Open Access Short Research Article

QSAR Study of Series of HEPT (1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy) methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thyio)thymine) Derivatives Using Genetic Function Approximation as Anti-HIV-1 Agents

Emmanuel Israel Edache, Adamu Uzairu, Stephen Eyije Abechi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21791

Aims/Objectives: Studies were performed to correlate the biological activity of the HEPT (1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy) methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thyio)thymine) 107 sets of compound with the independent descriptor to know the structural requirement of the drug receptor binding interaction.

Methodology: Genetic function approximation algorithm (GFA) approach has been applied to linearly correlate dependent biological activities and independent descriptors. Genetic function approximation algorithm (GFA) has been widely used when the number of samples surpass the amount of descriptors.

Results: The result obtained from the regression analysis is good and statistical values of multiple correlation coefficient R2= 0.9118 and standard error of estimation (Se) = 0.4449, Fisher ratio (F) = 65.1139, Q2LOO = 0.8830 and Q2L5O = 0.8816 proves that the obtained mathematical model from the 107 sets of HEPT derivatives is the best.

Conclusion: The role of RotBtFrac, VPC-5, SP-4 and SHaaCH is important to reduce the required concentration of the drug and so as LogP and Weta2.volume also play vital role in this concern.

Open Access Short Research Article

The Spatial Response of Penh as a Secondary Readout for the Airway Hyper-reactivity in Three Different Rodent Models of Airway Inflammation: A Pilot Comparison Study

Po-Chang Chiang, James D. Warner, David Tung

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22187

Inflammatory cell infiltration, increase airway hyper-reactivity, and inflammatory cytokine production are all hallmarks of pulmonary diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While cytokine production and cellular infiltrations are relatively easy to assess in preclinical modeling for drug PK/PD, airway hyper-reactivity is more difficult to model and measure.  Enhanced pause (Penh) is a non-dimensional parameter associated with the characteristic changes in the respiratory cycle. It had been used widely in the pulmonary field as a surrogate marker for airway hyper-reactivity (AHR). However, this parameter is not always suitable for measurement of the AHR response. Furthermore, the model sensitivity to Penh is not well understood and need to be further evaluated and documented. In our study, we evaluated the suitability of using Penh as measurement in three common rodent airway inflammation models as a potential secondary readout without potentially influencing the primary readout.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamic Modeling of a Futuristic Frame-Based Knowledge Representation Using Unified Modeling Language (UML): A Case of an Intelligent Drug Marketers Tracking System (IDMTS)

I. Ele Sylvester, A. O. Ofem, B. I. Ele, W. A. Adesola

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/18615

Adulterated and counterfeit drugs are problems in Nigeria. Over 150 children died in 1989 as a result of paracetamol syrop containing diethylene glycol. This was so severe that neighbouring countries like Ghana and Sierra Leone officially banned the sale of drugs, foods and beverages made in Nigeria. The aim of this paper is to model dynamically, an innovative Frame-Based Knowledge Representation of an Intelligent Drugs Marketers Tracking System (IDMTS), that would aid the National Agency for Food & Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), and the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) in the tracking of the trade names and locations of the makers and marketers of all drugs sold. The objective is to unravel the robustness and innovativeness of the rare combination of Frame and UML in knowledge representation and modeling. Generalization, Aggregation, Association and Classification are adopted as data abstraction mechanisms for the modeling of Classes to produce the hierarchies of objects in the “Purchasing of Drugs” frame. The UML (Unified Modeling Language), in the other hand, modeled the relationship among classes; actors, the generalization relationship between actors, and the association relationships between actor and use cases in the IDMTS. The UML is used due to its flexibility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Numerical Stability for Neutral Differential Equations with Delay by Θ- Method

A. Moussaid, H. Talibi Alaoui

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/18914

This paper discusses numerical asymptotic stability in certain neutral delay differential Equations (NDDEs) by θ -method discretization for θ ∈ [0, 1]. We give necessary and sufficient conditions on the parameters, to obtain the numerical asymptotic stability, preserving the exact asymptotic stability conditions.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Perceived Muda on Perceived Job Productivity in Public Office Buildings in Nigeria

A. Adeyemi, D. Martin, R. Kasim

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21783

Aims: The lean thinking concept, especially the application of muda was claimed to apply to a vast range of operations in widely differing industries, with only “tweaking of details”. Thus, varying industries adopted the concept including the built environment from whence terms such as lean construction and lean design emerged. The substantial argument was that the concept had delivered large improvements where already applied, this paper therefore looked into the practicability of applying lean thinking to perceived job productivity as a first step in determining its relevance to sustainable improvement of existing public office buildings in Nigeria, since job productivity was described as the quintessence of an office.

Study Design: The theoretical framework study adopted an objective positivist philosophy, using survey and case study strategy. The method is quantitative while the time horizon is cross-sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: Federal Secretariat office complex, Bauchi, Nigeria, between June 2014 and September 2014.

Methodology: AMOS regression was used for the confirmatory study on a sample size of 339 respondents from a diagnostic POE. The unique contribution, causal effect, effect size and practical significance were used in determining the effect of muda on job productivity.

Results: Perceived muda was established as inherent in the case study and ranked based on their respective unique contribution which ranged from 0.848 to 0.472. Muda has a causal effect of 0.646 on job productivity and a strong effect size of 42%. All the results were significant with P-values of <.05.

Conclusion: Perceived muda has strong influence on perceived job productivity, especially by affording end-users to contribute to their requirements in office buildings, while it explained 42% of its variance; which is a strong effect size. This had confirmed that lean thinking is applicable to public office buildings in Nigeria and therefore relevant to their sustainable improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Profiles of Medicinal Plants Found within the Vicinity of Quarry Site in Demsa, Adamawa State, Nigeria

B. A. Mustapha, D. Kubmarawa, M. H. Shagal, A. Hayatudeen

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21520

Heavy metals profile of ethanolic leaves extracts of some medicinal plants was carried out so as to ascertain the levels of Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn) and Nickel (Ni) in Anogeissus leiocarpus, Bauhinia reticulata, Prosopis oblonga, Sterculia tomentosa and Tamarindus indica, because leaves of these plants are used for treatment of some ailments by the people residing in that community were quarry factory was situated. The leaves of the plants were dried, grinded to powder and digested. The digests were analyzed for the trace metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) model 210VGP and the result was interpreted using statistical analysis. The highest value for Manganese (Mn) was obtained from Anogeissus leiocarpus sample with 5.31 mg/l from the Quarry site, followed by Sterculia tomentosa with 1.6 mg/l, Tamarindus indica with 1.56 mg/l, Prosopis oblonga with 1.46 mg/l and least is Bauhinia reticulata with 1.22 mg/l. Chromium (Cr) has value of <0.04, Cadmium (Cd) with <0.01 and Nickel (Ni) having <0.05 in all the samples. The samples away from the Quarry site has 0.68 mg/l of Mn in Bauhinia reticulata while both Anogeissus leiocarpus and Tamarindus indica has values of 0.03 mg/l. Lead (Pb) was detected in only one of the control sample site with value of 0.08 mg/l in Bauhinia reticulata and in three plant samples from the Quarry site which include Anoggeissus leiocarpus with 0.06 mg/l and 0.07 mg/l for Bauhinia reticulata and 0.07 mg/l for Prosopis oblonga respectively. Other trace metals results obtained away from the quarry site include (Cr) with value of <0.04, (Cd) with <0.01 and (Ni) with <0.05 in all the samples. Some plants in the quarry site contain Mn and Pb above their threshold levels, therefore these plants are not recommended for consumption by animals to avoid bioaccumulation which will in further bring about health hazard.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Etiology and Bacterial Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Endometritis in Camels (Camelus dromedarius)

N. A. Al-Humam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22019

The study aimed to investigate the bacterial etiology of endometritis and in vitro antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates in dromedary camels admitted to a clinic. Uterine swabs were collected from 45 animals diagnosed as suffering from endometritis out of 95 infertile female camels. The samples were subjected to bacteriological isolation and identification. All the isolates were tested for in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity. Bacterial species isolated from these samples were Arcanobacterium pyogenes, with 33.33% (n=11), Staphylococcus aureus, 27.27% (n=9), Proteus mirabilis, 24.24% (n=8), Bacillus spp., 9.09% (n=3), Streptococcus agalactiae 3.03% (n=1) and Kocuria kristinae 3.03% (n=1). A. pyogenesStaph. aureusP. mirabilis were significantly (P<0.01) associated with endometritis in dromedary camels. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates indicated that 51.51%, 12.12%, 12.12%, 0.00%, 0.00%, 45.45% and 48.48% were sensitive for nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, oxy-tetracycline, ampicillin, penicillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin respectively. The isolates were significantly (P<0.01) sensitive to nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Compositional and Air-mass Trajectory Analysis of a Heavy Dust Episode (HDE) Aerosols in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Olusegun Gabriel Fawole, Bolutife Olofinjana, Oyediran Kayode Owoade

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-1
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/22331

The prevalent problem of air pollution in Nigeria is attributable to the country’s huge population, put in excess 160 million and the trend of industrial growth. In 2010, the country witnessed a rare occurrence of 9-day period of heavy dust episode (HDE). The dust reduced visibility to < 1 km, causing cancellation of several flights. The aim of this study is to assess the level of aerosol mass loadings and, nature and sources of the HDE aerosols. Two fractions of particulate matter (PM) were collected for about two months including the period of the HDE. Samples were collected on Whatman polycarbonate filters using low-volume GENT sampler equipped with a stacked filter unit (SFU) to hold two 47 mm filters. 7-day back trajectory analysis was performed using UGAMP trajectory model driven by ECMWF wind analyses data. Morphological analysis of the PM was done using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), chemical compositions determined with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and particle number per unit area of filter (particle density) was estimated using optical microscopy. The range of mass concentration of PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10 are 1.24 – 58.7, 5.1 – 354.9 and 8.33 – 379.2 µg m-3, respectively. EDX detected twelve (12) elements: Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, P, Cl, Ca, Mo and O. Elements of crustal origin (Si, Al, Fe, Ca and Mg) account for a high percentage of the elemental composition of the PM. Four distinct classes of particles - mineral dust, NaCl containing agglomerate, Calcium-rich dust and alumina-silicate - were identified from the morphological and compositional analysis of the PM. From the backward trajectory analyses, most of the crustal components of the HDE dust can be attributed to long-range dust transport from North Africa and the Sahel region, while maritime aerosols are attributable to the marine environment in the Atlantic, down South.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers' Participation in Community Based Organizations; Implications for Increased Productivity in Edo, Delta and Bayelsa States in Niger Delta Area, Nigeria

F. Okwuokenye Goddey, E. O. Akintoye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21568

The study examined participation of farmers in community based organizations and its implication for increased productivity in Edo, Delta and Bayelsa States in Niger Delta, Nigeria. The objectives of the study include to examine the socio-economic characteristics of farmers and non-farmers community based organizations in the study area, determine the level of participation of the farmers in CBOs activities, examine the effects of farmers participation in CBOs activities on their farm income and to identify possible factors limiting farmers participation in the group’s activities. The study was carried out with the use of structured questionnaires administered on the respondents of the study. Primary data were sourced from 590 respondents, comprising of 295 CBO farmers and an equivalent size of non – CBO farmers spread across three states of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study was carried out between 2013 and 2014. Data from respondents were analyzed using percentages and means. Llikert scale was used to analyze the farmers constraints in their CBO groups. Multiple regressions were used to analyze the hypotheses of the study. Results showed that CBO farmers participated very well in most of their activities (mean 2.5), they also like to participate in CBOs activities for reasons such as, it has helped to increase their knowledge of farming practice, improved their income and standard of living. It was also revealed that the difference (US$1,039.55) in farm income between CBO farmers members ($1,573.45) and non-members ($533.90) was significant (P<0.05). Result as well showed that such socio-economic characteristics of CBO farmer member as age (b = -0.090), education level (b = 1.179), farming experience (b = 0.230) as well as CBO group characteristics like membership supportiveness (b = 4.056), democratic nature of leadership selection (b = 4.357), and CBO membership experience (b = 0.680) were significant variables (P < 0.05) affecting farmers level of participation in CBOs activities. The study concluded that participation of the farmers in CBOs has enhanced their farm income. The study recommends that CBO leadership should actively seek and incorporate members’ views in designing activities for the group, ensure that benefits accruing to the group are equitably distributed and be seen to be transparent by being financially accountable to its members.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Perceived Muda on Design Features in Public Office Buildings in Nigeria

A. Adeyemi, D. Martin, R. Kasim

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21784

Aims: The claim that the concept of lean thinking, especially the application of muda is applicable to a vast range of operations and processes in widely differing industries, offices, health care, etc. with only “tweaking of details” was tested in this paper on design features as a further step to determine its relevance to sustainable improvement of existing public office buildings in Nigeria. The substantial argument was that the concept had delivered large improvements in manufacturing, in particular the motor vehicle industry, and where already applied in construction, hospitals, etc.

Study Design: The theoretical framework study adopted an objective positivist philosophy from a deductive approach, using survey and case study strategy. The method is quantitative while the time horizon is cross-sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: Federal Secretariat office complex, Bauchi, Nigeria, between June 2014 and September 2014.

Methodology: AMOS regression was used for the confirmatory study on a sample size of 339 respondents from a diagnostic POE. The unique contribution, causal effect, effect size and practical significance were used in determining the effect of muda on design features.

Results: The study revealed that muda is inherent in public office buildings. The result indicated that perceived muda has a causal effect of 0.757 on design features such that if muda goes up by 1 unit, design features will also go up by 0.757 unit. The R2 of 0.57 showed a strong effect size of muda on design features, while the estimates have highly significant coefficients with P-values of <.05, confirming its practical significance in daily life.

Conclusion: This study concludes that perceived muda has strong influence on design features, especially by affording end-users to contribute to their requirements in office buildings. Perceived muda explained 57% of the variance in design features and has high practical significance. This had confirmed that lean thinking is applicable to public office buildings in Nigeria and therefore relevant to their sustainable improvement.