Open Access Original Research Article

Impairment Accounting Practice in Jordanian Industrial Public Shareholding Companies under IAS 36

Mohammad Ebrahim Nawaiseh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/19786

Aims: The object of the research is to provide empirical evidence on the Jordanian industrial companies how to measure a value of their non-current assets impairment through analysis of Discount Cash Flows (DCF), to reach evidence that the occurrence of impairments is less dependent on financial performance.

Study Design: The pertinent data was investigated for a 4 year period, i.e. a total of 120 observations (year- company) were tested. I adopted descriptive statistics, regressions ,and correlations to find out the relationship among the variables and their strength, the study uses panel data analysis to estimate what a dependent variable will be for a given values of independent variables.

Methodology: The author has randomly collected a panel of (30) industrial public Shareholding companies listed in Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) out of 73 companies covering the period for four years 2005-2008. The author tested the effects of Independent Variables on Impairment write-off using the panel data methodology.  

Originality/Value: This work contributes to the literature in two ways: First, no previous evidence such this exists for the case of IMP. Second, unlike previous studies, TAS, OCF, DER, ROA, and ROE have been examined as proxies for IMP in the current work.

Findings: It is shown that there is a positive weak and insignificant relationship between Impairment Loss (IMP), and financial indicators, such as Return on Assets (ROA), and Return on Equity (ROE). It is also shown that there is a negative weak and, insignificant relationship between IMP and Debt Ratio (DER). It seems that there is little possibility of adjusting IMP by using these indicators. The result of coefficient of determination shows that approximately 76% of changes in IMP are related to Operating Cash Flows (OCF), and Total Assets (TAS). Similarly, increase of Operating Cash Flows (OCF) will lead to increase of IMP. It appears that the purported increase in monitoring of highly leverage companies, ROA and ROE were not perceived as a significance by the industrial companies, therefore had no influence on IMP, but TAS is negatively correlated with DER.`

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Metals Content of Alcohol and Non-alcoholic Canned Drinks Consumed at Idiroko Border Town Ogun State Nigeria

S. G. Salako, O. O. Adekoyeni, T. B. Hammed

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/19163

Aims: The study was carried at the Idiroko Border Town in Ogun Southwestern Nigeria, a popular border known for movement of goods and service, an international border town a gateway for many ECOWAS countries is chosen known for movement of smuggled goods and services. The study was aimed at the proliferation of canned alcoholic and non alcoholic drinks and their qualities were determined for public health concern. Therefore, a total of 28 canned alcoholic (Harp, 33, Star, Gulder, Guinness, Heinken, Turbo, Smirnoff and Red Bull) and 31 canned non-alcoholic (Farouz, Snappes, Cocacola, Sprite, Amstel Malta, Fanta, Malta Guinness and Maltina) samples were collected from Idiroko border area of Ogun State, Nigeria to determine levels of essential and toxic metals detected in these consumed products.

Methods: The numbers of samples as shown in the methodology were prepared with standard wet digestion procedure, while the metals were analysed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Buck 210) techniques and the results were then compared with WHO standards.

Results: The metal concentrations ranges from 0-3.25 mg/l, 20.08-133.20 mg/l, 0.97-2.45 mg/l, 0-0.44 mg/l, 0-0.26 mg/l, 0-0.30 mg/l, 0-0.14 mg/l, 0.11-7.38 mg/l, 0-0.02 mg/l for Cu, Mg, Fe, Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Zn, and Cr respectively. High concentration of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd, and Ni above WHO recommended limit were recorded from some non alcoholic samples but all the alcoholic samples revealed low concentration of Cd. The samples were rich in essential metals such as Zn, Mg and Fe. It is essential that proliferation of alcoholic and non alcoholic drinks through the border should be controlled to prevent incidences of health risk due to ingestion of toxic metals and the study recommended that the port health services and security personnel should be strict in maintaining in-flow of standard and non-expiry goods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of a Reversed-Phase HPLC Method for Determination of Elaidic Acid in Oils and Fats

Fuad Al-Rimawi, Jihad Abadi, Ibraheem Afaneh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/19762

A simple, precise, accurate, and selective method with low limit of quantitation (LOQ) was developed and validated for analysis of elaidic acid which is the predominant trans fatty acids in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column, using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/water (80:20, v/v) containing 0.1% acetic acid, and using UV detection at 205 nm. This method was validated according to the requirements for new methods, which include accuracy, precision, selectivity, robustness, limit of detection (LOD), LOQ, linearity and range. The current method demonstrates good linearity over the range of 3-1000 mg L-1 of elaidic acid with r2 greater than 0.999. The recovery of elaidic acid in oils and fats ranges from 94.5 to 98.7%. The method is selective where elaidic acid is good separated from oleic acid and other components of fats and oils with good resolution. The method is also precise where the RSD of the peak areas of replicate injections of elaidic acid solution is less than 1%. The degree of reproducibility of the results obtained as a result of small deliberate variations in the method parameters and by changing analytical operators has proven that the method is robust and rugged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Nutritional, Non-nutritional, Elemental Content and Amino Acid Profile of Azanza garckeana (Goron Tula)

I. I. Nkafamiya, B. P. Ardo, S. A. Osemeahon, Ayodele Akinterinwa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/19811

Azanza garckeana fruits, leaves, stem-bark and roots were both quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed to determine the nutritional, non-nutritional, elemental and amino acid content. The nutritional (proximate) analysis reveals the highest and lowest moisture content in the fruits (6.50%) and stem-bark (0.50%), crude protein in the fruits (12.00%) and stem-bark (4.91%), crude fibre in the stem-bark (45.30%) and fruits (20.75%), lipid content in the leaves (2.56%) and roots(0.68%), and total ash content in roots (8.70%) and fruits (6.7%), respectively, while vitamin A, B1, B2, C and E were all found (in the fruits and leaves), and quantitatively more in the fruits. A. garckeana contains alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenes, phenols, volatile oils, resins and saponins. However, there is a significant variation in the presence of these compounds in the different parts of this plant. The amount of these compounds were also found to be safe (i.e. below established toxic levels), and of medicinal value. The mineral elements present are also below toxic levels, and may contribute to the dietary requirements of these elements. The amino acid profile reveals 17 types; 7 essential, 2 semi-essential and 8 non-essential in the fruits and leaves in varying amounts.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Approximate Relation for Describing the Performance of a Condenser in Off-design Conditions

Rafał Laskowski, Adam Smyk, Artur Rusowicz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/20025

Operating parameters of a condenser have significant effect on the performance of a power generation unit. Heat transfer effectiveness is used to assess the steam condenser performance. Heat transfer effectiveness of a steam condenser is a function of an overall heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer surface area, and the cooling water mass flow rate. In this paper, an attempt was made to produce a simpler relation for heat transfer effectiveness of a steam condenser under off-design conditions as a function of inlet water temperature, the cooling water mass flow rate and steam temperature. A simulator of a condenser in a 200-MW power generation unit was used to investigate how inlet cooling water temperature, the cooling water mass flow rate, and the steam temperature affect the outlet cooling water temperature. Based on simulator data, a new approximate relation for heat transfer effectiveness of the condenser (outlet cooling water temperature) in off-design conditions with four constant coefficients was given. A simplified form of the proposed relation can be given with three constant coefficients. A good agreement was achieved between the heat transfer effectiveness obtained from the definition and from the proposed relation. The relation can be used to determine the condenser performance in off-design conditions in a simple way, or to determine a reference performance of a new or overhauled condenser.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Fabrication of a Cost Effective Four Cavity Plastic Injection Mould for Bottled Water Handle

H. C. Godwin, H. E. Chukwu, M. C. Nwosu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-31
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21558

Design and fabrication of a cost effective four cavity plastic injection mould for production of bottled water handle with locally available materials has been achieved. This research is appropriate considering the impact on sales of a sampled company that used handles for their bottled water before the scarcity of handles as a result of monopoly in importation. The clamping force which is a function of cavity pressure, cavity force and projected area was obtained as 243.2239N. The maximum deflection and the maximum bending stress were calculated to be 2.3282 x 10-3 mm and 4.4677 x 105 N/m2 respectively. The impact of the handle on the rate of return of the sampled company was tested. It was observed that before the introduction of handle, the Return on Investment (ROI) was approaching 30% and when handle was introduced, the ROI increased to 46.34% and 46.05% for the locally and foreign made handles respectively. However, the ROI declined to 34.41% when the handle was removed in both cases. This clearly shows that the handle has a great impact on the bottled water sales and that the market share for bottled water industries is expected to increase due to public acceptability. Also, the introduction of handle allowed for better convenience in carrying bottled water especially the 1.5 litre sizes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Planning Support Tool for Interconnected Micro Energy Grids

Hossam A. Gabbar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21968

The need for more flexible energy systems, changing regulatory and economic scenarios, energy savings and environmental impact are providing impetus to the development of micro energy grids, which are predicted to play an increasing role in future power systems. The purpose of this study is to design an efficient integrated simulation tool to estimate life cycle costs of micro energy grid (MEG) for practical implementation. The proposed tool comprises of engineering design modeling of power, thermal and fuel systems within a selected region or community to maximize the use of local resources and minimize the cost of the implementation of micro energy grid. The criteria of choosing the optimal MEG configuration is based on the life cycle costing of available local resources components and estimation of MEG overall cost. The proposal also includes the development of intelligent algorithms for the optimization of life cycle costing of MEG with the selection of best design and configuration alternatives of micro energy grids with power/thermal/fuel loads will be introduced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growers Adaptation Strategic Alleviation of Climate Variability in Peri-Urban Agriculture for Food Security in Calabar – Nigeria

M. A. Yaro, F. E. Bisong, A. E. Okon

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/13011

This study examined the adaptive mechanisms employed by farmers in stabilizing crop yield against the wave of climate variability in Calabar, Nigeria. The study adopts a participatory approach based on focused group discussion and questionnaire survey to examine the farmers’ perception of climate variability, adaptation strategies and the influence of the strategies on crop yield. A total of 180 farmers were randomly selected for the study. The results revealed that in response to climate variability 16 strategies were adopted by farmers to stabilize crop yield in line with their indigenous knowledge systems. On indexing and ranking of the strategies based on their priorities, six strategies were predominant which include multiple cropping, use of improved crop varieties, soil conservation, planting cultivars that suit climate, intercropping, changing planting pattern. Multiple cropping with adaptation index of 638 and 94 5 response on climate and land criteria as well as use of improved varieties with adaptation index of 500 and 100% response on mixed criteria of climate and land were outstanding. Crop combination including vegetables, cereals, spices and roots were preferred. Though cassava is highly cultivated, pumpkin has the highest preference due to its market value and demand. The driving factors behind farmers’ choices of adaptation were informed by yields and availability of land. Farmers considered yields and income as the factor in selecting resilience crops. Undoubtedly, 80% of farmers that have adopted these practices no longer experience the persistence of the various environmental problems arising climatic variability. The implication is that indigenous knowledge system on the use of improved varieties and suitable cultivars as well as soil management is essential for improved and bountiful harvest to feed the teeming population amidst climate change. The paper reveals that adaptive measures taken by crop farmers to cushion the effect of climate on crop yield are effective. Hence, it is recommended that indigenous knowledge should be considered alongside other scientific knowledge to combat the impact of climate variability on agriculture while improving crop yield.

Open Access Review Article

Hard Limiting and Soft Computing Techniques for Detection of Exudates in Retinal Images: A Futuristic Review

H. S. Vijaya Kumar, M. A. Jayaram, Asha Gowda Karegowda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/20735

Retinopathy in general, diabetic retinopathy in particular is the major concerns of blindness and appearance of hard exudates is one of its early symptoms. Since almost two decades, researchers are striving to develop automated algorithms and systems either to detect or to grade the severity of hard exudates. In this direction, this paper is a sincere effort to present the research carried out in this field. This paper has three specific intents i) to update the state- of-the-art techniques by bringing to the fore research that is being carried out, ii) to encourage prospective researchers in this area to explore various computational methodologies for the future development of detection techniques, and iii) to provide insights into some unsolved recognition  problems.

Open Access Review Article

Factors Influencing the Forward Acceleration of a Gravity Powered Soapbox Race Vehicle

James Keith Martin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology,
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/17077

This paper presents the factors influencing and the corresponding derivation of a mathematical model for the forward acceleration of a gravity propelled race vehicle. It can be applied to scale model designs or full size vehicles as typically used in “soapbox Derby” racing events. Study of the model should clarify the main factors and design parameters that influence the acceleration downhill, and deceleration on the level. Maximising the forward acceleration, particularly initially, is a key performance characteristic in reducing the elapsed time of running. The model was used successfully in the design and construction of a full size competition winning vehicle and offers a potentially useful design tool and teaching aid for studies in vehicle dynamics.