented as an indication index to be used for classifying the spare parts as critical parts when index is over than one, or non-critical parts when index is less than one.

Aims: This study is to find the method for classifying the spare parts which one is the critical part. Or finding the necessity of spares in the machine (or system) when there are any breakdowns.

Study Design: To collect the data that is the relevant costs during maintenance downtime from the machine (baggage handling system system), and then exploit these as input data to find the ratio using as a criterion for the decision.

Place and Duration of Study: The Baggage Handling System of Suvarnabhumi International Airport (Bangkok Airport), Thailand. The duration of this study is 3 years.

Methodology: To find the ratio (or index) by comparison between the production lost cost and spare parts inventory cost.

Results: If index or ratio of production lost cost to inventory cost is over than one, then part is criticality. Otherwise, if index is less than one, then part is non-criticality.

Conclusion: This ratio can be significantly used as the reference index to classify the spare parts which one is critical part or not.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy for Analysis of Functional Groups in Peanut Oil Biodiesel and Its Blends

A. Y. Oyerinde, E. I. Bello

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22178

Aims: The paper studied how fourier transformation infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy can be used to monitor homogenous alkali catalyzed alcoholysis of peanut oil and methanol to produce biodiesel. The spectrum generated was used to identify the functional groups in the fuel sample for qualitative analysis and associated type of vibrations. Analyses on biodiesel blends with fossil diesel were also carried out with FTIR spectroscopy.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between December 2014 and March 2015.

Methodology: Biodiesel was produced by transesterifying peanut oil with methanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Molar ratio of 6:1 (methanol to oil) was followed to shift the reaction to product side for more yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and the use of catalyst enabled the reaction to proceed faster. The oil and biodiesel were characterized following ASTM standards. The biodiesel obtained was separated from glycerol, washed with distilled water and dried. Biodiesel blends with fossil diesel from 10% v/v to 90% v/v in a step of 10% were produced. Samples of biodiesel and biodiesel blends were scan within mid-infrared region of 4000 cm-1 – 400 cm-1 with fourier transform infrared spectrometer by agilent technologies. The spectra obtained were interpreted and analyzed with the aid of structure correlation chart. A visual basic computer program was developed based on the data analyzed and experience gained.

Results: The results revealed that the biodiesel contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The FTIR spectrum for the biodiesel revealed the functional groups with characteristics bands, C=O, -(CH2)n-, C-O, C=C and C-H in the spectrum. The absorbance intensity (peak), at a region where strong absorption of FAME occurred in each blend spectrum increases with biodiesel concentration when verified with Beer’s law and the R2 value of 0.992 was obtained to show good fitting. Changes of transmittance with concentration and absorbance of blend spectra explored showed that transmittance decreases with both concentrations and absorbance and the R2 values of 0.991 and 0.997 were obtained respectively.

Conclusion: Catalyzed complete transesterification was performed on the peanut oil and methanol. The biodiesel produced contained an ester functional group and showed that it can be used as a substitute for fossil diesel in diesel engines. The biodiesel is miscible with fossil diesel and blending of any biodiesel concentration can be obtained. The computer program developed can help to identify the functional groups of similar fuels and associated type of vibrations at a given wavenumber within mid-infrared region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms among Nurses Working in the Family Health Program

José Aderval Aragão, Maria Izabel Aragão Mota, Marcel Lima Andrade, Roberta de Oliveira Carvalho, Ivan do Nascimento da Silva, Marina Elizabeth Cavalcanti de Sant’Anna, Sheila Schneiberg Valença Dias, Francisco Prado Reis

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22569

Introduction: Depressive disorders in the general population are a matter for concern because of their increasing prevalence and high social cost. The healthcare professionals who are most susceptible to mental health problems are the ones who spend most of their time at work interacting with individuals who need help. Nurses are one such group, since they are affected directly through their exposure to and work with diseases. This constitutes a wearing and stressful process, and conscious or subconscious defense mechanisms become necessary, so that the disease and suffering of the other person do not interfere with the nurses’ own physical and mental health.

Objective: To determine the rate of occurrence of depressive symptoms among nurses working at family healthcare units in the municipality of Aracaju.

Materials and Methods: The Beck Depression Inventory was applied to a sample of 90 nurses, among whom 91.1% (82) were female and 8.9% (8) were male, to screen for depressive symptoms, and a questionnaire was drawn up by the investigators to gather sociodemographic information. Descriptive statistics and analysis were performed by means of the chi-square test and logistic regression.

Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among nurses was 40.9%. After adjustment using simple logistic regression, insomnia was the variable with the biggest association with the appearance of depressive symptoms [OR = 6.22], followed by use of antidepressants [OR = 4.59] and working conditions [OR = 2.88].

Conclusions: The presence of depressive symptoms in nurses working at family healthcare units was significant and was strongly associated with insomnia, thus demonstrating that there is a need to implement preventive measures regarding occurrences of depressive symptoms among these professionals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Fermentation and Detoxification Using Previously Cassava-fermented Chips

Nardis Nkoudou Ze, Sylvain Sado Kamdem, Hélène Bouquet Agnia, Fabrice Ezo’o Mengo, Jean Justin Essia Ngang

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22262

Aims: This study was aimed as the assessment of dried cassava-fermented chips (DFCC) efficacy in terms of their fermentation acceleration and cyanogens reduction potential.

Study Design: An experimental study design was employed in order to achieve the objective of the study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Laboratoire de Microbiologie of the University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon between October 2011 and August 2014.

Methodology: Commercial fermented cassava chips samples were analyzed for their performances to accelerate the retting of cassava roots. The performances of DFCC were determined by periodical measure of the degree of softening of the roots in retting process by penetrometry for 4 days. Further, cassava chips were produced at different fermentation times and assessed for the same properties. Finally, the best fermentation time to obtain cassava-fermented chips capable to reduce efficiently the retting time was determined and chips produced at this time were used after different pre-treatments in order to assess their impact on the fermentation performances and detoxification of cassava roots as compared to spontaneous retting.

Results: Results indicated that DFCC samples collected have high retting performances variability correlated to their fermentation time and microbial concentration. The best DFCC used as cassava retting accelerator (CRA) was obtained after 96h of fermentation (CRA-96). It permitted to reduce the retting time from 71.3±8.5 hours to 35.8±1.4 hours compared to the spontaneous fermentation; and final cyanides contain of 7.86±0.00 ppm corresponding to 98.8% reduction. Optimization assays showed that CRA-96 when soaked for 12 h before use, reduce retting time by 58.5% but did not modify cyanides reduction.

Conclusion: The adoption of the CRA-96h as cassava retting accelerator by cassava fermented by-products producers would be great advantage for them who often only ret for 1-2 days and then get into trouble with large cyanide levels in their flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Process Safety Management in Plasma Experiment and Generation System

Daniel Bondarenko, Hossam A. Gabbar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22559

The Experimental Plasma Generation System (EPGS) is proposed for studying and investigating plasma behavior in vacuum conditions and under the influence of the varying boundary conditions. Furthermore, (EPGS) is intended to verify the computational models with the physical data. The safety design of EPGS takes into consideration the target safety system design, input parameters, output parameters, measurement techniques, and the fault propagation scenarios with respect to the Process Safety Management (PSM) via the IEC 61508. Also, the design of the Target Real Time Safety System (TRTS) for EPGS will be explained in relation to its primary experimental functions. The TRTS will be simulated using Simulink, with errors randomly generated at key cracking points, and the shut down procedure will be executed based on the deterministic algorithm for the Real Time Safety Verification (RTSV). In the nutshell, the cumulative outcome of the current work is to provide a design for plasma experimentation device that will have scalable properties in both the physical parameters, as well as the safety parameters.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evolution Model Analysis of Group Buying Games

Ya-Lan Li, Qi-Qing Song

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22839

This paper introduces an evolutionary game model in a mixed population. The simulation results show that competition between suppliers increases social welfare and can reveals the base price of a product in cases of some strategy profiles; however, collusion will benefit suppliers. The bounded rationality of individuals has important influence on the coexistence of suppliers.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Design of Bridge Deck Based on Ergonomics Rules towards One Man Control Bridge

A. A. Masroeri

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21887

Bridge is the most neuralgic place on a ship. Currently a bridge control system of modern ship is designed for one-man-operation. Improper of bridge design and placement of equipment in bridge control console that is not based on ergonomics rules and physical condition of operators, will easily lead to human fatigue. This can trigger the occurrence of ship accident at sea because the increasing number of human errors. The ergonomic bridge design must consider in to human anthropometry for Matching work, between humans and work systems (man-machine system), so that the operator can work comfortably, efficiently and reduce workload.

Current problem that arises is the unavailability of specific regulations or rules to regulate the ergonomic design of bridge decks for ships in Indonesia, which according to anthropometry Indonesian people. Based of these problems, an attempt was made to develop an integrated bridge design program based on ergonomics rules and provide recommendations on equipment layout of bridge and Bridge console in accordance with the Indonesian anthropometry. This recommendation includes ergonomic requirements are centered on comfort and equipment layout in the bridge deck, which is functionally oriented to support the operator in the design of one-man-operated bridge in their duties. The recommendations was implemented by developing a computer-based program, and then used as a simulator bridge deck ergonomics analysis process in providing aid consistency, reliability and efficiency of ships operations. The developed program was able to provide improved ergonomics redesign the bridge deck, so the number of ships accidents can be reduced.